CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY
(1). This part emphasizes the importance of carrying out all constructional operations in a safe and efficient manner. Workers, in large number, both skilled and unskilled, are engaged in the innumerable construction works. Due to increased tempo of such a building activity and large scale mechanization, hazards of accidents have increased considerably. It has, therefore, become imperative that adequate safety rules are laid down for every phase of construction work.
(2). Planning the various constructional operations before hand and making adequate arrangements for procurement and storage of materials, and the machinery to get work done is as important as carrying out these constructional operations in accordance with good practice. Lack of planning or defective planning may result in avoidable delay in the completion of work and consequently increased hazards from the point of view of fire, health and structural soundness.
(3). Information regarding handling operations that is unloading stacking, lifting, loading and conveying of building materials, has also been given now along with the storage practices. Additional information regarding the use of ladders; safety requirements for floor and wall openings, railings and toe boards; piling and other deep foundations; constructions involving use of hot bituminous materials; and erection of structural steel work and concrete framed structures, etc, has been given.
(4). The information contained in this part is largely based on the following Indian Standards:
IS:3696 (Part I)-1966 Safety code for scaffolds and ladders: Part I Scaffolds
IS:3696 (Part II)-1966 Safety code for scaffolds and ladders: Part II Ladders
IS:3764-1966-safety code for excavation work
IS:4082-1977 Recommendations on stacking and storage of construction materials at site (first revision)
IS:4130 -1976 Safety code for demolition of buildings (first revision)
IS:4912-1978 Safety requirements for floor and wall openings, railings and toe boards (first revision)
IS:5121-1969 Safety code for piling and other deep foundations
IS:5916-1970 Safety code for constructions involving use of hot bituminous materials
IS:7205-1974 Safety code for erection of structural steel work
IS:7969-1975 Safety code for handling and storage of building materials
IS:8989-1978 Safety code for erection of concrete framed structures
This part covers the constructional practices in buildings: storage, stacking and handling of materials and safety of personnel during construction operations for all elements of a building and demolition of buildings.
1.2.1.Planning – for timely, economical and reasonably smooth completion of construction or demolition work, it is necessary that, from stage of preparing to start on such activity, the owner takes recourse to such activity; the owner takes recourse to a systematic and well-knit plan for execution. This shall, inter-ail, include planning for the agency or agencies for designing and building of structures or parts thereof; appropriate scheduling of fire prevention measures and fire protection facilities, obtaining of sanction or permission from all the controlling authorities on submission to them of the required plans, specifications and information: timely procurement of the construction materials and equipment, and proper stacking, storage and handling of construction materials at site. For jobs of any magnitude, aid may be had of the modern techniques of management and planning such as Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM).
1.2.2. Responsibilities – Except where the owner is himself the agency for the construction or demolition work, the terms of contract between the owner and his agency or contractor for execution of the work and the designer or architect shall be clearly defined and preferably put in writing. This shall not, however, absolve the owner from any of his responsibilities as owner. In every case within the provisions of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923; The pavement of Wages Act, 1936; The payment of Bonus Act 1965; The Hours of Employment Regulations; etc, the terms of contract between the owner and the contractor will determine the responsibilities and liabilities of either party, in the concerned matters.
Note 1-the contract may be either item rate or percentage rate above or below the rates given in the notified schedule, or lump sump for the entire work or on any other formal terms.
Note 2- the construction materials and equipment may be stipulated to be supplied wholly by the owner or the contractor or partly by either party.
Note 3- The owner may engage labour at piecework or daily rates.
Note 4- Contracts for provision of fire protection facilities should be awarded at an early stage to avoid delay in the supply of essential fire protection equipment.
Note 5- Contract should specify the essential fire safety requirements, which are to be observed and establish the right to administration and enforcement by the owner/authority as the case may be even though the building may otherwise be entirely under the jurisdiction of the builder/contractor.
1.2.3. Contract management
(1). A contract is an agreement between two or more parties for carrying out the intended creates obligations on all the parties. It also gives rights to the performing parties. Contract management is a procedure of co-ordination risk and past performance elements. Communication by documented information forms the basis of the contracts and claims management. Precise communication and properly documented information is most important for efficient and effective project and contract management.
(2). Most important part in contract management is selection of a contractor for executing the job. Mode of selection has to ‘Satisfy the Principle of equity and fair play’ and so the governing criteria should be merit on which the selection should be based. Usual competitive offers have been obtained through call of open tendering or from short listed contractors after pre-qualification process and these are examined with reference to the rates quoted and decision is based on ‘lowest tender is best’ principle normally. But selecting a contractor of prices alone as in many cases amounted to buying trouble.
(3). There is need to have training for building trades as the family type of learning skills from father to son which existed earlier has vanished. It is not always possible to have on the job training through skilled workers or maistries. Many a time they do not have time, knowledge, skills of training and intention for training. It is possible that they may also not be proficient in their trades in the right manner. Hence, it becomes necessary to develop a well structured training programme. As a social responsibility and professional ethics, all the building and construction agencies have to take the lead.
One important fact is that the piece work system and sub-contract system in the building sector has a negative impact on training and skill development. Mostly all builders get their entire work done through the sub-contract system. The building organisation or the contractors do not have direct workers except office and supervisory staff. Hence, there is no will or attitude or anxiety for the building organizations to arrest this trend. There is great awareness in public about the builder’s attitude towards the work of the sub-contractors which results in poor quality work, time and cost escalation. So it is necessary that the building organizations and sub-contracting organizations consider training and upgrading the skills of their work force to improve the productivity. Financing of this programme shall be a matter of understanding between the Government, Public Sector Organizations, Private Construction Agencies, Architects, Civil Engineering and Housing Departments. Creation of new jobs will have to be prime consideration for the future strategies to be adopted in our country with ever increasing population.
1.2.4. Quality management
(1). In order to consistently achieve required quality levels, it is essential to establish a Quality Management System (QMS).
A key aspect of any QMS is its documentation. The components of QMS documentation consist of a Quality Manual, Quality Assurance Procedures (QAPs), Work Instruction (WIs), Record and Reports, Reference Documents etc.
Every QMS should also include Reporting/Monitoring, Internal Quality Audits, Corrective and Preventive Actions, and Management Reviews.
The QAPs / WIs should lay down procedures for all relevant activities having a bearing on Quality.
(2). Quality assurance procedures
Recognizing this, the organization would need to establish, as part of the QMS, QAPs applicable to all site activities, which would constitute very important inputs to the field engineer for effectively discharging his responsibilities.
(3). These QAPs should provide detailed guidance for the proper execution, monitoring and control of all site activities including QA aspects. They would typically cover the following aspects, some of which is work related and other customer related.
(4). Quality assurance’s aim is to get things right first time. This can be achieved by documenting what is to be done and how it should be done; secondly, by checking whether what is wanted is done and finally recording the fact. This requires preparation of proper quality assurance plan and quality acceptance criteria in respect of each item of material and workmanship, at pretender stage and immediately after award of the contract, dully approved by the competent authorities, so that both the parties fully understand the requirement of quality control and make necessary preparation to implement such Quality Assurance Plan.
(5). Normally, a contractor is expected to carry out works, as per designs approved by the department and as per specifications prescribed by the department. Good Quality Management Systems, Quality Assurance Plan and its implementation by both the contractors and the department ensures that not only the work is carried out as per predetermined, mutually agreed quality assurance procedures but also appropriate documentation is maintained. Once the work is completed as per contract agreement conditions and quality assurance plans, and is certified to have been completed satisfactorily by the designated engineers, the responsibility of the contractor ceases.
(6). In the event of failure occurring in later years, a scientific analysis of failure conducted by an independent institution consisting of eminent engineers is made and it establishes that the contractor has defaulted in following the specifications, then the government is at liberty to proceed against the engineers who certified the work as well as the contractor, to make good the loss sustained by government arising out of the said bad work. It is imperative that a specific clause to this effect is not only introduced in the tender notification / contract agreement and is given wide publicity.
1.3. Construction Control
(1). Professional Architecture or Engineering Services -All new work or alteration shall be planned, designed and supervised by licensed personnel, namely, town planner, architect, engineer as specified.
(2). Inspectional Responsibility - For the quality of materials used, even though procured by the contractor and for the soundness of construction, the owner has to take responsibility, unless a licensed architect / engineer has been engaged to supervise and will be responsible for these technical aspects.
(3). Construction of all elements – Construction of all elements of a building shall be in accordance with codes of practice, where reference is made to good practice in relation to design, testing, construction procedures or other information appropriate document listed at the end of this part may be used as a guide to the interpretation of this term..
(4). Low cost housing – The requirements regarding structural safety, health safety and fire safety shall be in accordance with this code, though certain relaxations may be made in the planning and general building requirements. For detailed information, reference may be made to code of practice.
(5). Site preparation – While preparing the site for construction, brush and other wood, debris, etc, shall be removed and promptly disposed of so as to minimize the attendant hazards. Temporary buildings for construction officer and storage shall be so located as to cause the minimum fire hazards and shall be constructed form non-combustible materials as far as possible.
(6). Access for fire fighting equipment vehicles – access for fire-fighting equipment shall be provided to the construction site at the start of construction and maintained until all construction work is completed. Free access from the street to fire hydrants/static water tanks, where available, shall be provided and maintained at all times. No materials for construction shall be placed within 3 m of hydrants/static water tanks. During building operations, free access to permanent, temporary or portable first-aid fire fighting equipment shall be maintained at all times.
(7). Access to the upper floors during construction – In all buildings over two storeys high, at least one stairway shall be provided in usable condition at all times. This stairway shall be extended upward as each floor is completed. As far as possible, there shall be a handrail on the staircase.
1.4. Storage Stacking and handling practices
Materials shall be stored, stacked and handled in such a manner as to prevent deterioration or intrusion of foreign matter and to ensure the preservation of their quality and fitness for the work. Materials shall be segregated as to kind, size and length and placed in neat, orderly piles that are safe against falling. If piles are high they shall be stepped back at suitable intervals in height. Piles of materials shall be arranged so as to allow a passageway of not less than 1 m width in between the piles or stacks for inspection or removal. All passageways shall be kept clear of dry vegetation. Materials shall be stacked on well drained, firm and unyielding surface. Materials shall not be stacked so as to impose any undue stresses on walls or other structures. Materials shall be stacked in such a manner as not to constitute a hazard to passer- by. At such places the stacks shall have suitable warning signs in daytime and red lights on and around them at night. Stairways, passageways and gangways shall not become obstructed by storage of building materials, tools or accumulated rubbish.
(1). Manual Handling – when heavy materials have to be handled manually each Workman shall be instructed by his foreman or supervisor for the proper method of handling such materials. Each workman shall be provided with suitable equipment for his personal safety as necessary. Supervisors shall also take care to assign enough men to each such job depending on the weight and the distance involved.
(2). Protection against Fire - Timber, coal, paints and similar materials present fire hazards. Where possible these materials should be segregated from each other so that fire spread is minimized. Flammable liquids like petrol, thinner, etc, shall be stored in conformity with relevant regulations. Explosives like detonators, gunpowder, etc shall be stored in conformity with relevant regulations for storage and handling of explosives. The storage stacking and handling of materials generally used in construction shall be as given below.
(1). Storage and stacking – Cement shall be stored at the work site in a building or a shed which is dry, leak-proof and as moisture-proof as possible. The building or shed for storage should have minimum number of windows and close fitting doors and these should be kept closed as far as possible.
Cement received in bags shall be kept in such a way that the bags are kept free from the possibility of any dampness or moisture coming in contact with them. Cement bags shall be stacked off the floor on wooden planks in such away as to keep them 150 to 200 mm clear from the floor and space of 450 mm minimum shall be left around between the exterior walls and the stacks. In the stacks the cement bags shall be kept close together to reduce circulation of air as much as possible. Owing to pressure on bottom layer of bags sometimes ‘warehouse pack’ is developed in these bags. This can be removed easily by rolling bags when cement is taken out for use.
The height of stack shall not be more than 15 bags to prevent the possibility of lumping up under pressure. The width of the stack shall be not more than four-bag length or 3 metres. In stacks more than 8 bags high, the cement bags shall be arranged alternately lengthwise and crosswise so as to tie the stacks together and minimize the danger of toppling over.
For extra safety during monsoon, or when it is expected to store for an unusually long period, the stake shall be completely enclosed by a water proofing membrane such as polyethylene, which shall close on the top of the stack. Care shall be taken to see that the waterproofing membranes are not damaged any time during the use. Drums or other heavy containers of cement shall not be stacked more than two layers high.
The manner of storage shall facilitate the requirement that lots of cement received are removed and used more or less in the order in which they are received.
(2). Handling – Hooks shall not be used for handling cement bags unless specifically permitted by the engineer-in-charge. For information regarding bulk handling of cement, see 1.4.4.
(1). Quicklime before slaking
Storage and stacking – Quicklime should be slaked as soon as possible. If unavoidable it maybe stored in compact heaps having only the minimum of exposed area. The heaps shall be stored on a suitable platform and covered to avoid direct contact with rain or being blown away by wind. In case quick lime is stored in a covered shed, a minimum space of 300 mm should be provided around the heaps to avoid bulging of walls.
Unslaked lime shall be stored in a place inaccessible to water and because of fire hazards, shall be segregated from the combustible materials.
Note–Quick lime should be slaked as soon as possible as it deteriorates rapidly on exposure by taking up moisture and carbon dioxide from atmosphere.
Handling – See 1.4.4
(2). Hydrated lime
Storage and stacking – Hydrated lime is generally supplied in containers, such as jute bags lined with polyethylene woven bags lined with polyethylene or craft paper bags. It should be stored in a building to protect the lime from dampness and to minimize warehouse deterioration.
Handling – See 1.4.4
(3). Dry slaked lime
Storage and stacking – If the lime is to be used within a few days, it may be stored on a platform suitably covered for protection from rain and wind. If it is required to be stored for a longer period not exceeding 2 months, it may be kept in a dry and closed godown.
Handling – See 1.4.4.
1.4.4. Handling of Cement and Lime – Workmen, handling bulk cement or lime shall wear protective clothing, respirators, and goggles; shall be instructed in the need of cleanliness to prevent dermatitis, and shall be provided with hand cream, petroleum jelly, or similar preparation for protection of exposed skin. Bulk cement stored in silos or bins may fail to feed to the ejection system. When necessary to enter a silo or bin for any purpose, the ejection system employed shall be shut down and locked out. When necessary for a workman to enter such storage area, he shall wear a lifeline, with another workman outside the silo or hopper attending the rope.
1.4.5. Masonry Units
Storage and stacking - Bricks shall not be dumped at site. They shall be stacked on dry firm grounds in regular tiers directly, as they are unloaded to minimize breakage and defacement of bricks. For proper inspection of quality and ease in counting, the stacks shall be 50 bricks long and 10 bricks high, the bricks being placed on edge, and preferably, the width of each stack shall be two bricks. Clear distance between adjacent stacks shall preferably be not less than 0.8 m. In the case of bricks made from clays containing lime Kankar, the bricks in stack should be thoroughly soaked in water (docked) to prevent lime bursting. Bricks of different types and classification shall be stacked separately. Concrete blocks, stone blocks, etc, shall be stored in stacks of such height as will not damage the blocks in the lower layers nor there be fear of toppling of stack.
Handling - Bricks shall be loaded or unloaded a pair at a time unless palletized.
Storage and stacking – Aggregates shall be stored at site on a hard dry and level patch of ground. If such a surface is not available, a platform of planks or old corrugated iron sheets, or a floor of bricks, or a thin layer of lean concrete shall be made so as to prevent the admixture of clay, dust, vegetable and other foreign matter.
Stacks of fine and coarse aggregate shall be kept in separate stockpiles sufficiently removed from each other or separated by dividing walls to prevent the material from getting intermixed. Fine aggregate shall be stacked in a place where loss due to the effect of wind is minimum.
Handling - When withdrawals are made from stockpiles, no over hang shall be permitted.
Employees required to enter hoppers shall be equipped with safety belts and lifelines, attended by another person. Machine driven hoppers, feeders, and loaders shall be locked in the off position prior to entry.
1.4.7. Fly Ash
Storage and stacking - Fly ash shall be stored in such a manner as to permit easy access for proper inspection and identification of each consignment. Fly ash in bulk quantities shall be stored in stack similar to fine aggregates, avoiding any intrusion of foreign matter. Fly ash in bags shall be stored in stacks not more than 15 bags high.
Handling – See 1.4.4.
Storage and stacking – Timber shall be stored in stacks upon well treated and even surfaced beams, sleepers or brick pillars so as to be above the ground level by at least 150 mm to ensure that the timber will not be affected by accumulation of water under it. Various members shall preferably be stored separately in different lengths, and material of equal lengths shall be piled together in layers with wooden battens, called crossers, separating one layer form another. The crossers shall be of sound wood, straight and uniform in thickness. In case, where separate crossers are not available smaller sections of the available structural timber may be employed in their place. In any layer an air space of a bout 25 mm shall be provided between adjacent members. The longer pieces shall be placed in the bottom layers and shorter pieces in the top layer but one end of the stack shall be in true vertical alignment. The crossers in different layers shall be in vertical alignment. The most suitable width and height of a stack are recommended to be about 1.5 and 2.0 m. Distance between adjacent stacks is recommended to be at least 450 mm. In case the stacking with the help of battens is not possible, the timber may be close piled in heaps on raised foundations with the precautions specified above.
The stacks shall be protected from hot dry winds or direct sun and rain. Heavy weights, such as metal rails or large sections of wood, are recommended to be placed on the top of the stack to prevent distortion or warping of the timber in the stack. In case timber is to be stored for about a year or more, to prevent end-cracking in the material, the ends of all members shall be coated with coal tar, aluminum leaf paints (hardened gloss oil), micro crystalline wax or any other suitable material. Care must be taken that handler or workmen are not injured by rails, straps, etc, attached to the used timber. This applies particularly to planks and formwork for shuttering.
Storage and stacking – Steel reinforcement shall be stored in a way as to prevent distortion and corrosion. It is desirable to coat reinforcement with cement wash before stacking to prevent scaling and rusting. Bars of different classification, sizes and lengths shall be stored separately to facilitate issues in such sizes and lengths as to minimize wastage in cut from standard lengths.
In case of long storage or in coastal areas, reinforcement bars shall be stacked above ground level by a least 15 cm and a coat of cement wash shall be given to prevent scaling and rusting.
Structural steel of different sections, sizes and lengths shall be stored separately. It shall be stored above ground level by a t least 15 cm upon platforms, skids or any other suitable supports to avoid distortion of sections. In case of coastal areas or in case of long storage, suitable protective coating of cement wash shall be given to prevent scaling and rusting.
For each classification of steel, separate areas shall be earmarked. Also ends of bars and sections of each class shall be painted with separate nominated colours.
Handling - Tag lines shall be used to control the load in handling reinforcements or structural steel when a crane is employed. Heavy steel sections and bundles shall be lifted and carried with the help of slings and tackles and shall not be carried on the shoulders of the workmen.
1.4.10. Doors, Windows and Ventilators
Storage and stacking – Metal doors, windows and ventilators shall be stacked upright (on their sills) on level ground preferably on wooden battens and shall not come in contact with dirt or ashes. If received in crates they shall be stacked according to manufacturer’s instructions and removed from the crates as and when required for the work.
Metal frames of doors, windows and ventilators shall be stacked upside down with the kick plates at the top. These shall not be allowed to stand for long in this manner before being fixed so as to avoid the door frames getting out of shape and hinges being strained and shutters drooping.
During the period of storage of aluminum doors, windows and ventilators, these shall be protected from loose cement and mortar by suitable covering, such as tarpaulin. The tarpaulin shall be hung loosely on temporary framing to permit circulation of air to prevent moisture condensation.
Wooden frames and shutters shall be stored in a dry and clean covered space away from any infestation. The frames shall be stacked one over the other in vertical stacks with cross battens at regular distances to keep the stack vertical and straight. The door shutters shall be stacked in the form of clean vertical stacks one over the other and at least 80 mm above the ground on pallets or suitable beams to ensure that they will not be affected by accumulation of water under them. The top of stack shall be covered by protecting cover and weighed down by means of scantlings or other suitable weights. For detailed information reference may be made to good practice.
Precast concrete door and window frames shall be stored in upright position adopting suitable measures against risk of subsidence of soil/support.
Handling – While unloading, shifting, handling and stacking timber door and window frames and shutters, care shall be taken that the pieces are not dragged one over the other as it may cause damage to their surface particularly in case of the decorative shutters. The pieces should be lifted and carried preferably flat avoiding damage to corners or sides.
1.4.11. Roofing Materials
Roofing sheets shall be stored and stacked in such a manner as not to damage them in any way. Damaged sheets shall not be stacked with sound materials. All damaged sheets shall be salvaged as early as possible.
(1). Asbestos cement sheet
Storage and stacking – Asbestos cement sheets shall be stacked to a height of not more than one meter on firm and level ground, with timber or other packing beneath them. If stacked in exposed position, they shall be protected from damage by the winds.
Handling – Not more than two sheets shall be first pushed forward along the valley line say about one fourth of the sheet length and preferably carried by two workmen. Asbestos cement sheets shall be lowered or raised gently and not thrown.
(2). CGI sheets
Storage and stacking – CGI sheets shall be stacked in not more than 100 bundles per stack built solidly, each bundle consisting of 10 sheets. Bundles shall be so laid that the corrugations run in the same directions in every course. One end of the stack shall be raised by 10 to 15 cm to allow water flowing freely. If the sheets are not to be used in the near future, these shall be stacked under roof cover.
Handling - In bulk handling of CGI sheets, workmen shall be provided with suitable hand protection.
(3). Boards - Gypsum boards
Storage and stacking - Gypsum boards shall be stored flat in a covered clean and dry place.
(4). Boards - Plywood, Fibre board, Particle board, Block board, etc
Storage and stacking – Plywood, fibre board, particleboard, block board, etc, shall not be stored in the open and exposed to direct sun and rain. The boards shall be stacked on a flat dunnage, on the top of which a wooden frame shall be constructed with battens of 5 x 2.5 cm (Min) in such a way that it supports all four edges and corners of the boards with intermediate battens placed at suitable intervals to avoid warping. If required, the stack shall be adequately raised above ground level to ensure that it will not be affected by accumulation of water under it.
The board shall be stacked in a solid block in a clear vertical alignment. The top sheet of each stack shall be suitably weighed down to prevent warping, wherever necessary.
Handling – the board shall be unloaded and stacked with utmost care avoiding damage to the corners and surface. In case of decorative plywood and decorative boards, the surfaces of which are likely to get damaged by dragging one sheet over another, it is advisable that these are lifted as far as possible in pairs facing each other.
(5). Plastic and Rubber Sheets
Storage and stacking – Plastic and rubber sheets shall be stored according to manufacturer’s instructions.
The coolest storeroom available shall be utilized for the storage of the sheets. The storerooms where the sheets are stored shall be well ventilated and kept as dark as possible. Direct light should not be allowed to fall on them.
The sheets shall be stored away from electric generators, electric motors, switch gears and other such electrical equipment as they produce harmful gases, which may damage the sheets.
Contamination of the sheets with vegetable and mineral oils; greases; organic solvents; acids and their fumes; alkalis; dust and grit shall be prevented. Where greasy contamination occurs this shall be removed immediately with kerosene or similar liquid and the sheets thoroughly wiped dry and dusted with French chalk.
Undue stretch and strain, kinks, sharp bends or folds of the sheets shall be avoided. In case of long storage, the sheets shall be turned over periodically and treated with French chalk, if necessary.
Note – Plastic and rubber sheets have a tendency to break down during storage.
Handling – While handling plastic and rubber sheets, workmen shall lift the sheets and carry them flat to avoid sharp bends or folds of the sheets.
(6). Glass Sheets
Storage and stacking – It is important that all glass sheets whether stored in crates or not shall be kept dry. Suitable covered storage space shall be provided for the safe storage of the glass sheets. The glass sheets shall be lifted and stored on their long edges and shall be put into stacks of not more than 25 panes, supported at two points by fillets of wood at about 300 mm from each end. The first pane laid in each stack shall be so placed that its bottom edge is about 25 mm from the base of the wall or other support against which the stack rests. The whole stack shall be as close and as upright as possible. To prevent slipping on smooth floor, the floor shall be covered with gunny bags.
Handling - Workmen handling glass panes, waste glass pieces and fibre glass shall be provided with suitable hand protection. In removing glass sheets from crates, great care shall be taken to avoid damages. Glass edges shall be covered or otherwise protected to prevent injuries to workmen.
1.4.12. Asbestos Cement Pipes and Fittings
Storage and stacking – the pipes shall be unloaded where they are required, when the trenches are ready to receive them.
Storage shall be provided at the bottom layer to keep the stack stable. The stack shall be in pyramid shape or the pipes placed lengthwise and crosswise in alternate layers. The pyramid stack is advisable in smaller diameter pipes for conserving space in storing them. The height of the stack shall not exceed 1.5 m. Each stack shall contain only pipes of the same class and size.
Cast iron detachable joints and fittings shall be stacked under cover and separated from the asbestos cement pipes and fittings.
Rubber rings shall be kept clean, away from grease, oil, heat and light.
Handling – Pipes in the top layer shall be handled first. At a time only one pipe shall be handled by two labourers while conveying to the actual site and shall be carried on shoulders. Fittings shall be handled individually.
1.4.13. Polyethylene Pipes
a) Storage and stacking – Black polyethylene pipes may be stored either under cover or in the open. Natural polyethylene pipes, however, should be stored under cover and protected from direct sunlight.
Coils may be stored either on edge or stacked flat one on top of the other, but in either case they should not be allowed to come into contact with hot water or steam pipes and should be kept away from hot surface.
Straight lengths should be stored on horizontal racks giving continuous support to prevent the pipe taking on a permanent set.
Storage of pipes in heated areas exceeding 27º C should be avoided.
Handling – Removal of pipe from a pile shall be accomplished by working from the ends of the pipe.
1.4.14. Unplasticized PVC Pipes
Storage and stacking – Pipes should be stored on a reasonably flat surface free from stones and sharp projections so that the pipe is supported throughout its length. The pipe should be given adequate support at all times. In storage, pipe racks should be avoided. Pipe should not be stacked in large piles especially under arm temperature conditions as the bottom pipes may distort thus giving rise o difficulty in jointing. Socket and spigot pipes should be stacked in layers with sockets placed at alternate ends of the stacks to avoid lopsided stacks.
It is recommended not to store a pipe inside another pipe. On no account should pipes be stored in a stressed or bent condition or near a source of heat. Pipes should not be stacked more than 1.5 m high. Pipes of different sizes and classes should be stacked separately.
In tropical conditions, pipes should be stored in shade. In very cold weather, the impact strength of PVC is reduced making it brittle.
The ends of pipe should be protected from abrasion particularly those specially prepared for jointing either spigot or socket solvent welded joints or soldered for use with couplings.
If due to unsatisfactory storage or handling a pipe becomes kinked, the damaged portion should be cut out completely.
Handling - Great care shall be exercised in handling these pipes in wintry conditions as these become brittle in very cold weather.
1.4.15. Pipes of Conducting Materials
Storage and stacking – Pipes shall be stacked on solid level sills and contained in amanner to prevent spreading or rolling of the pipe. Where quantity storage is necessary, suitable packing shall be placed between succeeding layers to reduce the pressure and resulting spreading of the pile.
In stacking and handling of pipes and other conducting materials, the following minimum safety distances shall be ensured from the overhead power lines:
11 kV and below =1.40 m
Above 11 and below 33 kV = 3.60 m
Above 33 and below 132 kV =4.70 m
Above 132 and below 275 kV =5.70 m
Above 275 and below 400 kV =6.50 m
Handling – Removal of pipes from a pile shall be accomplished by working from the ends of the pipe. During transportation, the pipes shall be so secured as to insure against displacement.
1.4.16. Piling and Poles
Storage and stacking – Piling and poles shall be carefully stacked on solid, level sills so as to prevent rolling or spreading of the stack.
The storage area shall be maintained free of vegetation and flammable materials.
Handling – When placing piling or poles on the stack, workmen shall work from the ends of the piles/poles. Similar precautions shall be observed in removal of piles/poles from the stack. Tag lines shall be used to control piling and poles when handling for any purpose.
In stacking and handling of piling and poles, precautions as laid down in 4.18(a) shall be followed.
1.4.17. Paints, Varnishes and Thinners
Storage and stacking – Paints, varnishes, lacquers, thinners and other flammable materials shall be kept in properly sealed or closed containers. The containers shall be kept in a well-ventilated location, free from excessive heat, smoke, sparks or flame. The floor of the paint stores shall be made up of 10 cm thick loose sand. Paint materials in quantities other than required for daily use shall be kept stocked under regular storage place. Where the paint is likely to deteriorate with age, the manner of storage shall facilitate removal and use of lots in the same order in which they are received. Temporary electrical wiring/fittings shall not be installed in the paint store. When electric lights, switches or electrical equipment are necessary, they shall be of explosion proof design.
Handling – Ventilation adequate to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapours to hazardous levels of concentration shall be provided in all areas where painting is done.
When painting is done in confined spaces where flammable or explosive vapours may develop, any necessary heat shall be provided through duct work remote from the source of flame. Sources of ignition, such as open flame and exposed heating elements, shall not be permitted in area or rooms where spray painting is done nor shall smoking be allowed there.
Care should be taken not to use any naked flame inside the paint store. Buckets containing sand shall be kept ready for use in case of fire. Fire extinguishers when required shall be of foam type conforming to accepted standards where references is made to ‘accepted standards’ in relation to material specification or other information, (shown in Annexure 1-A.1), the appropriate document listed at the end of this part may be used as a guide to the interpretation of this term.
Each workman handling lead based paints shall be issued ½ - litre milk per day for his personal consumption.
1.4.18. Bitumen, Road Tar, Asphalt, etc
Storage and stacking – Drums or containers containing all types of bitumen, road tar, asphalt, etc shall be stacked vertically on their bottoms in up to 3 tiers. Leaky drums shall be segregated. Empty drums shall be stored in pyramidal stacks neatly in rows.
1.4.19. Bituminous Roofing Felts
Storage and stacking – Bituminous-roofing felts shall be stored away from other combustible flammable materials. For long storage it shall be kept under shade.
Handling – Bituminous-roofing felts should be handled in a manner to prevent cracking and other damages.
1.4.20. Flammable materials
Storage and stacking - In addition to the requirements as laid down 3.4.2 and 3.4.3, the following provisions shall also apply:
Handling – petroleum products delivered to the job site and stored there in drums shall be protected during handling to prevent loss of identification through damage to drum markings, tags, etc. Unidentifiable petroleum products may result in improper use, with possible fire hazard, damage to equipment or operating failure.
Workmen shall be required to guard carefully against any part of their clothing becoming contaminated with flammable fluids. They shall not be allowed to continue work when their clothing becomes so contaminated.
1.4.21. Water – water to be stored for construction purposes shall be stored in proper tanks to prevent any organic impurities. The aggregate capacity of storage tanks shall be determined after taking into accounts the requirements of fire fighting.
Storage and stacking - All tiles shall be stacked on well-treated and hard surface in layers and in different tiers. These shall not be dumped at site and shall be stacked in such a way that moulds surface of one faces that of another. The height of stack shall not be more than 1 m.
Tiles of different quality, size and thickness shall be stacked separately to facilitate easy removal for use in work.
Tiles, when supplied by manufacturers in wooden crates, shall be stored as such and the crates opened one at a time when required for use.
Handling – Removal of the tiles shall start from top layer only. Only on finishing top course next course be tackled. Tiles should be handled in pairs and shall not be thrown.
1.4.23. Sanitary appliances
Storage and stacking - All sanitary appliances shall be carefully stored under cover to prevent damage. When accepting and storing appliances, consideration shall be given to the sequence of removal from the store to the assembly positions. Vitreous fittings shall be stacked separately from the metal ones.
Handling – Bigger sanitary appliances shall be handled one at a time. Traps, water seals and gullies shall be handled separately. While handling sanitary fittings they shall be free from any oil spilling, etc. The hands of the workers shall also be free from any oily substance. Before lowering the appliances in their position the supporting brackets, pedestals, etc, shall be checked for their soundness and then only the fixtures be attached.
1.4.24. Other Materials – Small articles like screws, bolts, nuts, door and window fittings, polishing stones, protective clothing, spare parts of machinery linings, packing, water supply and sanitary fittings, and electrical fittings, insulation board, etc, shall be kept in suitable and properly protected containers or store rooms. Valuable small materials shall be kept under lock and key.
1.4.25. Special considerations
Materials constantly in use shall be relatively nearer the place of use. Heavy units like precast concrete members shall be stacked near the hoist or the ramp. Materials, which normally deteriorate during storage, shall be kept constantly moving, by replacing old materials with fresh stocks. Freshly arrived materials shall never be placed over materials, which had arrived earlier.
Appropriate types of fire extinguishers shall be provided at open sites where combustible materials are stored and for each storage shed/room where flammable/combustible materials are stored. For guidance in selection of the appropriate types of fire extinguishers reference may be made to good practice. It is desirable hat a minimum of two extinguishers is provided at each such location.
Workers handling excavated earth from foundation, particularly if the site happens to be reclaimed area or marshy area or any other infected area, shall be protected against infection affecting their exposed body portions.
House keeping – stairways, walkways, scaffolds and access ways shall be kept free of materials, debris and obstructions. The engineer-in-charge/the foreman shall initiate and carry out a programme requiring routine removal of scrap and debris from scaffolds and walkways.
Where stacking of the materials is to be done on road side berms in the street and other public place, the owner shall seek permission from the Authority for such stacking and also for removing the remnants of the same after the construction is over, so as to avoid any hazard to the public.
1.5. Loading and unloading rail road wagons and motor vehicles
1.5.1. Loading and unloading from rail road wagons – Appropriate warning signals shall be displayed to indicate that the wagons must not be coupled or moved. The wheels of wagons shall always be sprigged or chained while the wagons are being unloaded. The breaks alone shall not be depended upon. Special level bars shall preferably be used for moving rail wagons rather than ordinary crow bars.
Where gangplanks are used between wagons and platforms of piles (heaps), cleats at lower end of gangplank, or pin through end of gangplanks, shall be used to prevent sliding. If gangplank is on a gradient, cleats or abrasive surface shall be provided for the entire length. When railroad wagons are being loaded or unloaded near passageways or walkways, adequate warning signals shall be placed on each end of the wagon to warn pedestrians.
1.5.2. Loading and unloading from motor vehicles
The motor vehicles shall be properly blocked while being loaded or unloaded; brakes alone shall not be depended upon to hold them. When motor vehicles are being loaded or unloaded near passageways or walkways, adequate warning signs shall be placed on each end of the vehicle to warn the pedestrians.
1.5.3. Handling Heavy / Long Items
Loading and unloading of heavy items, shall, as far as possible, be done with cranes or gantries. The workman shall stand clear of the material being moved by mechanical equipment. The slings and the ropes used shall be of adequate load carrying capacity, so as not to give way and result in accidents.
While heavy and long components are being manually loaded into motor vehicle, wagons, trailer, etc, either wooden sleepers or steel rails of sufficient length and properly secured in position shall be put in a gentle slope against the body of the wagon/vehicle at 3 to 4 places for loading. These long items shall be dragged, one by one, gently and uniformly along these supports by means of ropes, being pulled by men with feet properly anchored against firm surface. As soon as the items come on the floor of the vehicle, the same may be shifted by crowbars and other suitable leverage mechanism, but not by hands to avoid causing accident to the workmen.
The provisions of this section shall apply to the erection/alteration of the various parts of a building or similar structure. The construction of the different elements shall conform to provisions of 2.3.
Other Laws – Nothing herein stated shall be construed to nullify any rules, regulations, safety standards or statutes of the local state governments or those contained in the various Acts of the Government of India. The specific rules, regulations and Acts pertaining to the protection of the public or workmen from health and other hazards wherever specified by the Local / State Authority or in the Acts of the Government take precedence over whatever is herein specified in case of a doubt or dispute.
For the purpose of this part of the following definitions shall apply.
Authority having jurisdiction – The Authority which has been created by a statute and which for the purpose of administering the Code/Part, may authorize a committee or an official to act on its behalf; hereinafter called the ‘Authority’.
Construction equipment - All equipment, machinery tools and temporary retaining structures and working platforms, that is, tools, derricks staging, scaffolds, runways, ladders and all materials, handling equipment including safety devices.
Floor hole – An opening measuring less than 30 cm but more than 2.5 cm in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard, through which materials but not persons may fall; such as, a belt hole, pipe opening or slot opening.
Guard railing – A barrier erected along exposed edges of an open side floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or catwalk or balcony, etc, to prevent fall of persons.
Material handling hoists – A platform, bucket or similar enclosure exclusively meant for the lifting or lowering of construction material the hoists being operated from a point outside the conveyance.
Pile rig – the complete pile driving equipment comprising piling frame, ladder, hammer, extractor winch and power unit. Complete pile driving rig may be mounted on rafts or pontoon or rails. Pile rig may also be a mobile unit mounted on trailers or trucks, or a special full revolving rig for raking piles.
Platform – A working space for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground, such as balcony or platform for the operation of machinery and equipment.
Scaffold - A temporary erection of timber or metal work used in the construction, alteration or demolition of a building, to support or to allow the hoisting and lowering of workmen, their tools and materials.
Toe board – a vertical barrier erected along exposed edge of a floor opening, wall opening, platform, catwalk or ramp to prevent fall of materials or persons.
Wall hole - An opening in any wall or partition having height of less than 75 cm but more than 2.5 cm and width unrestricted.
Wall opening - An opening in any wall or partition having both height of less than 75 cm and width of at least 45 cm.
1.8. Temporary construction, use of side walls and temporary encroachments
Temporary Construction - The plans and specifications of temporary constructions, which are likely to interfere with facilities or right of way provided by the Authority, shall be submitted to the Authority for approval showing clearly the layout, design and construction.
Temporary structure shall apply to the following types of structures:
Structures with roof or walls made of straw, hay, mat, canvas cloth or other like materials not adopted for permanent or continuous occupancy.
Site-work sheds, truck-runways, trestles foot-bridges, etc.
For detailed information regarding fire safety aspects in respect of construction, location, maintenance and use of temporary structures including pandals used by public for outdoor assembly.
Special permits shall be obtained for the storage of the materials on side walks and highways. It shall be ensured that the material dump or the storage shed does not create a traffic hazards, nor it shall interfere with the free flow of the pedestrian traffic. Special permits shall also be obtained for the use of water and electricity from the public facilities., whenever such utilities are mad use of, adequate safety precautions regarding drainage and elimination of contamination and hazards from electricity shall be taken.
In order to ensure safety for the adjoining property, adequate temporary protective guards are to be provided. In case these protective devices project beyond the property, the consent of the Authority and that of the owner of the adjoining property shall be obtained.
Tests – No structure, temporary support, scaffolding or any construction equipment during the construction or demolition of any building or structure shall be loaded beyond the allowable loads and working stresses as provided for in structural design.
Whenever any doubt arises about the structural adequacy of scaffolding, support or any other construction equipment, it shall be tested to two and a half times the superimposed dead and live loads to which the material or the equipment is subjected to and the member/material shall sustain the test load without failure if it is to be accepted.
Not withstanding the test mentioned above, if any distress in any member is visible, the member shall be rejected.
1.10. Inspection and rectification of hazardous defects
Inspection – The Authority shall inspect the construction equipment and if during the inspection, it is revealed that unsafe/illegal conditions exist, the Authority shall intimate the owner and direct him to take immediate remedial measures to remove the hazard/violation.
Rectification – the owner shall proceed to rectify the defect, hazardous condition or violation within 24 hours of the receipt of the notice from the Authority. The Authority shall have full powers to rectify the unsafe condition and all expenses incurred in this connection is payable by the owner of the property. Illegal encroachments and non-payment of money due in respect of the rectification of unsafe conditions may vest a lien on the property with the Authority.
When the strength and adequacy of any scaffold or other construction equipment is in doubt or when any complaint is made, the authority shall get the same inspected before use.
(1). General – the distribution of the supporting foundation shall be such as to avoid any harmful differential settlement of the structure. The type and design of the foundation adopted shall ensure safety to workmen during construction and residents of the neighbouring property. Sufficient care shall be taken in areas, where withdrawal of ground water from surrounding areas could result in damages to such foundations. During the construction of the foundation, it shall be ensured that the adjoining properties are not affected by any harmful effects.
(2). Adjoining Properties – The person causing excavation shall, before starting the work, given adequate notices in writing to the owner of the adjoining properties, safety of which is likely to be affected due to excavation. After having given such notices, wherein details regarding the type of protective works that are anticipated to be incorporated in the excavation are shown, written permission shall be obtained for such excavation shall make adequate provision to protect the safety of adjacent property. If on giving such notices sand the precautionary measures having been approved by the Authority, the adjoining property owner still refuses to give necessary facilities to the person causing excavation for protecting/providing both temporary and permanent supports to such property, the responsibility for any damage to the adjoining property shall be that of the adjoining property owner. The person causing excavation shall be absolved of responsibility for any loss of property or life in the adjoining property. In driven piles vibration is set up which may cause damage to adjoining structures or service lines depending on the nature of soil condition and the construction standard of such structures and service lines. Possible extent of all such damages shall be ascertained in advance, and operation and mode of driving shall be planned with appropriate measures to ensure safety.
Where in the vicinity of a site where bored or driven piling works are to be carried out there are old structures which are likely to be damaged, tell-tales shall be fixed on such structures to watch their behavior and timely precautions taken against any undesirable effect.
During construction, inspection shall be made by the engineer-in-charge to ensure that all protective works carried out to safe guard the adjoining property are sufficient and in good order to ensure safety.
Before carrying out any excavation work/pile driving, the position, depth and size of underground structures, such as water pipes, mains, cables or other services in the vicinity to the proposed work, may be obtained from the Authority to prevent accidents to workmen engaged in excavation work and calamities for the general public.
Prior to commencement of excavation detailed data of the type of soils that are likely to be met with during excavation shall be obtained and the type of protective works by way of shoring time being, etc, shall be decided upon for the various strata that are likely to be met with during excavation shall be obtained and the type of protective works by way of shoring timbering, etc, shall be decided upon for the various strata that are likely to be encountered during excavation. For detailed information regarding safety requirements during excavation reference may be made to code of practice
1.10.2. General requirements and common hazards during excavation
(1). Location of Machinery and Tools – Excavating machinery consisting of both heavy and light types shall be kept back from the excavation site at a distance which would be safe for such type of equipment. Heavy equipment, such as excavating machinery and road traffic shall be kept back from the excavated sites at a distance of not less than the depth of trench or at least 6 m for trench deeper than 6 m. Care shall also be taken to keep excavating tools and materials far away from the edge of trench to prevent such items being inadvertently knocked into the trench.
(2). Excavated Materials – Excavated materials shall be kept back from the edges of the trench to provide clear berm of safe width. Where this is not feasible, the protective works designed for the trenches shall take into consideration, the additional load due to overburden of materials.
(3). Other Surcharges – Proximity of buildings, piles of lumber, crushed rocks, sand and other constructional materials, large trees, etc, may impose surcharges on the side of the trench to cause sliding, etc, Under these conditions additional protective works shall be provided to support the sides of the trench.
(4). Type of Strata – Adequate precautions, depending upon the type of strata met with during excavation (like quick sand, loose fills and loose boulder) shall be taken to protect the workmen during excavation. Effect of climatic variations and moisture content variations on the materials under excavation shall be constantly watched and precautions taken, where necessary, immediately to prevent accidents at work site.
(5). Overhang and Slopes – During any excavation, sufficient slopes to excavated sides by way of provision of steps or gradual slopes shall be provided to ensure the safety of men and machine working in the area.
Blasting for foundation of building is prohibited unless special permission is obtained form the Authority. Where blasting technique has to be resorted to, prior inspection for the stability of slopes shall be carried out. After blasting, overhangs or loose boulders shall be cleared by expert workers carrying out blasting prior to continuation of the excavation by normal working parties.
Burrowing or mining or what is known as ‘gophering’ shall not be allowed. In any trench where such methods have been followed, the cavities left shall be eliminated by cutting back the bare slope before removing any further material from the section of the trench.
(6). Health Hazards – Where gases or fumes are likely to be present in trenches, sufficient mechanical ventilation, to protect the health and safety of persons working thee, shall be provided. If necessary, the personnel working there, shall be provided with respiratory protective equipment when work in such unhealthy conditions has to be carried out. The precautionary measures provided shall be inspected by the local health authorities prior to commencement of the work.
(7). Safety of Materials – Materials required for excavation, like ropes, planks for gangways and walkways, ladders, etc, shall be inspected by the engineer-in-charge that shall ensure that n o accident shall occur due to the failure of such materials.
(8). Fencing and warning signals – Where excavation is going on, for the safety of public and the workmen, fencing shall be erected, if there is likelihood of the public including cattle frequenting the area. Sufficient number of notice boards and danger sign lights shall be provided in the area to avoid any member of public from inadvertently falling into the excavation. When excavations are being done on roads, diversion of the roads shall be provided with adequate notice board and lights indicating the diversion well ahead. Where necessary, resource maybe had for additional precautionary measures by way of watchmen to prevent accident to the general public, especially during hours of darkness
(9). Effect of freezing and Thawing – Due to expansion of water when freezing, rock fragments, boulders, etc, frequency loosened. Therefore, the side walls of the excavation shall be constantly watched for signs of cracks during a thaw. When depending in whole or in part on freezing to support the side walls, great care shall be taken during thews to provide suitable bracing or remedy the condition by scaling of the loose material from the sides.
(10). Vibrations from nearby sources – Vibration due to adjacent machinery, vehicles, rail-roads, blasting, piling and other sources require additional precautions to be taken.
(11). Precautions while using petroleum powered equipment – At the site of excavation, where petroleum powered equipment is used, petroleum vapors are likely to accumulate at lower levels and may cause fire explosion under favorable circumstances. Care should, therefore, be taken to avoid all sources of ignition in such places.
1.11. Piling and other deep foundations
1.11.2. Safety programme - All operations shall be carried out under the immediate charge of a properly qualified and competent foreman who shall also be responsible for the safety arrangements of the work.
For work during night, lighting of at least 100 lux intensity shall be provided at the work site.
Every crane driver or hoisting appliance operator shall be competent to the satisfaction of the engineer-in-charge and no person under the age of 21 years should be in-charge of any hoisting machine including any scaffolding winch, or give signals to operator.
Working in compressed air, in case of deep foundations, requires several precautions to be observed to safeguard the workmen against severe hazards to life, compressed air disease and related ailments. For detailed information regarding safety requirements, reference may be made to code of practice.
1.11.3. Piling Rig - Pile drivers shall not be erected in dangerous proximity to electric conductors. If two pile drivers are erected at one place these shall be separated by a distance at least equal to the longest leg in either rig.
The frame of any rig shall be structurally safe for all anticipated dead, live or wind loads. Whenever there is any doubt about the structural strength, suitable test shall be carried out by the foreman and the results of the test recorded. No pile driving equipment shall be taken into use until it has been inspected and found to be safe.
Pile drivers shall be firmly supported on heavy timber sills, concrete beds or other secure foundation. If necessary, to prevent danger, pile drivers shall be adequately guyed.
When the rig is not in use, extra precautionary measures for stability, such as securing them with minimum four guys, shall be adopted to prevent any accidents due to wind, storm, gales and earthquake.
Access to working platforms and the top pulley shall be provided by ladders. Working platforms shall be protected against the weather.
In tall driven pilling rigs or rigs of similar nature where a ladder is necessary for regular use, the ladder shall be securely fastened and extended for the full height of the rig.
Exposed gears, fly wheels, etc shall be fully enclosed.
Pile driving equipment in use shall be inspected by a competent engineer at regular intervals not exceeding three months. A register shall be maintained at the site of work for recording the results of such inspected Pile lines and pulley blocks shall be inspected by the foreman before the beginning of each shift, for any excess wear or any other defect.
Defective parts of pile drivers, such as sheaves, mechanism slings and hose shall be repaired by only competent person and duly inspected by foreman-in-charge of the rig and the results recorded in the register. No steam or air equipment shall be repaired while it is in operation or under pressure. Hoisting ropes on pile drivers shall be made of galvanized steel.
Steam and airlines shall be controlled by easily accessible shut-off valves. These lines shall consist of armored hose or its equivalent. The hose of steam and air hammers shall be securely lashed to the hammer so as to prevent it from whipping if a connection breaks. Couplings of sections of hose shall be additionally secured by ropes or chains.
When not in use the hammer shall be in dropped position and shall be held in place by a cleat, timber or another suitable means.
For every hoisting machine and for every chain rig hook, shackle, swivel and pulley block used in hoisting or as means of suspension, the safe working loads shall be ascertained. In case of doubt, actual testing shall be carried out and the working load shall be taken as half of the tested load. Every hoisting machine and all gears referred to above shall be plainly marked with the safe working load. In case of a hoisting machine having a variable safe working load, each safe working load together with the conditions under which it is applicable shall be clearly indicated. No part of any machine or any gear shall be loaded beyond the safe working load except for the purpose of testing.
Motor gearing, transmission, electrical wiring and other dangerous parts of hoisting appliances should be provided with efficient safe guards. Hoisting appliances shall be provided with such means as will reduce, to the minimum, the risk of accidental descent of the load and adequate precautions shall be taken to reduce to the minimum, the risk of any part of suspended load becoming accidentally displaced. When workers are employed on electrical installations which are already energized, insulating mats and wearing apparel, such as gloves, etc, as may be necessary, shall be provided. Sheaves on pile drivers shall be guarded so that worker may not be drawn into them. When loads have to be inclined: they shall be adequately counterbalanced, and the tilting device shall be secured against slipping.
Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent a pile driver from overturning if a wheel breaks.
Adequate precautions shall be taken by providing stirrups or by other effective means, to prevent the rope from coming out of the top pulley or wheel.
Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent the hammer from missing the pile.
If necessary, to prevent danger, long piles and heavy sheet piling should be secured against falling.
Wherever steam boilers are used, the safety regulations of boilers shall be strictly followed and safety valves shall be adjusted to 7N/cm2 in excess of working pressure accurately.
Where electricity is used as power for piling rig, only armoured cable conforming to the relevant Indian Standard shall be used and the cable shall be thoroughly waterproofed.
All checks as given in the Indian Standards and any manuals issued by the manufacturers shall be carried out.
1.11.4. Operation of equipment - Workers employed in the vicinity of pile drivers shall wear helmets conforming to accepted standards.
Pile shall be prepared at a distance at least equal to twice the length of the longest pile from the pile driver.
Piles being hoisted in the right should be so slung that they do not have to be swung or whip round. A hand rope shall be fastened to a pile that is being hoisted to control its movement. While a pile is being guided into position in the leads, workers shall not put their hands or arms between the pile and the inside guide or on top of the pile, but shall use a rope for guiding. Before a good pile is hoisted into position it shall be provided with an iron ring or cap over the driving end to prevent brooming. When creosoted wood piles are being driven, adequate precautions shall be taken, such as the provision of personal protective equipment and barrier creams, to prevent workers receiving eye or skin injuries form splashes of creosote.
When piles are driven at an inclination to the vertical, if necessary, to prevent danger, these should rest in a guide.
No steam or air shall be blown down until all workers are at a safe distance.
1.12.1. General – Depending on the type of wall to be constructed the higher of construction per day shall be restricted to ensure that the newly constructed wall does not come down due to lack of strength in the lower layers. Similarly, in long walls adequate expansion/crumple joints shall be provided to ensure safety.
1.12.2. Scaffold – Properly designed and constructed scaffolding built by competent workmen shall be proved during the construction of the walls to ensure the safety of workers. The scaffolding may be of timber or metal sections and the materials in scaffolding shall be inspected for soundness, strength, etc, at site by the engineer-in-charge prior to erection of scaffolds. Steel scaffolds intended for use in normal building construction work shall conform to accepted standards. Bamboo and timber scaffolds shall be properly tied to the junctions with coir ropes of sufficient strength or mechanical joints to ensure that joints do not give way due to the load of workmen and material. Joining the members of scaffolds only with nails shall be prohibited, as they are likely to get loose under normal weathering conditions. In the erection or maintenance of tall buildings, scaffolding shall be of non-combustible material especially when the work is being done on any building in occupation. After initial construction of the scaffolding shall be carried out to ensure that no damage has occurred to scaffolding, especially due to the weathering of coir ropes, which would endanger workmen working on the scaffolding. The platforms gangways and runways provided on the scaffoldings shall be of sufficient strength and width to ensure safe passage for the workmen working on the scaffolding. The joints provided in these gangways, platforms, etc shall be such as to ensure a firm foot-hold to the workmen. Where necessary cross bars shall be provided to the full width of gangway or runway to facilitate safe walking. For detailed information regarding safety requirements for erection, use and dismantling of scaffolds, reference may be made to code of practice.
The engineer-in-charge shall ensure by frequent inspections that gangways of scaffolding have not become slippery due to spillage of material. Loose materials shall not be allowed to remain on the gangways. Where necessary, because of height or restricted width, hand-rails shall be provided on both sides. Workers shall not be allowed to work on the scaffolding during bad weather and high winds.
In the operations involved in the erection or maintenance of outside walls, fittings, etc, of tall buildings, it is desirable to use one or more net(s) for the safety of the workmen when the workmen are required to work on scaffoldings.
1.12.3. Ladders – All ladders shall be constructed of sound materials and shall be capable of carrying their intended loads safely. The ladders shall have not only adequate strength but rigidity as well. If a ladder shows tendency to spring, a brace shall be attached to its middle and supported from some other non-yielding fixed object. No ladder having a missing or defective rung or one which depends for its support solely on nails, shall be used. Ladders shall not be used as guys, braces or skids or for any other purpose for which they are not intended. They shall not be used in horizontal position as runways. They shall not be overcrowded. Wherever possible, ladders shall not be spliced. Where splicing is unavoidable, it shall be done only under the supervision of engineer-in-charge. Ladders leading to landings or walkways shall extend at least one meter above the landing and shall be secured at the upper end, to prevent slipping a ladder shall be secured at the bottom end. If this cannot be done, a person shall be stationed, at the base whenever it is in use. As a further precaution, the pitch at which a lean-to-ladder is used shall be such that the horizontal distance of its foot from the vertical plane of its top shall be not more than one quarter of its length. If the surface of the floor on which the ladder rests is smooth or sloping, the ladder shall be provided with non-slip bases. If the use of a ladder is essential during strong winds, it shall be securely lashed in position. No ladder shall be placed or leant against window pane, sashes or such other unsafe or yielding objects, no placed in front of doors opening towards it. If set up in driveways, passage says or public walkways, it shall be protected by suitable barricades. When ascending or descending, the user shall face the ladder, use both his hands and place his feet bear the ends of the rungs rather than near the middle. It is dangerous to lean more than 30 cm to side in order to reach a larger are from a single setting of the ladder. Instead, the user shall get down and shift the ladder to the required position.
Metal ladders shall not be used around electrical equipment or circuits of any kind where there is a possibility of coming in contact with the current. Metal ladders shall be marked with signs reading ’CAUTION. DO NOT USE NEAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT’.
Wooden ladders shall be inspected at least once in a month for damage and deterioration. Close visual inspection is recommended in preference to load testing. This condition is particularly applicable to rope and bamboo ladders wherein fraying of ropes and damage to bamboo is likely to occur due to materials falling on them. When a ladder has been accidentally dropped it shall be inspected by the engineer-in-charge prior to re-use. Overhead protection shall be provided for workmen under ladder. For detailed information regarding safety requirements for use of ladders, reference may be made to good practice.
1.12.4. Opening in Walls – Whenever making of an opening in the existing wall is contemplated, adequate supports against the collapse or cracking of the wall portion above or roof or adjoining walls shall be provided.
1.12.5. Guarding of wall openings and holes – Wall opening barriers and screens shall be of such construction and mounting that they are capable of withstanding the intended loads safely. For detailed information reference may be made to code of practice. Every wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 120 cm shall be guarded by one of the following.
1.12.6. Rail, roller, picket fence, half door or equivalent barrier – The guard may be removable but should preferably hinge or otherwise mounted so as to be conveniently replaceable. Where or passing below on account of the falling materials, a removable toe board or the equivalent shall also be provided. When the opening is not in use for handling materials, the guards shall be kept in position regardless of a door on the opening. In addition, a grab handle shall be provided on each side of the opening. The opening should have a sill that projects above the floor level at least 2.5 cm.
Extension platform, into which materials may be hoisted for handling, shall be of full length of the opening and shall have side rails or equivalent guards.
Every chute wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 120 cm shall be guarded by one or more of the barriers specified in 14.4.1 or as required by the conditions.
1.12.7. Projection from walls – Whenever projections cantilever out of the walls, temporary formwork shall be provided for such projections and the same shall not be removed till walls over the projecting slabs providing stability load against overturning are completely constructed.
1.12.8. Common hazards during walling
(1). Lifting of materials for construction – Implements used for carrying materials to the top of scaffoldings shall be of adequate strength and shall not be overloaded during the work. Where workmen have to work below scaffoldings or ladder, overhead protection against the falling materials shall be provided. Care shall be taken in carrying large bars, rods, etc, during construction of the walls to prevent any damage to property or injury to workmen.
(2). Haulage of materials - In case of precast columns, steel beams, etc, proper precautions shall be taken to correctly handle, use and position them with temporary arrangement of guys till grouting of the base.
Manila or sisal rope shall not be used in rainy season for hoisting of heavy materials as they lose their strength with alternate wetting and drying.
(3). Electrical hazards – No scaffolding, ladder, working platform, gangway runs, etc, shall exist within 3 m from any uninsulated electric wire.
(4). Fire Hazards – Gangways and the ground below the scaffolding shall be kept free from readily combustible materials including waste and dry vegetation at all times. Where extensive use of blow torch or other flame is anticipated scaffoldings, gangways, etc, shall be constructed with fire resistant materials. A portable dry powder extinguisher of 3-kg capacity shall be kept handy.
(5). Mechanical Hazards – Care shall be taken to see that no part of scaffolding or walls is struck by truck or heavy moving equipment and no materials shall be dumped against them to prevent any damage. When such scaffoldings are in or near a public thoroughfare, sufficient warning lights and boards shall be provided on the scaffoldings to make them clearly visible to the public.
(6). Fragile materials – During glazing operations, adequate precautions shall be taken to ensure that the fragments of fragile materials do not cause any injury to workmen in general public in that area by way of providing covering to such material, side protection at work site, etc.
(7). Roofing - Prevention of accidental falling of workmen during the construction of roofs shall be ensured by providing platforms, catch ropes, etc. If the materials are to be hoisted form the ground level to the roof level, adequate precautions shall be taken by way of correct technique of handling. Hoists of sufficient strength to cater for the quantity of stores to be hoisted and prevention of overloading such hoists or buckets and prevention of overturning of hoists or buckets. Where in a multi-storied building, the floor of one storey is to be used for storage of materials for the construction of roofs; it shall be ensured that the quantum of stores kept on the floor along with the load due to personnel engaged in the construction work shall not exceed the rated capacity of the floors.
While roofing work is being done with corrugated galvanized irom or asbestos cement sheets, it shall be ensured that joints are kept secured in position and do not slip, should not be allowed to walk on asbestos cement sheets but should be provided with walking boards. While working with tiles, it shall be ensured that they are not kept loose on the roof site resulting in falling of tiles on workmen in lower area. In slopes of more than 30º to the horizontal, the workmen shall use ladders or other safety devices to work on the roof.
If any glass work is to be carried out in the roof, it shall be ensured that injury to passerby due to breaking of glass is prevented. During wet conditions, the workmen shall be allowed to proceed to work on a sloping roof, only if the engineer-in-charge has satisfied himself that the workmen are not likely to slip due to wet conditions.
(8). Flat Roof – In any type of flat roof construction, any formwork provided shall be properly designed and executed to ensure that it does not collapse during construction. During actual construction of roof, frequent inspection of the formwork shall be carried out to ensure that no damage has occurred to it.
While using reinforcement in roofs, it shall be ensured that enough walking platforms are provided in the reinforcement area to ensure safe walking to the concreting area. Loose wires and unprotected rod ends shall be avoided.
(9). Guarding of floor openings and floor holes - Every temporary floor opening shall have railings, or shall be constantly attended by someone. Every floor hole into which persons can accidentally fall shall be guarded by either a railing with toe board on all exposed sides, or a floor hole cover of adequate strength and it should be hinged din place, the floor hole shall be constantly attended by some one or shall be protected by a removable railing.
Every stairway floor opening shall be guarded by a railing on all exposed sides, except at entrance to stairway. Every ladder way floor opening or platform shall be guarded by a guard railing with toe board on all exposed sides ( except at entrance to opening), with the passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or so offset that a person can not walk directly into the opening.
(10). Guarding of open-side floors and platform - Every open-sided floor or platform 120 cm or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a railing ( or the equivalent) or all open sides, except where there is entrance to ramp, stair-way, or fixed ladder. The railing shall be provided with a toe board beneath the open sides wherever,
For detailed information, reference may be made to code of practice.
1.13. Additional safety requirements for erection of concrete framed structures (high-rise building)
1.13.1. Handling of Plant
(1). Mixers - All gears, chains and rollers of mixers shall be properly guarded. If the mixer has a charging skip the operator shall ensure that the workmen are out of danger before the skip if lowered. Railings shall be provided on the ground to prevent anyone walking under the skip while it is being lowered.
All cables, clamps, hooks, wire ropes, gears and clutches, etc, of the mixer, shall be checked and cleaned, oiled and greased and serviced once a weak. A trial run of the mixer shall be made and defects shall be removed before operating a mixer.
When workmen are cleaning the inside of the drums, and operating power of the mixer shall be locked in the off position and all fuses shall be removed and a suitable notice hung at the place.
(2). Cranes - Crane rails where used shall be installed on firm ground and shall be properly secured. In case of tower cranes, it shall be ensured that the level difference between the two rails remains within the limits prescribed by the manufacturer to safeguard against toppling of the crane.
Electrical wiring which can possibly touch the crane or any member being lifted shall be removed, or made dead by removing the controlling fuses and in their absence controlling switches.
All practical steps shall be taken to prevent the cranes being operated in dangerous proximity to a live overhead power line. In particular, no member of the crane shall be permitted to approach within the minimum safety distances as laid down in 4.18(a).
If it becomes necessary to operate the cranes with clearances less than those specified above, it shall be ensured that the overhead power lines shall invariably be shut off during the period of operation of cranes. Location of any underground power cables in the area of operation shall also be ascertained and necessary safety precautions shall be taken.
Cranes shall not be used at a speed which causes the boom to swing.
A crane shall be thoroughly examined at least once in a period of 6 months by a competent person who shall record a certificate of the check.
The operator of the crane shall follow the safe reach of the crane as shown by the manufacturer.
No person shall be lifted or transported by the crane on its hook or boom.
Toe boards and limit stops should be provided for wheel barrows on the loading/unloading platforms. Material should be loaded securely with no projections.
Concrete buckets handled by crane or overhead cableway shall be suspended from deep throated hooks, preferably equipped with swivel and safety latch. In the concrete buckets, both bottom drop type and side drop type, closing and locking of the exit door of the bucket shall always be checked by the man-in-charge of loading concrete in the bucket to avoid accidental opening of the exit door and consequence falling of concrete. Interlocking or other safety devices should be installed at all stopping points of the hoists. The hoists shaft way should be fenced properly.
When the bucket or other members being lifted are out of sight of the crane operator, a signalman shall be posted in clear view of the receiving area and the crane operator.
A standard code of hand signals shall be adopted in controlling the movements of the crane, and both the driver and the signaler shall be thoroughly familiar with the signals.
The driver of the crane shall respond to signals only from the appointed signaler but shall obey stop signal at any time to no matter who gives it.
If a travelling gantry crane is operating over casting beds, a warning signal which sounds automatically during travel should be provided to avoid accidents to workmen crossing or standing in the path of the moving loads.
(3). Trucks - When trucks are being used on the site, traffic problems shall be taken care of. A reasonably smooth traffic surface shall be provided. If practicable, a loop road shall be provided to permit continuous operation of vehicles and to eliminate their backing. If a continuous loop is not possible, a turnout shall be provided. Backing operations shall be controlled by a signalman positioned so as to have a clear view of the area behind the truck and to be clearly visible to the truck driver. Movement of workmen and plant shall be routed to avoid crossing, as much as possible, the truck lanes.
Formwork shall be designed after taking into consideration spans, setting temperature of concrete, dead load and working load to be supported and safety factor for the materials used for formwork.
All timber formwork shall be carefully inspected before use and members haing cracks and excessive knots shall be discarded.
As timber centering usually takes an initial set when vertical load is applied, the design of this centering shall make allowance for this factor.
The vertical supports shall be adequately braced or otherwise secured in position that these do not fall when the load gets released or the supports are accidently hit.
Tubular steel centering shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. When tubular steel and timber centering is to be used in combination necessary precautions shall be taken to avoid any unequal settlement under load.
A thorough inspection of tubular steel centering is necessary before its erection and members showing evidence of excessive resting, kinks, dents or damaged welds shall be discarded. Buckled or broken members shall be replaced. Care shall also be taken that locking devices are in good working order and that coupling pins are effectively aligned to frames.
After assembling the basic unit, adjustment screws shall be set to their approximate final adjustment and the unit shall be level and plumb so that when additional frames are installed the tower shall be in level and plumb. The centering frames shall be tied together with sufficient braces to make a rigid struts and diagonals braces are in proper position and are secured so that frames develop full load carrying capacity. As erection progresses, all connecting devices shall be in place and shall be fastened for full stability of joints and units. In case of timber posts, vertical joints shall be properly designed. The connections shall normally be with bolts and nuts. Use of rusted or spoiled threaded bolts and nuts shall be avoided.
Unless the timber centering is supported by a manufacturer’s certificate about the loads it can stand, centering shall be designed by a competent engineer.
Centering layout shall be made by a qualified engineer and shall be strictly followed. The bearing capacity of the soil shall be kept in view for every centering job. The effect of weather conditions shall also be taken into consideration as dry clay may become very plastic after a rainfall and show marked decrease in its bearing capacity.
Sills under the supports shall be set on firm soil or other suitable material in a pattern which assures adequate stability for all props. Care shall be taken not to disturb the soil under the supports. Adequate drainage shall be provided to drain away water coming due to rains, washing of forms or during the curing of the concrete to avoid softening of the supporting soil strata.
All centering shall be finally, inspected to ensure that:
During pouring of the concrete, the centering shall be constantly inspected and strengthened, if required, wedges below the vertical supports tightened and adjustment screws properly adjusted as necessary. Adequate protection of centering shall be secured from moving vehicles or swinging loads.
Forms shall not be removed earlier than as laid down in the specifications and until it is certain that the concrete has developed sufficient strength to support itself and all loads that will be imposed on it. Only workmen actually engaged in removing the formwork shall be allowed in the area during these operations. Those engaged in removing the formwork shall wear helmets, gloves and heavy soled shoes and approved safety belts if adequate footing is not provided above 2 m level. While cutting any tying wires in tension, care shall be taken to prevent backlash which might hit a workman.
The particular order in which the supports are to be dismantled should be followed according to the instructions of the site engineer.
1.15. Ramps and Gangways
Ramps and gangways shall be adequate strength and evenly supported. They shall either have a sufficiently flat slop or shall have cleats fixed to the surface to prevent slipping of workmen. Ramps and gangways shall be kept free from grease, mud, snow or other slipping hazards or other obstructions leading to tripping and accidental fall of workman.
Ramps and gangways meant for transporting materials shall have even surface and be of sufficient width and provided with skirt boards on open sides.
1.16. Prestressed Concrete
1.16.1. In pre-stressing operations, operating maintenance and replacement instructions of the supplier of the equipment shall be strictly adhered to.
Extreme caution shall be exercised in all operations involving the use of stressing equipment as wires/strands under high tensile stresses become a lethal weapon.
During the jacking operation of any tensioning element(s) the anchor shall be kept turned up close to anchor plate, wherever possible, to avoid serious damage if a hydraulic line fails.
Pulling-headers, bolts and hydraulic jacks/rams shall be inspected for signs of deformation and failure. Threads on bolts and nuts should be frequently inspected for diminishing cross section. Choked units shall be carefully cleaned.
Care shall be taken that no one stands in line with the tensioning elements and jacking equipment during the tensioning operations and that no one is directly over the jacking equipment when deflection is being done. Signs and barriers shall be provided to prevent workmen from working behind the jacks when the stressing operation is in progress.
Necessary shields should be put up immediately behind the prestressing jacks during stressing operations.
Wedges and other temporary anchoring devices shall be inspected before use.
The prestressing jacks shall be periodically examined for wear and tear.
1.16.2. Erection of Prefabricated members - A spreader beam shall be used wherever possible so that the cable can be as perpendicular to the members being lifted as practical. The angle between the cable and the members to be lifted shall not be less than 60º.
The lifting wires shall be tested for double the load to be handled at least once in six months. The guy line shall be of adequate strength to perform is function of controlling the movement of members being lifted.
Temporary scaffolding of adequate strength shall be used to support precast members at predetermined supporting points while lifting and placing them in position and connecting them to other members.
After erection of the member, it shall be guyed and braced to prevent it from being tipped or dislodged by accidental impact when setting the next member.
Precast concrete units shall be handled at specific picking points and with specific devices. Girders and beams shall be braced during transportation and handled in such a way as to keep the members upright.
Methods of assembly and erection specified by the designer, shall be strictly adhered to at site. Immediately on erecting any unit in position, temporary connections or supports as specified shall be provided before releasing the lifting equipment. The permanent structural connections shall be established at the earliest opportunity.
1.17. Heated concrete
When heaters are being used to heat aggregates and other materials and to maintain proper curing temperatures, the heaters shall be frequently checked for functioning and precautions shall be taken to avoid hazards in using coal, liquid, gas or any other fuel.
1.18. Structural connections
When reliance is placed on bond between precast and in situ concrete the contact surface of the precast units shall be suitably prepared in accordance with the specifications
The packing of joints shall be carried out in accordance with the assembly instructions.
Leveling devices, such as wedges and nuts which have no load bearing function in the completed structure shall be released or removed as necessary prior to integrating the joints.
If it becomes necessary to use electric power for in situ work, the same should be stepped down to a safe level as far as possible.
General – Workmen working in any position where there is a falling hazard shall wear safety belts or other adequate protection shall be provided.
1.19. Additional safety requirements for erection of structural steel work
1.19.1. Safety organization – The agency responsible for erecting the steel work should analyze the proposed erection scheme for safety; the erection scheme should cover safety aspects right from the planning stage up to the actual execution of the work.
1.19.2. Safety of men
General – While engaging men for the job the supervisor should check up and make sure that they are skilled in the particular job they have to perform.
The helmets shall be worn properly and at all times during the work and shall conform to the accepted standards.
The safety goggles shall be used while performing duties which are hazardous to eye like drilling, cutting and welding. The goggles used shall conform to the accepted standards and should suit individual workers.
The welders and gas cutters shall be equipped with proper protective equipment like gloves, safety boots, aprons and hand shields. the filter glass of the hand shield shall conform to the accepted standards and should be suitable to the eyes of the particular worker.
When the work is in progress, the area shall be cordoned off by barricades to prevent persons from hitting against structural components, or falling into excavated trenches or getting injured by falling objects.
Warning signs shall be displayed where necessary to indicate hazards, for example (a) ‘440 VOLTS’, (b) ‘DO NOT SMOKE’, (c) ‘MEN WORKING AHEAD’, etc. Hand lamps shall be of low voltage preferably 24 V prevent electrical hazards.
All electrically operated hand tools shall be provided with double earthling.
Anchors for guys or ties shall be checked for proper placement. The weight of concrete in which the anchors are embedded shall be checked for uplift and sliding.
Split-end eye anchors shall only be used in good, solid rock.
The first load lifted by a guy derrick shall be kept at a small height for about 10 minutes and the anchors immediately inspected for any signs or indications of failure.
When a number of trusses or deep girders are loaded in one car or on one truck, all but one being lifted shall be tied back unless they have been tied or braced to prevent their falling over and endangering men unloading.
The erection gang shall have adequate supply of bolts, washers, rivets, pins, etc, of the correct size. Enough number of bolts shall be used in connecting each piece using a minimum of two bolts in a pattern to ensure that the joint will not fail due to dead load and erection loads. All splice connections in columns, crane girders, etc, shall be completely bolted or riveted or welded as specified in the drawing before erection.
Girders and other heavy complicated structural members may require special erection devices like cleats and hooks, which can be shop assembled and bolted or riveted or welded to the piece and may be left permanently in the place after the work.
If a piece is laterally unstable when picked at its centre, use of a balance beam is advisable, unless a pair of bridles slings can be placed far enough apart for them to be safe lifting points. The top flange of a truss, girder or long beam may be temporarily reinforced with a structural member laid flat on top of the member and secured temporarily.
On deep girders, and even on some trusses, a safety ‘bar’ running their full length ill aid the riggers, fitters and others employed on the bottom flange or bottom chord to work with greater safety. This can be a single 16 mm diameter wire rope through vertical stiffeners of such members about one meter above the bottom flange and clamped at the ends with wire rope clamps. If the holes cannot be provided, short eye bolts can be welded to the webs of the girder at intervals to be removed and the surface chipped or ground to leave it smooth after all work on the piece has been completed.
Safety belts shall always be available at work sport to be used whenever necessary. The rope shall be chemically treated to resist dew and rotting. These shall not be tied on sharp edges of steel structures. They shall be tied generally not more than 2 to 3 m away from the belt.
On a guy derrick or climbing crane job, the tool boxes used by the reaction staff shall be moved to the new working floor each time the rig is changed. On a mobile crane job, the boxes shall be moved as soon as the crane starts operating in a new area too far away for the men to reach the boxes conveniently. While working a tall and heavy guy derrick, it is advisable to control tension in guys by hand winches to avoid jerks, which may cause an accident.
The proper size, number and spacing of wire rope clamps shall be used, depending on the diameter of the wire rope. They shall be properly fixed in accordance with codes of good practice. They shall be checked as soon as the rope has been stretched, as the rope especially if new, tends to stretch under the applied load, which in turn may cause it to shrink slightly in diameter. The clamps shall them be promptly tightened to take care of this new condition. In addition, the clamps shall be inspected frequently to be sure that they have not slipped and are tight enough.
When the men can work safely from the steel structure itself, this is preferable to hanging platforms or scaffolds, as it eliminates additional operations, which in turn, reduces the hazard of an accident.
To aid men working on floats or scaffolds, as well as men in erection gangs, or other gangs using small material, such as bolts and drift pins, adequate bolt baskets or similar containers with handles of sufficient strength and attachment to carry the loaded containers, shall be provided.
The men should be trained to use such containers, and to keep small tolls gathered up and put away in tool boxes when not in use. Material shall not be dumped overboard when a scaffold is to be moved. Rivet heaters shall have sage containers or buckets for hot rivets over at the end of the day.
During the erection of tall buildings, it is desirable to use nylon nets at a height of 3 to 4 m to provide safety to men.
1.19.3. Safety against fire - A fire protection procedure is to be set up if there is to be any flame cutting, burning, heating, riveting or any operation that could start a fire. For precautions to be observed during welding and cutting operations, reference may be made to good practice.
The workers should be instructed not to throw objects like hot rivets, cigarette stubs, etc, around.
Sufficient fire extinguishers, preferably, of soda acid type shall be placed at strategic points. Extinguishers shall always be placed in cranes, hoists, compressors and similar places. Where electrical equipments are involved, CO2 or dry powder extinguishers shall be provided.
Riding on a load, tackle or runner shall be prohibited.
The load shall never be allowed to rest on wire ropes. Ropes in operation should not be touched. Wire rope with broken strand shall not be used for erection work. Wire ropes/manila ropes conforming to acceptable standards shall be used for guying.
1.20. Lifting appliances.
Slinging – Chains shall not be joined by bolting or wiring links together. they shall not be shortened by tying knots. A chain, in which the links are locked, stretched or do not move freely shall not be used. The chain shall be free of kinks and twists. Proper eye splices shall be used to attach the chain hooks.
Pulley blocks of the proper size shall be used to allow the rope free play in the sheave grooves and to protect the wire rope from sharp bends under load. Idle sling should not be carried on the crane hook along with a loaded sling. When idle slings are carried they shall be hooked.
While using multilegged slings, each sling or leg shall be loaded evenly and the slings shall be of sufficient length to avoid a wide angle between the legs.
1.21. Riveting operations
1.21.1. Handling rivets – Care shall be taken while handling rivets so that they do not fall, strike or cause injury to men and material below. Rivet catchers shall have false wooden bottoms to prevent rivets from rebounding.
1.21.2. Riveting dollies – Canvas, leather or rope slings shall be used for riveting dollies. Chain shall not be used for the purpose.
1.21.3. Riveting hammers – Snaps and plungers of pneumatic rivetting hammers shall be secured to prevent the snap from dropping out of place. The nozzle of the hammer shall be inspected periodically and the wire attachment renewed when born.
1.21.4. Fire protection – the rivet heating equipment should be as near as possible to the place of work. A pail of water shall always be kept ready for quenching the fire during riveting operations and to prevent fires when working near inflammable materials.
1.22. Sprayer, spreader / pavers
1.22.1. Sprayer–The sprayer shall be provided with a fire resisting screen. The screen shall have an observation window. Piping for ht tar and bitumen shall be adequately insulated to protect workers from injury by burns. Flexible piping work under positive pressure shall be of metal which shall be adequately insulated. Workers shall not be adequately insulated. Workers shall not stand facing the wind direction while spraying hot binder, lest it may fall on them causing burns.
1.22.2. Spreader / pavers–Spreaders in operation shall be protected by signals, sings or other effective means. People should be warned against walking over hot mixture laid. Gravel spreaders shall always keep a safe distance from sprayer. Elevated platforms on spreaders shall be protected by suitable railing and be provided with an access ladder
1.22.4. Equipment for heating of bitumen and tars - Tanks, vats, kettles, pots, drums and other vessels for heating tar, bitumen and other bituminous materials shall be:
a) adequately resistant to damage by heat, transportation, etc;
b) capable of holding a full load without danger of collapse, bursting or distortion;
c) provided with a close fitting cover suitable for smothering a fire tin the vessel or protection from rain; and
d) leak proof and provided with suitable outlets which can be controlled for taking out the hot material.
Suitable indication gauges shall be used to ascertain level and temperature of the material in the boiler. On n account shall workers be allowed to peep into the boiler for this purpose. For ascertaining levels, in small plants, dipstick may also be used.
Gas and oil-fired bitumen and tar kettles or ports shall be equipped with burners, regulators and safety devices of types approved by the Authority. Heating appliances for vessels shall distribute the heat uniformly over the heating surface so as to avoid overheating. In case of bituminous mixtures using mineral aggregates filler together with bitumen, it is preferable to have some means for stirring as well. Only vessels heated by electricity shall be used inside buildings. Tar boilers shall never be used on combustible roof.
Buckets for hot bitumen, bituminous materials or tar shall have:
a) the bail or handle firmly secured, and
b) a second handle near the bottom for tipping.
Bitumen or tar boilers mounted on wheels for easy transport or towing shall preferably be provided with hand pumps for spraying purposes.
Vessels in operation shall be kept at a safe distance from combustible materials. When vessels are used in confined spaces, the gases, fumes and smoke generated shall be removed by exhaust ventilation or by forced ventilation. Vessels that are being heated shall not be left unattended. Pieces of bituminous materials shall not be thrown into the hot vessels so as to cause splashing. Covers shall be kept closed when vessels are not in use. Containers shall not be filled with hot bitumen or tar to a level that might cause danger when they are carried or hoisted. Enough space shall be left in vessels for expansion of binder when heated.
Bitumen/ tar shall kept dry and to avoid fire due to foaming, boiler shall have a device that prevents form from reaching the burners or anti-foaming agents shall be used to control the same. Alternatively to avoid fire due to foaming, the heating shall be at low temperature till the water entrapped, if any, is completely evaporated. Any water present in the boiler shall also be drained before using it for heating binders. No open light shall be used for ascertaining the level of binder in boilers. If a burner goes out, the fuel supply shall be cut off and the heating tube shall be thoroughly blown out by the fan so as to prevent a back fire.
Cutbacks shall not be heated over an open flame unless a water jacket is used. While they are being heated the vessel shall be kept open.
Piping shall not be warmed with burning rags and instead blow-lamps or similar devices shall be used.
Spilled bitumen or tar shall be promptly cleaned up around boilers.
Inspection openings shall not be opened while there is any pressure in the boiler.
When tanks are cleaned by steam, adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent any build up of pressure.
1.22.5.Handling Bitumen/Tar– Bitumen/tar shall not be heated beyond the temperature recommended by the manufacturer of the product. While discharging heated binder from the boiler, workers shall not stand opposite to the jet so as to avoid the possibility of hot binder falling on them. The container shall be handled only after closing the control valve. While handling hot bitumen tar, workers shall exercise scrupulous care to prevent accidental spillage thereof. The buckets and cans in which the hot material is carried from boiler shall be checked before used to ensure that they are intact and safe. Mops and other applicators contaminated with bituminous materials shall not be stored inside buildings.
1.22.6. Bitumen plants – Safety requirements shall be in accordance with good practice (21).
1.23.1. Painting, Polishing and Other Finishes – Only the quantity of paint, thinner and polish required for the day’s work should be kept at the work spot.
All containers of paint, thinner and polish which are not in actual use should be closed with tight fitting lids and kept at a safe place away from the actual work site.
A 5 kg dry powder fire extinguisher conforming to acceptable standards (22) shall be kept handy.
Metal receptacles with pedal operated metal lids shall be kept handy at the work site for depositing used cotton rags/waste. The contents of such receptacles shall be disposed off before the end of each day’s work at a safe place, preferably by burning under proper supervision.
All containers of paint shall be removed from the work site and deposited in the paint store before the close of day’s work. Used paint brushes shall be cleaned and deposited in the store along with the containers
Some paints/polishing and finishing materials are injurious to the health of workmen. Adequate protective clothing, respiratory equipment, etc, shall be provided for the use of workmen during such operations where necessary.
1.24. Fragile fixtures - It shall be ensured that sufficient number of workmen and equipment are provided to carry the fragile fixtures like sanitary fittings, glass panes, etc, to prevent injury to workmen due to accidental dropping of such fixtures.
1.25. Safety in special operations - Safety in compressed air work, drilling, blasting and welding operations shall be in accordance with good practice.
1.26. Electrical installations and lifts
1.26.1. Temporary electrical wiring - Frayed and/or bare wires shall not be used for temporary electrical connections during construction. All temporary wiring shall be installed and supervised by a competent electrician. Adequate protection shall be provided for all electrical wiring laid on floor which may have to be crossed over by construction machinery or by the workmen. All flexible wiring connecting the electrical appliances shall have adequate mechanical strength and shall preferably be enclosed in a flexible metal sheath. Overhead wires/cables shall be so laid that they leave adequate head room.
All electrical circuits, other than those required for illumination of the site at night, hall be switched off at the close of day’s work. The main switch board from which connections are taken for lighting, power operated machinery, etc, shall be located in an easily accessible and prominent place. No article of clothing nor stores shall be kept at the back of or over the board or anywhere near it. One 3-kg/4.5-kg CO2 extinguisher or one 5-kg dry powder extinguisher shall be provided bear the switch board.
1.26.2. Permanent electrical Installations – Besides the fire safety measures for electrical installations covered under 23.1, safety in electric installations in buildings and installations of lifts shall be in accordance with relevant specifications.
1.27. General requirements
1.27.1. Sanitation – a) Adequate toilet facilities shall be provided for the workmen within easy access of their place of work. The total number to be provided shall be not less than one per 30 employees in any one site. b) Toilet facilities shall be provided from the start of building operations, and connection to a sewer shall be made as soon as practicable. c) Every toilet shall be so constructed that the occupant is sheltered from view and protected from the weather and falling objects. d) Toilet facilities shall be maintained in a sanitary condition. A sufficient quantity of disinfectant shall be provided. e) An adequate supply of drinking water shall be provided, and unless connected to a municipal water supply, samples of the water shall be tested at frequent intervals by the authority. f) Washing facilities shall be installed, and when practicable shall be connected to municipal water supply and shall discharge to a sewer. g) Natural or artificial illumination shall be provided.
1.27.2. Fire Protection - In addition to the provision of fire extinguishers, as specified in this part of the Code, other fire extinguishing equipment shall also be provided and conveniently located within the building under construction or on the building site, as required by the Authority. All fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a serviceable condition at all times in accordance with good practice.
It shall be ensured that all workmen and supervisory staff are fully conversant with the correct operation and use of fire extinguishers provided at the construction site.
Access shall be provided and maintained at all times to all fire fighting equipment, including fire hose, extinguishers, sprinkler valves and hydrants.
Where the building plans require the installation of fixed fire fighting equipment, such as hydrants, standpipes, sprinklers and underground water mains or other suitable arrangements for provision of water shall be installed.
A stand pipe system ( landing valves), permanent in nature shall be installed and made available before the building has reached the height of 15 m above the grade, and carried up with each floor.
The standpipe (landing valve/internal fire hydrant) and its installation shall conform to the accepted standards.
The standpipe shall be carried up with each floor and securely capped at the top. Top house outlets, should at all times, be not more than one floor below the floor under construction.
A substantial box, preferably of metal, should be provided and maintained near each hose outlet. The box should contain adequate lengths of hose to reach all parts of the floor as well as a short branch fitted with 12 or 20 mm nozzle.
Close liaison shall be maintained with the local Fire Brigade, during construction of all buildings above 15 m in height and special occupancies, like educational, assembly, institutional, industrial, storage, hazardous and mixed occupancies with any of the aforesaid occupancies having area more than 500 m2 on each floor.
It is desirable that telephone system or other means of inter-communication system be provided during the construction of all buildings over 15 m in height or buildings having a plinth area in excess of 1000 m2.
All work waste, such as scrap timber, wood shavings, sawdust, paper, packing materials and oily waste shall be collected and disposed of safely at the end of each day’s work. Particular care shall be taken to remove all waste accumulation in or near vertical shaft openings like stairways, lift-shaft, etc.
An independent water storage facility shall be provided before the commencement of construction operations for fire-fighting purposes. It shall be maintained and be available for use at all times.
1.28. Fire cut-offs–Fire walls and exit stairways required for a building should be given construction priority. Where fire doors, with or without automatic closing devices, are stipulated in the building plans they should be hung as soon as practicable and before any significant quantity of combustible material is introduced in the building.
As the work progress, the provision of permanent stairways, stairway enclosures, fire walls and other features of the completed structure which will prevent the horizontal and vertical spread of fire should be ensured.
1.28.1. Clothing - It shall be ensured that the clothes worn by the workmen be not of such nature as to increase the chances of their getting involved in accident to themselves or to others. As a rule, wearing of chaddars or loose garments shall be prohibited.
Workmen engaged in processes which splash liquid or other materials which will injure the skin shall have enough protective clothing to cover the body.
Individuals engaged in work involving use of naked flames (such as welding) shall not wear synthetic fibre or similar clothing which increases the risk of fire hazards.
1.29. Construction machinery - Specification and requirements of construction machinery used in construction or demolition work shall conform to accepted standards.
For safety requirements for working with construction machinery, reference may be made to good practice.
Petroleum powered air compressors, hoists, derricks, pumps, etc, shall be so located that the exhausts are well away from combustible materials. Where the exhausts are pipes to outside the building under construction, a clearance of at least 15 cm shall be maintained between such piping and combustible material.
1.30.1. General - This section lays down the safety requirements for carrying out demolition/dismantling work.
1.30.2. Planning and Permit – Before beginning the actual work of demolition a careful and detailed study shall be made of the structure to be demolished including its surroundings. While working out the plan of demolition, safety of adjoining structures shall be ensured. The final plan of sequence of operation shall be approved by the engineer-in-charge. Variance from the approved plan shall not be permitted without the approval of the engineer-in-charge.
Before commencing demolition work, permit where required, shall be obtained from the Authority and posted prominently at site.
1.30.3. Precautions prior to demolition - If the structure to be demolished is one which may have got hidden damages, caused by fire, flood or earthquake, measures necessary to prevent accidental collapse by way of bracing shoring, etc, and shall be provided.
When demolition by explosives has to be resorted to, this shall be done only after the approval of the Authority and after taking necessary precautions. For detailed information reference may be made to good practice.
Prominent danger signs shall be posted all round the property and all openings giving access to the structures shall be kept barricade or manned except during the actual passage of workmen or equipment. However, provision shall be made for at least two independent exists for escape of workmen during any emergency. During night, warning lights shall be placed on or above all barricades.
Al l gas, water, electricity, steam and other service lines shall be shut off outside the property line after notifying the service companies and concerned authorities and obtaining their approval. Any temporary service connections required for the demolition work shall be separately taken and arranged in such a manner as to afford safety to the workmen.
When work is not in progress, watchmen shall be provided to prevent unauthorized entry of the public in the danger zone.
All necessary safety appliances shall be issued to the workers prior to starting of work.
Suitable safety precautions for fire shall be provided. Clothing for workmen shall conform to prescribed specifications.
1.30.4. Protection of the Public - Safety distances to ensure safety of the public shall be clearly marked and prominently sign posted. Every sidewalk or road adjacent to the work shall be closed or protected. All main roads, which are open to the public shall be kept open to the public clear and unobstructed at all times. Diversions for pedestrians shall be constructed, where necessary for safety.
If the structure to be demolished is more than two storied or 7.5 m high, measured from the side walk or street which can not be closed or safety diverted, and the horizontal distance from the inside of the sidewalk to the structure is 4.5 m or less, a substantial sidewalk shed shall be constructed over the entire length of the sidewalk adjacent to the structure, of sufficient width with a view to accommodating the pedestrian traffic without causing congestion. The sidewalk shed shall be lighted sufficiently to ensure safety at all times. For detailed information reference may be made to good practice.
When the horizontal distance from the inside of the sidewalk to the structure is more than 4.5 m and less than 7.5 m, a sidewalk shed or fence may be built or in place of such a shed or fence a substantial railing shall be constructed on the inside of the sidewalk or roadway along the entire length of the demolition side of the property with movable bars as may be necessary for the proper prosecution of the work.
1.30.5. Precautions during demolition - Prior to commencement of work, all material of fragile nature like glass shall be removed.
All openings shall be boarded up.
Dust shall be controlled by suitable means to prevent harm to workmen.
Stacking of materials or debris shall be within safe limits of the structural member. Additional supports, where necessary, shall be given.
Adequate natural or artificial lighting and ventilation shall be provided for the workmen.
1.30.6. Sequence of demolition operations - The demolition shall always proceed systematically storey by storey, in the descending order. All work in the upper floor shall be completed and approved by the engineer-in-charge prior to disturbance to any supporting member on the lower floor. Demolition of the structure in sections may be permitted in exceptional cases if proper precautions are ensured to prevent injuries t persons and damage to property.
(1). Walls - Walls shall be removed part by part in reasonably level courses. They shall not be allowed to fall in large masses which endangers the adjoining property or exceeds the safe loads of the floors below. Debris shall be removed at frequent intervals to prevent overloading of any structural member.
Stages shall be provided for the men to work on if the walls are less than one and a half brick thick and dangerous to work by standing over them.
Adequate lateral bracing shall be provided for walls which are unsound.
(2). Flooring - Prior to removal of masonry or concrete floor adequate support centering shall be provided.
Planks of sufficient strength shall be provided to give workmen firm support to guard against any unexpected floor collapse.
When floors are being removed no person shall be allowed to work in and area directly underneath and access to such area shall be barricaded.
(3). Catch platform - In demolition of exterior walls of multistory structures, catch platform of sufficient strength to prevent injuries to workers below and public shall be provided.
Materials shall not be dumped on the catch platform nor shall they be used for storage of materials.
(4). Stairs, passageways and ladders - Stairs with railings, passageways and ladders shall be left in place as long as possible maintained in a safe condition.
1.30.7. Demolition of certain special types and elements of structures
(1). Roof Trusses–If a building has a pitched roof, the structure should be removed to wall plate level by hand methods. Sufficient purlins and bracing should be retained to ensure stability of the remaining roof trusses while each individual truss is removed progressively.
Temporary bracing should be added, where necessary, to maintain stability. The end frame opposite to the end where dismantling is commenced, or convenient intermediate frame should be independently and securely guyed in both directions before work starts.
On no account should the bottom tie of roof trusses be cut until the principal rafters are prevented from making out ward movement.
Adequate hoisting gears suitable for the loads shall be provided. If during demolition any thing is to be put on the floor below the level of the truss, it shall be ensured that the floor is capable of taking the load.
Heavy Floor Beams – Heavy baulks of timber and steel beams should be supported before cutting at the extremities and should then be lowered gently to a safe working place.
Jack Arches – Where tie rods are present between main supporting beams, these should not be cut until after the arch or series of arches in the floor have been removed The floor should be demolished in strips parallel to the span of the arch rings ( at right angles to the main floor beams).
(2). Brick Arches – Expert advice should be obtained and, all at all stages of the demolition, the closest supervision should be given by persons fully experienced and conversant in the type of work to ensure that the structure is stable at all times.
However, the following points may be kept in view.
On no account should the restraining influence of the abutments be removed before the dead load of the spandrel fill and the arch rings are removed.
A single span arch can be demolished by hand by cutting narrow segments progressively from each springing parallel to the span of the arch, until the width of the arch has been reduced to a minimum which can then be collapsed.
Where deliberate collapse is feasible, the crown may be broken by the demolition ball method working progressively from edges to the centre.
Collapse of the structure can be effected in one action by the use of explosives. Charges should be inserted into bore holes drilled in both arch and abutments.
In multi-span arches, before individual arches are removed, lateral restraint should be provided at the springing level. Demolition may then proceed as for single span; where explosives are used it is preferable t ensure the collapse of the whole structure in one operation to obviate the chance of leaving unstable portion standing.
(3). Cantilever (Not part of a framed structure)–Canopies, cornices, staircases and balconies should be demolished or supported before tailing down load is removed.
(4). In-situ reinforced concrete – Before commencing demolition, the nature and condition of the concrete, the condition and position of reinforcement, and the possibility of lack of continuity of reinforcement should be ascertained.
Demolition should be commenced by removing partitions and external non-load bearing cladding.
(5). Reinforced concrete beams - A supporting rope should be attached to the beam. Then the concrete should be removed from both ends by pneumatic drill and the reinforcement exposed. The reinforcement should then be cut in such a way as to allow the beam to be lowered under control to the floor.
(6). Reinforced concrete column-the reinforcement should be exposed at the base after restraining wire guy ropes have been placed round the member at the top. The reinforcement should then be out in such a way as to allow it to be pulled down to the floor under control.
(7). Reinforced concrete walls–These should be cut into strips and demolished as for columns.
(8). Suspended floors and roofs - The slab should be cut into strips parallel to the main reinforcement and demolished strip by strip. Where ribbed construction has been used, the principle of design and method of construction should be determined before demolition is commenced. Care should be taken not to cut the ribs inadvertently.
(9). Precast reinforced concrete–Due precautions shall be taken to avoid toppling over of prefabricated units or any other part of the structure and whenever necessary temporary supports shall be provided.
(10). Prestressed reinforced Concrete–Before commencing of the demolition work, advice of an engineering expert in such demolition shall be obtained and followed.
1.30.8. Lowering, removal and disposal of materials - As far as possible no material shall be dropped. They shall be lowered either by containers, ropes and tackles or chutes properly designed. Chutes, if provided at an angle of more than 45 from horizontal, shall be entirely closed on all the four sides except for opening for receiving the material. The chute opening shall kept locked except when in use. The top opening of chute for dumping of material shall be protected with guard rails. Debris may also be dropped through holes in the floor, if absolutely necessary. When such a method is adopted precautions shall be protected with guard rails. Debris may also be dropped through holes in the floor, if absolutely necessary. When such a method is adopted precautions shall be taken to avoid overloading of the floor, shall be adequately protected to prevent injury to persons.
Debris shall be removed at the earliest to ensure safe and adequate working space. Debris shall be removed from the site in stages as not to be of nuisance to the public. Care shall be taken that material like glass, nails, etc, are not strewn about and cause injury to workmen or public.
Stacking of material shall cater for fire prevention.
1.30.9. Mechanical demolition - When demolition is to be performed by mechanical devices, such as weight ball, power shovels, the following additional precautions may be observed.
The area shall be barricaded for a minimum distance of one and a half times the height of the wall;
While the mechanical device is in operation, no workmen shall be allowed to enter the building being demolished;
The device shall be so located as to avoid damage by falling debris; and
The mechanical device when being used shall not cause any damage to adjacent structure, power line, etc.
1.30.10. Miscellaneous - No demolition work should be carried out during night as far as possible, especially when the structure to be demolished is in an inhabited area. If such night work has to be done, additional precautions by way of additional red warning signals, working lights and watchmen, shall be provided to avoid any injury to workmen and public. Demolition work shall not be carried out during storm and heavy rain.
Warning devices shall be installed in the area to warn the workers in case of any danger.
Safety devices like industrial safety helmets conforming to the accepted standards (9) and goggles made of celluloid lens, shall be issued to the workmen. Foreman-in-charge of the work areas shall ensure that all the workmen are wearing the safety devices before commencing any work.
Construction sheds and tool boxes shall be so located as to protect workers from injuries from the falling debris.
Where there is a likelihood of injuries to hands of workmen when demolishing RCC, steel structures, etc, gloves of suitable materials shall be worn by workmen.
Sufficient protection by way of both overhead cover and screens shall be provided to prevent injuries to the workmen and the public.
Safety belts or ropes shall be used by workmen when working at higher levels.
1.30.11. Grading of plot–When a building has been demolished and no building operation has been projected or approved, the vacant plot shall be filled, graded and maintained in conformity to the established street grades at curb level. The plot shall be maintained free from the accumulation of rubbish and all other unsafe and hazardous conditions which endangers the life or health of the public; and accumulation of water or damage to any foundations on the premises or the adjoining property.
1.30.12. First–aid - A copy of all pertinent regulations and notices concerning accidents, injury and first aid shall be prominently exhibited at the work site.
Depending on the scope and nature of the work, a person, qualified in first-aid shall be available at work site to render and direct first-aid to causalities. He shall maintain a list of individuals qualified to serve in first-aid work. Enough first-aid kit, including a stretcher and cot with accessories shall be provided at site. A telephone may be provided to first-aid assistant with telephone may be provided to first-aid assistant with telephone numbers of the hospitals prominently displayed.
Complete reports of all accidents and action taken thereon shall be forwarded to the competent authorities.
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