1. The existing AP Standard data for various constructions items are based on observations made several decades back, mostly utilising eployment of machinery was at the barest minimum. The Board of Chief engineers have been adopting almost the same data, duly modifying the rates of labour; materials, hire charges of limited machinery, every year. The advent of construction machinery and its usage in construction industry has changed the structure and methodology of data formulation & rate structure and hence, the present estimation of work item rates are not reflecting ground reality. The CWC(Ministry of Irrigation) has also recommended that ”where standard or schedule of rates are revised or where is necessary to do so, the primary guiding principle should be escalation in labour and material cost and not on trend of rates quoted by contractors”. But the above recommended principle is not being followed by the Board of Chief Engineers in Andhra Pradesh.
2. Government, in GO 7326 (GAD-GPM& AR) Dated 26-10-05, has observed that the age old “Standard data” requires revision and updation with reference to the latest machinery and contemporary practices and has constituted a High Level Committee to advise on updating and revision of standard data and schedule of rates. The work has been taken up by CGG and SPIUirrigation. The secretary (Irrigation ) is the member- convener of the committee Accordingly the data has been revised adopting the procedures and guidelines given by CWC, Report on “committee on cost control of river valley Projects, BIS specifications, NHAI, MORTH, MORD, CPWD and Government of Karnataka and revised data and formulated schedule of rates for all infrastructure Departments (I&CAD, R&B, PR and PH). The team of senior engineers interacted with the S.R Committee of Karnataka on implementation and improvements needed. For irrigation works the data pattern as adopted by Karnataka has been considered and for other Departments the data adopted by MORTH,MORD and NHAI etc., is adopted
3. Sequence followed in revision of standard data is,
(a) The first step is the revision and formulation of standard data for each work component
(b) The second step is to work out the details of inputs. This enables to generate the unit work item rates, by incorporating the use rates of machinery, materials, labour charges and other supplementary parameters
(c) The third step is to develop software tool to generate unit rate using the software (completed for irrigation works by the SPI Unit of Irrigation)
4. The Detailed draft data was communicated to all the HODs and interacted through many seminars and discussions and incorporated the relevant features.The Board of chief engineers in their meetings have recommended for acceptance to the data formulated and schedule of rates It was proposed to examine the recommendations on important parameters, to refer to high level committee, for their specific recommendations for adoption, as they are common to all departments. The committee made in depth study on the methodology and systems followed by the reputed National organizations and other States and made detailed deliberations with HODs and representatives of Builders Association of India and made recommendations to the Government, on adoption of such parameters in A.P.
5. The Chief Secretary held a detailed discussions on 04-07-2007,with the Secretaries of the Departments and Heads of Departments.
1) The Revised Standard Data is formulated under four Parts which are applicable to all the Engineering Departments and other Organisations.
PART -1: Irrigation& CAD (Dam and Allied Works, Canals And Allied Works, Canal C.D. Works, Tunnels and Allied Works, Preliminary and Maintenance Works, Hydraulic Gates and allied works and Leads and Lifts applicable to all Departments
PART -2: Roads and Bridges
PART -3: Buildings including Electrical Works
PART -4: Drinking Water Supply and Public Health (ONLY FOR WORKS DONE BY MANUAL MEANS)
2) Brief description of item of work. :
Brief description of the item of work to cover all important aspects of the work included in the in the Data . On reading the item description, the user should be in a position to assess the various cost components involved in the work.
3) Data for assessing quantities :
The data reflects various assessments / assumptions made in arriving at the quantities of materials, machinery, labour and other in-puts. In case of plants and equipment the output of
main plant is worked out and the requirement of all other inputs and assessed to match the output of the main plant. Cycle time of operations is the criteria for assessing the output of equipment. Generally the equipment manufacturers furnish the output of machinery under ideal conditions of working. Suitable job and management efficiency factors are considered while working out the average output of machinery under field conditions. In case of combination of machinery and manpower the assessment of manpower shall match the output of machinery. Though cycle time of operations is the criteria for hourly / daily out-put of machinery workeforce ,the actual progress of work depends on several other factors such as power interruptions, minor break-downs, time for meals and other needs of work-force, stray rains etc. Therefore, it is the general practice to consider 50 minutes as the actual working time per hour for working out the hourly / daily out-put of machinery / work-force.CWC / BIS guide-lines stipulate the actual working hours for the purpose of equipment planning and utilisation. The daily out-put is computed duly considering the actual available working time and feed back from the field.
1.For gate and hoist works it is the general practice to specify the quantity of work in terms of number of sets of embedded parts / gates. The requirement of machinery and workforce for cutting, bending, fabrication, erection, painting etc., is assessed to commensurate with the task involved.
2.The data for gates and E.M. Parts is arrived per Ton quantity.
3.The data for Hoists and Gantry Cranes is worked out on the basis of capacity in tonnage
4) The lead and lift charges provided in PART-I (B) are generally applicable and common to all Departments. Any item is not covered in this part, the rates as provided in the data of the relevant works may be adopted in preparation of estimates.
5) The basic material inputs needed for all works are listed and incorporated in the data. The requirements are analyzed and the specifications adopted shall confirm to Standards published by the BIS.
1.The labour and material rates will be communicated by the Board of Chief engineers.
2. Unless otherwise specified, all material rates shall be inclusive of all taxes, duties, levies, royalty/seigniorage, transportation and handling costs up to project area.
3. For sand, gravel , murum, stones , course aggregates etc, the rates are to be fixed for delivery at Quarry, adding seigniorage ( royality) charges, loading charges by machinery/ manual means and idle hire charges of machinery (as per table under chapter “ conveyance or lead and lift charges”), as applicable.
4.For earth/ soil for embankment works from borrow areas, which is not included in the material list of schedule of rates, seigniorage charges are to be added separately,if applicable.
5.For steel, Cement, AC sheets, GI sheets, Hume pipes, wood and stone slabs, the rates are to be taken prevailing at major commercial centre near project area. The lead charges, as applicable are to be added in preparing estimates.
6. The specifications of the aggregates for sizes and gradation and its adoption shall be as per IS 383.
6) The labour component in the data is mentioned for unit work.
1.No allowance towards labour importation and labour amenities added extra as they are included in the recommended overheads.
2.On Labour Component: Certain additional allowances are added extra to the wages of labour (,i.e. only on labour component in the work item) in the form of percentage, as recommended by the Government/Board of chief engineers,due to statutory and other provisions.
3.However, If more than one area allowances, such as those for (1) Municipalities (2) Agency / Tribal areas (3) Industrial areas are applicable for a particular situation, only the maximum out of the allowable percentages is to be allowed.
7) HIRE CHARGES OF MACHINERY:
The machinery and /or group of machinery for items of works and their output has been worked based on the availability of machinery generally in the market and working in the the field successfully, duly considering cycle time, idle time, operator efficiency, type of work etc.
1.The hire charge of a machinery / equipment is worked out based on the guidelines published by CWC and BIS codes.
2.For the other machinery not covered by the list, the R&B and other users may adopt hire charges as recommended by the MORTH.
8) Lead Charges
1.The high level committee has recommended to adopt, for conveyance by head load, a minimum lead of 50 meters and additional lead up to 150 meters in the intervals of 50 meters. Beyond 150 meters lead ,only machinery rates are to be adopted.
2.The basic item rates provided in the schedule of rates include 50 m or 1 km as initial lead and no lead charges shall be allowed where the source of material is within the initial lead specified in item rate. Additional lead charges shall be allowed for the lead exceeding initial lead specified in the item rate.
3.The lead charges per unit quantity for conveyance of the materials are worked out,and included in the schedule of rates in increment of 50 m for head load and in increment of 1 km for mechanical mode.
4.The rates for lead charges by head load upto 150 meters and by machinery up to 5 km, shall be cumulative and inclusive of lead charges for preceding lead. For lead beyond 5 km the lead charges shall be worked out on per km basis.
9) Loading and Unloading charges for Materials The following features are considered:
(a) Loading and unloading charges are not payable for conveyance by head load.
(b) Loading and unloading charges are not payable for conveyance by mechanical means, for disposal of excavated material unless specified.
(c) The rates for unloading of materials except earth, sand, gravel, coarse aggregate, rubble, size stone and cut stone, are inclusive of stackingwherever applicable.
10) LIFT CHARGES :
1. The data includes initial lift charges of 3 meters ,for materials conveyance by head load, Additional leads in the interval of 1.0 meters are worked out, as additional labour input and incorporated in the chapter on” Lead and lifts” .
2. Where the conveyance / lifting of material is done by mechanical means, lift charges shall not be considered, as the cycle time of operation of the machine includes lifts involved.
3. The data and rates for lift charges is cumulative and are inclusive of rates for preceding lifts also.
11) Wastage of Materials
Cement : No wastage allowance is recommended towards the quantity of cement used in works, as the wastage is already included in the input and in major works bulk quantities are used.
steel : The wastage of steel @ 2.5% is allowed for gates and allied structures. For RCC works the wastage is @2.5% for the reinforcement rods above 36mm did and @ 5% for rods below 36mm dia. including overlaps, if they are not welded. If welding is adopted for the reinforcement rods even for below 36mm dia, 2.5% of wastage is only recommended.
12) Provision for rate for water:-
The Committee has recommended not considering the water charges in the Irrigation Project works. But, it may be considered in specific cases as per the site conditions.
13) In respect of RCC works the rate for cement concrete for 1 cum is worked separately for all grades based on Indian Standards. The rate for ton is calculated separately and to be added separately in the estimates of RCC works as a separate item.
14) Soil classification:
The Committee recommended to allow uniform classification of soils for all Departments and data is worked out accordingly.
1. All soils
2. Marshy soil
3. ordinary rock ( not requiring blasting),
4. hard rock
a. hard rock (requiring blasting)
b. hard rock (controlled blasting)
c. removable by chiseling(blasting prohibited)
15) Use of Super Plasticizers and Admixtures:
Concrete admixtures such as Air-Entraining Agent (AEA) / Water reducing agent can be used advantageously for better quality concrete. The high level committee has recommended adopting for super plasticizers and admixtures at 0.4% on cement for concrete work as per MORTH standards for batching plants.
16) Contractors overheads, profit and other provisions:
a. High Level Committee has recommended to add 14% plus 4% towards VAT or as applicable on item rate towards overheads labour including importation and amenities & contractor profits, which includes various items recommended in MORTH.
b. This also includes 4% of VAT and should be exhibited separately. In the agreements, it should be mentioned that it will be reimbursed as per actuals. The provisions allowed in Go Ms. No. 94, I & CAD, Dt. 1-7-03, need not be added separately. The overhead charges include the following elements:
c. Site accommodation, setting up plant, access road, water supply, electricity and general site arrangements.
d. Office furniture, equipment and communications
e. Expenditure on:
f. Corporate office of contractor
g. site supervision
h. Documentation and “as built” drawings
i. Mobilisation/ de-mobilisation of resources
j. Labour camps with minimum amenities and transportation to work sites.
k. Light vehicles for site supervision including administrative and managerial requirements.
Laboratory equipment and quality control including field and laboratory testing.
l. Minor T & P and survey instruments and setting outworks, including verification of line, dimensions, trial pits and bore holes, where required.
m. Watch and ward
n. Traffic management during construction
o. Expenditure on safeguarding environment
q. Financing Expenditure
r. Sales/ Turn overtax
s. Work Insurance/ compensation
17) EXCISE DUTY ON SUPPLIES :
In respect of gates, hoists and allied works excise duty is applicable on the value of fabricated components supplied to site. Excise duty is not applicable on erection charges. Further, the excise duty shall not be considered in the rate analysis on material component, as basic material rates are inclusive of excise duty.
Therefore, excise duty is considered in the rate analysis only on machinery and labour components required for fabrication of gates and hoists at the central fabrication yard. It is difficult to determine the machinery and labour components separately for fabrication and erection. For the purpose of computation of excise duty to be included in the rate analysis the machinery and labour components may apportioned at 75 % for central fabrication yard and 25 % for field erection and commissioning. Therefore, 75 % of the machinery and labour components may be considered for assessing the extent of excise duty to be added in the rate analysis.
18) DEWATERING & DESILTING:
The High level committee considering the local conditions of rainfall / seepage has recommended towards de-watering and de-silting at 3 percent on the relevant work component for which dewatering is required. It is also proposed as per CWC guidelines; to keep a condition in the agreements shall be incorporated, to fix a ceiling of 5% in extreme cases, with the specific approval of chief engineer/Government.
19) Computerization of Data:
1. A software program is developed by the SPI Unit(Irrigation), which facilitates automatic changes and generation of unit rates, based on basic input rates of Labour, materials and capital cost of machinery.
2. A soft ware tool is also developed for auto preparation of estimates based on in put quantities.
3. Other Departments are also advised to develop such program.
20) For each chapter separate additional details are incorporated for clarity.
USER GUIDELINES OF REVISED STANDARD DATA
i) Please select the item of work, as given in Index Code, and view the relevant data.
ii) The common data items like, lead, lift, conveyance and manual excavation (without involving contracting agencies) is applicable to all Departments (volume-1)
iii) The departments have to adopt the relevant data from other Departments, if such works are executed by them
iv) The unit rate /hire charges, of machinery not covered in the Irrigation data, the MORTH data may be taken with the approval of Board of Chief Engineers
v) For “Drinking water Supply works”(PART-IV), the data incorporated is generally applicable only for manual means of execution. The rates deploying machinery have to be worked out by the Board of Chief engineers and approved for adoption
ROLE OF CENTRAL COMPETENT AGENCY FOR SCHEDULE OF RATES ( BOARD OF CHIEF ENGINEERS)
a) The Board Of Chief Engineers under the chairman ship of Engineer-in-chief, (administration) I&CAD Department is the competent authority to finalise and recommend the Schedule of Rates applicable for all engineering Departments. The board has to assess and incorporate only the three basic inputs required to generate unit work item rates as below.
Basic rates of labour:
Wages of labour commonly required in execution of works has to be arrived and incorporated in the schedule of rates ( Basic Input Of Labour Wages), without adding extra towards area allowances ( like municipality allowance, tribal area and ghat road allowances etc, which shall be added to the rates where applicable in the form of separate percentage as explained in the preceeding paras. The rates shall be the prevailing daily rates in the State and shall not be less than the minimum wages fixed by the Government from time to time.
The basic input material rates common to all departmental works are listed out and incorporated (in the chapter “Basic inputs”) The material specifications adopted shall confirm to Standards published by the BIS The Prevailing market rates for all basic input materials shall be obtained from the major commercial centers near the project areas. Average of the rates, ignoring freak rates, shall be reckoned as the prevailing market rate. Unless otherwise specified, all material rates shall be inclusive of all taxes, duties, levies, royalty, transportation and handling costs up to project area. For sand, gravel, murrum, stones , aggregates etc, the rates are For delivery at Quarry including seigniorage, loading charges and idle hire charges. For steel, Cement, AC sheets, GI sheets, Hume pipes, wood and stone slabs, the rates prevailing at major commercial centre near project area has to be adopted.
Use rate of machinery:
The third parameter for incorporation in the Basic Inputs, is the use rate of machinery. To arrive at the use rate of machinery, the inputs to be incorporated are
1. The list and capital cost of machinery required to be used in the construction activity, The rate has to be obtained from major manufacturers and outlet sources and the rate shall be the current market price inclusive of all taxes, duties and freight charges.
2. The prevailing fuel charges of petrol and diesel are ascertained and average rate adopted
3. Borrow rate of interest as fixed by the Government/competent authority be indicated.
4. For the other machinery not covered by the list, the R&B and other users may adopt hire charges as recommended by the MORTH
b) The Chairman, Board of Chief Engineers or competent authority appointed by the Government, based on the approved basic inputs, load the above three basic parameters in the software program. The unit rate of all works including hire charges of all machinery will be generated automatically for adoption. He shall communicate the uniform Schedule of rates arrived from Standard Data, to all users for uniform and direct adoption in all infrastructure Departments, as applicable Basic approach and General conditions and assumptions for the preparation of Standard Data Book for Building Works.
The Basic approach for the preparation of Standard Data for Building works is indicated as under.
1. Description of Items:
The description of items is given briefly and linked with the relevant specifications in AP Standard Specifications.
2. Use of Machinery:
For concrete work mixing is proposed with machinery as well as manually. For laying concrete, lifting is proposed with either by winches or machinery. Manual means have been proposed for all other items.
3. Working Conditions:
The inputs for the Data have been analyzed for the average working conditions prevailing in the state.
4. Over Heads :
This is assumed to include interalia the following elements:
i. Site accommodation, setting up plant, access road, water supply, electricity and general site arrangements
ii. Office furniture, equipment and communications
iii. Provision towards expenditure on:
(a) Corporate office of contractor
(b) Site supervision
(c) Documentation and "as built" drawings
iv. Mobilisation / de-mobilisation of resources .
v. Labour camps with minimum amenities required as per labour laws and transportation to work sites
vi. Light vehicles for site supervision including administrative and managerial requirements
vii. Setting up of Laboratories for quality control, field and laboratory testing for control of quality of various items of work and documentation of test results as per requirement of the Specifications.
viii. Minor T&P including vibrators for concrete work and survey instruments and setting outworks, including verification of line,dimensions, taking trial pits and bore holes, where required ix. Watch and ward
x. Arraignment for Traffic and Traffic Management during construction.
xi. Provision towards safeguarding environment
xiii. Financing expenditure of the Contractor
xiv. Work Insurance / compensation.
4.1 Sales/Turnover Tax / VAT:
Allow 4% and which should be exhibited separately. In agreements it should be mentioned that it will be reimbursed as per actuals.
5. Contractor’s Profit :
It is considered to allow 14% towards over head charges (Item 4) and Contractor Profits put together.
6. General :
a) The AP Standard Specifications shall be followed with relevant BIS Specifications of various materials and construction work.
b) The sources of all materials and samples of materials are required to be approved by the Engineer-in- Charge before starting of the work.
c) For reinforced steel both HYSD and TMT bars continuing to IS 1786 and MS bars upto 36 mm dia as per IS 432 – Part 1 have been considered.
d) The Data includes inputs for testing of soil, materials and works.
e) The contractor shall arrange and to provide and maintain an adequate equipped field laboratory.
f) Quality Control of Works shall be governed by relevant AP Standard Specifications read with BIS Specifications.
g) Sundries to cater for unforeseen contingency and miscellaneous items have been added in the overheads.
h) The various activities of works shall also be documented in photographs and video cassettes.
i) The Data for various Earth Work Excavation Items including classification of soils shall be as in Standard Data for Roads and Bridges.
j) The course and fine aggregates shall conform to IS : 383
7. Basic Inputs :
Standard Data Book is based on the requirements of basic inputs of materials, labour and machineries for various items. The rates for labour, material and usage charges of machinery for the area where the project is located are to be ascertained from local authorities/enquiries to prepare Schedule of Rates for the area. The basic rates of materials, such as, stone boulders, stone for masonry, stone ballast, stone dust, moorum, gravel, lime, manure, sludge, quarry sweep, kankar, bricks, brick ballast, crushed slag, etc. at quarry / crusher sites shall be fixed by the Board of Chief Engineers yearly (effective from 1st June to 31st May).
However, the basic rate of materials hand broken / machine broken, crushed aggregates shall be based on Analysis in Chapter 1 of Roads & Bridges. The cost of materials should include the cost at source and the cost of their carriage (as per Schedule of rates arrived in Chapter 1 of Roads & Bridges for conveyance, loading and unloading charges) upto the work site.
The labour wages should be as per rates fixed by the Board of Chief Engineers keeping the minimum wages fixed as per Minimum Wages Act. Skilled labour include mason, carpenter, blacksmith, mechanics and other trades.
9. Materials :
Quantities of materials considered in the rate analysis are approximate for the purpose of estimation and include normal wastages. Actual consumption would depend on mix design. The rates of material should include basic cost at locations of stone crushers/factory/rail head and cost of its carriage to the site of work/plant including loading, unloading and stacking. Credit for Dismantled Material: The dismantled materials should be examined and a realistic assessment made for credit for such materials, which can be utilized for works or auctioned. The basic rates should include all octroi charges, toll tax, sale tax, VAT, municipal taxes and other local taxes, etc.
10. The Data for the following items of work shall be as per Data Items covered in AP Standard Data for Roads & Bridges
i. Loading, Unloading, Carriage, Crushing of Materials
ii. Site Clearance
iii. Earth Work Items including classification of Excavated Material.
11. Concrete Items :
For Concrete Work, the Grades of Concrete covered by Data Book is in accordance to IS 456 : 2000. The nominal mix of concrete shall be used upto M 20 Grade only. For RCC Work, M 20 Grade nominal mix may be used in exceptional cases of Remoteness. The design mix shall invariably used for M 20 and above Grades of Concrete as per IS 456 : 2000. The Data accounts for inputs of Material by Weight and use of ordinary mixture or ordinary mixer with weight batch arrangement. The Hire charges for vibrators are included in overhead charges. 10% extra cement may be provided for concreting under water, where ever required. Steel requirement of cement concrete work is required to be provided separately.
12. Plants and Equipment :
The usage charges for machines include ownership charges, cost of repair and maintenance including replacement of tyres and running and operating charges which includes crew, fuel and lubricants. The hire charges shall be worked out based on the Guidelines issued CWC for machinery covered in CWC Guidelines.
13. Measurement and Rates
Measurement of various items and their units shall be as defined in the respective Clauses of AP Standard Specifications. The rates for various items of work shall include all sub items defined in the respective Clauses of AP Standard Specifications.
14. Privileged Document
The Standard Data Book is for Department use only. It should not be produced in any court of law as reference/ authority and to that extent it is a privileged document.