FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS(15 M IN HEIGHT OR ABOVE)
0.1. In addition to the provision of fire protection, the Authority may insist on suitable protection measurers in a building 15m in height or above.
1.1. All materials of construction in load bearing elements, stairways and corridors and facades shall be non – combustible.
1.2. The interior finish materials shall not have a flame spread ability rating exceeding class 1 (see 7.15.2.)
1.3. The internal walls or staircase shall be of brick or reinforced concrete with a minimum of 2h fire rating.
1.4. The staircase shall be ventilated to the atmosphere at each landing and a vent at the top; the vent openings shall be of 0.5. m2 in the external wall and the top. If the staircase can not be ventilated, because of location or other reasons, a positive pressure 50 pa shall be maintained inside. The mechanism for pressurizing the staircase shall operate automatically with the fire alarm. The roof of the shaft shall be `1 m above the surrounding roof. Glazing or glass bricks shall not be used in the staircase.
General requirements of lifts shall be as follows.
1.5.1. Walls of lift enclosures shall have a fire rating of 2h; lifts shafts shall have a vent at the top of area not less than 0.2.m2.
1.5.2. Lift motor room shall be located preferably on top of the shaft and separated from the shaft by the floor of the room.
1.5.3. Landing doors in lift enclosures shall have a fire resistance of not less than one hour.
1.5.4. The number of lifts in one lift bank shall not exceed 4. Individual shafts in a bank shall be separated by a wall of 2h fire rating.
1.5.5. Lift car door shall have a fire resistance rating of half an hour.
1.5.6. For building 15m in height or above collapsible gates shall not be permitted for lifts and shall have solid doors with fire resistance of at least 1h.
1.5.7. If the lift shaft and lobby is in the core of the building, a positive pressure between 25 and 30 pa shall be maintained in the lobby and a positive pressure of 50 pa shall be maintained in the lift shaft. The mechanism for pressurisation shall act automatically with the fire alarm act automatically with the fire alarm; it shall be possible to operate this mechanically also.
1.5.8. Exit from the lift lobby if located in the core of the building shall be through a self closing smoke stop door of half an hour fire resistance.
1.5.9.Lifts shall not normally communicate with the basement; if however lifts are in communication the lift lobby of the basements shall be pressurized as in (g) with self –closing door as in(h).
1.5.10. Grounding switches, at ground floor level, shall be provided on all the lifts to enable the fire service to ground the lifts.
1.5.11. Phone or other communication facilities shall be provided in lift cars for building of 30 m in height and above. Communication system for lifts shall be connected to fire control room for the building.
1.5.12. Suitable arrangements such as providing slope in the floor of lift lobby, shall be made to prevent water used during fire fighting etc, at any landing from entering the lift shafts.
1.5.13. A sign shall be posted and maintained in every floor at or near the lift indicating that in case of fire, occupants shall use the stairs unless instructed otherwise. The sign shall also contain a plan for each floor showing the locations of the stairways. Alternate source of power supply shall be provided for all the lifts through a manually operated changeover switch.
1.5.14. Fire lifts – Following details shall apply for a fire lift.
To enable fire services personnel to reach the upper floors with the minimum delay, one fire lift per 1 200 m2 of floor area shall be permitted and shall be available for the exclusive use of the firemen in an emergency.
The lift shall have a floor area of not less than 1.4. m2. It shall have loading capacity of not less than 545 kg (8 persons lift) with automatic closing doors of minimum 0.8 width.
The electric supply shall be on a separate service from electric supply mains in a building and the cables run in a route safe from fire that is within the lift shaft. Lights and fans in the elevator having wooden paneling or sheet steel construction shall be operated on 24 volt supply.
Fire fighting lift should be provided with a ceiling hatch for use in case of emergency, so that when the car gets stuck up, it shall be easily operable.
In case of failure of normal electric supply, it shall automatically trip over to alternate supply. For apartment houses, this change over of supply could be done through manually operated changeover switch. Alternatively the lift shall be so wired that in case of power failure it comes down at the ground level and comes to stand still with door open.
The operation of a fire lift is by a simple toggle or two button switch situated in a glass fronted box adjacent to the lift at the entrance level. When the switch is on landing call points will be come inoperative and the lift will be on car control only or on a priority control device. When the switch is off the lift will return to normal working. This lift can be used by the occupants in normal times.
The words ‘FIRE LIFT’ shall be conspicuously displayed in fluorescent paint on the lift landing doors at each floor level.
The speed of the fire lift shall be such that it can reach the top floor from ground level within 1 min.
1.6.1. Each basement shall be separately ventilated vent with cross sectional area (aggregate) not less than 2.5 percent of the floor area spread evenly round the perimeter of the basement shall be provided in the form of grills, or breakable stall board lights or pavement lights or by way of shafts. Alternatively a system of air inlets shall be provided at basement floor level and smoke outlets at basement ceiling level. Inlets and extracts may be terminated at ground level with starboard or pavement lights as before but ducts to convey fresh air it to the basement floor level have to be laid. Starboard and pavement lights should be in positions easily accessible to the fire brigade and clearly marked ‘SMOKE OUTLET’ or ‘AIR INLET' with indication of area served, at or near the opening.
1.6.2. The staircase of basements shall be of enclosed type having fire resistance of not less than 2h and shall be situated at the periphery of the basement to be entered at ground level only from the open air in such positions that smoke from any fire in the basement shall not obstruct any exit serving the ground and upper stories of the building and shall communicate with basement through a lobby provided with fire resting self closing doors of the 1 h resistance. For travel distances refer 23.7.5. If the travel distance exits as given in Table 23, additional staircases shall be provided at proper places.
1.6.3. In multi-storey basements, intake ducts may serve all basement levels, but each basement and basement compartment shall have separate smoke outlet duct or ducts. Ducts so provided shall have the same fire resistance rating as the compartment itself Fire rating may be taken as required smoke extraction time for smoke extraction ducts.
1.6.4. Mechanical extractors for smoke venting system from lower basement levels shall also be provided. The system shall be of such design as to operate on actuation of heat/smoke sensitive detectors or sprinklers, if installed, and shall have a considerably superior performance compared to the standard units. It shall also have an arrangement to start it manually.
Mechanical extractors shall have an internal locking arrangement so that extractors shall continue to operate and supply fans shall stop automatically with the actuation of fire detectors.
Mechanical extractors shall be designed to permit 30 air changes per hour in case of fire or distress call. However for normal operation air changes schedule shall be as given in 126.96.36.199.
Mechanical extractors shall have an alternative source of supply.
Ventilating ducts shall be integrated with the structure and made out of brick masonry or RCC as far as possible and when this duct crosses the transformer area or electrical switch board, fire dampers shall be provided.
1.6.5. Use of basements for kitchens working on gas fuel for departmental stores, shops storage of flammable oils and gases, banquet hall, auditorium, discotheque, restaurants etc., shall not be permitted. The basement shall not be permitted below the ward block of a hospital/nursing home unless it is fully sprinkled red.
Building service such as electrical substations boiler rooms shall not be used below first basement if more than one basement provided. Further they shall comply with the proofing of Indian electricity Act / Rates
1.6.6. If cutouts are provided from basements to the upper floors or to the atmospheres, all sides of cutout openings in the basements shall be protected by sprinkler head at close spacing so as to from a water curtain in the event of a fire.
1.7. Openable windows on external walls shall be fitted with such locks, which can be opened by a firemen’s axe.
1.8. All floors shall be compartmented with area not exceeding 750 m2 by a separation wall with 2h fire rating for floors with sprinklers the area may be increased by 50 percent. In long building, the fire separation walls shall be at distances not exceeding 40 m. For departmental stores, shopping centres and basements the area may be reduced to 500 m2 for compartmentation. Where this is not possible, the spacing of the sprinklers shall be suitably reduced.
1.8.1. It is essential to make provisions for drainage of any such water on all floors to prevent or minimise water damage of the contents. The drainpipes should be provided on the external wall for drainage of water from all floors. On large area floors several such pipes may be necessary which should be spaced 30 m apart. Care shall be taken to ensure that construction of drain pipe does not allow spread of fire / smoke from floor to floor.
Service ducts / shafts
a) Service ducts and shafts shall be enclosed by walls of 2h and doors of 1 h fire rating. All such ducts/shafts shall be properly sealed and fire stopped at all floor levels.
b) An event opening at the top of the service shaft shall be provided having between one-fourth and one half of the area of the shaft.
1.10 Refuse chutes shall have opening at least 1 m above roof level or venting purpose and they shall have an enclosure wall of noncombustible material with fire resistance of not less than 2h. They shall not be located within the staircase enclosure or service shafts or air-conditioning shafts inspection panel and doors shall be tight fitting with 1 h fire resistance; the chutes should be as far away as possible from exits.
1.11. Refuge Area
Provisions contained in 23.7 shall apply for all buildings except multi-family dwellings refuge area of not less than 15 m2 shall be provided on the external walls.
1.12. Electrical services shall conform to the following.
The electric distribution cables / wiring shall be laid in a separate duct. The duct shall be sealed at every floor with non – combustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct Low and medium voltage wiring running in shaft and in false ceiling shall run in separate conduits.
Water mains, telephone lines, intercom lines, gas pipes or any other service line shall not be laid in the duct for electrical cables: use of bus ducts/solid rising mains instead of cables is preferred.
Separate circuits for fire fighting pumps, lifts, staircases and corridor lighting and blowers for pressuring system shall be provided directly from the main switch gear panel and these circuits shall be laid in separate conduit pipes, so that fire in one circuit will not affect the others, Master switches controlling essential service circuits shall be clearly labeled:
The inspection panel doors and any other opening in the shaft shall be provided with air – tight fire doors having fire resistance of not less than 2h;
Medium and low voltage wiring running in shafts and within false ceiling shall run in metal conduit. Any 230 v wiring for lighting or other services, above false ceiling shall have 660. Volts grade insulation. The false ceiling, including all fixtures used for its suspension, shall be of non – combustible material;
An independent and well ventilated service room shall be provided on the ground level or first basement with direct access from outside or from the corridor for the purpose of termination of electric
supply from the licensee’s service and alternative supply cables. The doors provided for the service room shall have fire resistance of not less than 2h; and; Note: If service room is located at the first basement, it should have automatic fire extinguishing system,
If the licensees agree to provide meters on upper floors, the licensees’ cables shall be segregated from consumer’s cables by providing a partition in the duct. Meter rooms on upper floors shall not open into stair case enclosures and shall be ventilated directly to upon air outside; and h) Suitable circuit breakers shall be provided at the appropriate points.
1.13. Gas Supply shall conform to the .following:-
Town gas / LP gas supply pipes – Where gas pipes are run in buildings, the same shall be run in separate shafts exclusively for this purpose and these shall be on external walls, away from the staircases. There shall be no interconnection of this shaft with the rest of the floors. LPG distribution pipes shall always be below the false ceiling. The length of these pipes shall be as short as possible. In the case of kitchen cooking range area, apart from providing hood covering the entire cooking range the exhaust system should be designed to take care of 30 m3 permute per m2 of hood protected area. It should have grease filters using metallic grill to trap oil vapour escaping into the fume hood.
All wiring in fume hoods shall be of fiber glass insulation. Thermal detectors shall be installed into fume hoods of large kitchens for hotels, hospitals, and similar areas located in high rise buildings. Arrangements shall be made for automatic tripping of the exhaust fan in case of fire. If LPG is used the same shall be shut off. The voltage shall be 24 v or 100 V dc operated with external rectifier. The valve shall be of the hand re-set type and shall be located in an area segregated from cooking ranges. Valves shall be easily accessible. The hood shall have manual facility for system or carbon dioxide gas injection, depending on duty condition;
Gas meters shall be housed in a suitably constructed metal cupboard located in a well ventilated space, keeping in view the fact that LPG is heavier than air and town gas is lighter than air.
1.14. Illumination of means of exit
Staircase and corridor lights shall conform to the following:
The staircase and corridor lighting shall be on separate circuits and shall be independently connected so as it could be operated by one switch installation on the ground floor easily accessible to fire fighting staff at any time irrespective of the position of the individual control of the light points, if any. It should be of miniature circuit breaker type of switch so as to avoid replacement of fuse in case of crisis;
Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be connected to alternative supply. The alternative source of supply may be provided by battery continuously trickle charged from the electric mains;
Suitable arrangements shall be made by installing double throw switches to ensure that the lighting installed in the staircase and the corridor does not get connected to two sources of supply simultaneously. Double throw switch shall be installed in the service room for terminating the stand-by supply: and
Emergency lights shall be provided in the staircase and corridor.
All wires and other accessories used for emergency light shall have fire retardant property.
1.15. A stand-by electric generator shall be installed to supply power to staircase and corridor lighting circuits, fire lifts the stand-by fire pump, pressurization fans and blowers smoke extraction and damper systems in case of failure of normal electric supply. The generator shall be capable of taking starting current of all the machines and circuits stated above simultaneously. If the stand by pump is driven by diesel engine the generator supply need not be connected to the stand-by pump. Where parallel HV / LV supply from a separate sub-station is provided with appropriate transformer for emergency,
the provision of generator may be waived in consultation with the Authority.
1.16. Transformers shall conform to the following;
1.16.1. A sub-Station or a switch-station with oil filled equipment shall not be located in the building. If transformers are housed in the building below the ground level they shall necessarily be in the first basement in a separate fire resisting room of 4 h rating. The room shall necessarily be at the periphery of the basement. The entrance to the room shall be provided with a fire resisting door of 2h fire rating. A curb (sill) of a suitable height shall be provided at the entrance in order to prevent the flow of oil from a ruptured transformer into other parts of the basement. Direct access to the transformer room shall be provided preferably from outside. The switch gears shall be housed in a room separated from the transformer bays by a fire resisting wall with fire resistance of not less than 4 h.
The oil filled transformers if housed in basement shall be protected by an automatic high velocity water spray system.
In case the transformer are housed in the basement, totally segregated from other areas of the basements by 4 hour fire resisting walls with an access directly from outside, they may be protected by carbon dioxide or any other suitable system.
When housed at ground floor level if they shall be cut off from the other portion of premises by fire resisting walls of 4 h fire resistance.
Oil filled transformers shall not be housed on any floor above the ground floor.
1.16.2. Soak pit of approved design shall be provided where the aggregate oil capacity of the apparatus does not exceed 2000 liters, a tank of RCC construction of capacity capable of accommodating the entire oil of the transformers shall be provided at a lower level to collect the oil from the catch pit to the tank shall be of non combustible construction and shall be provided with a flame arrester.
Air-Conditioning shall conform to the following ;
1.17.1. Escape routes like staircases, common corridors, lift lobbies etc, shall not be used as return air passage.
The ducting shall be constructed of substantial gauge metal in accordance with accepted standards
Wherever the ducts pass through fire walls or floors the opening around the ducts shall be sealed with fire resisting materials, such as asbestos rope vermiculite concrete or other suitable sealing materials.
As far as possible metallic ducts shall be used even for the return air instead of space above the false ceiling.
Where plenum is used for return air passage ceiling and its fixtures shall be of non – combustible material.
The materials used insulating the duct system (inside or outside) shall be of non – combustible materials. Glass wool shall not be wrapped or secured by any material of combustible nature.
Area more than 750 m2 on individual floor shall be segregated by a fire wall and automatic fire dampers for isolation shall be provided [see (h)].
Air ducts serving main floor areas, corridors etc, shall not pass through the staircase enclosure.
The air handling units shall be separate for each floor and air ducts for every floor shall be separated and in no way interconnected with the ducting of any other floor,
If the air-handling unit serves more than one floor, the recommendations given above shall be complied with in addition to the conditions given below:
Proper arrangements by way of automatic fire dampers working on fusible link/ or smoke detector for isolating all ducting at every floor from the main riser shall be made
When the automatic fire alarm operates, the respective air handling units of the air – conditioning system shall automatically be switched off.
The vertical shaft for treated fresh air shall be of masonry construction
The air filters of the air-handling units shall be of non combustible materials.
The air-handling unit room shall not be used for storage of any combustible materials.
Inspection panels shall be provided in the main trunking to facilitate the cleaning of ducts of accumulated dust and to obtain access for maintenance of fire dampers.
No combustible material shall be fixed nearer than 15 cm to any duct unless such duct is properly enclosed and protected with non-combustible material (glass wool or spun glass with neoprene facing enclosed and wrapped with aluminium sheeting) at least 3.2 mm thick and which would not readily conduct heat.
1.17.2. Fire Dampers.
These shall be located in conditioned air ducts and return air ducts/passages at the following points;
At the fire separation wall.
Where ducts /passages enter the central vertical shaft.
Where the ducts pass through floors, and
At the inlet of supply air duct and the return air duct of each compartment on every floor.
The dampers shall operate automatically and shall simultaneously switch off the air-handling fans. Manual operation facilities shall also be provided.
Note: For blowers, where extraction system and dust accumulators are used dampers shall be provided.
Fire / Smoke dampers (for smoke extraction shafts) for buildings more than 24 m in height.
1.17.3. For apartment houses - In non ventilated lobbies/corridors operated by fusible link / smoke detectors and with manual control.
1.17.4. For other buildings - On operation of smoke-detection system and with manual control.
x) Automatic fire dampers shall be so arranged as to close by gravity in the direction of air movement and to remain tightly closed on operation of a fusible link/smoke detector.
1.18 Provisions of boiler and boiler rooms shall conform to Indian Boiler Act. Further the following additional aspects may be taken into account in the location of boiler room;
The boilers shall not be allowed in subbasement but may be allowed in the basements away from the escape routes.
The boilers shall be installed in a fire resisting room of 4 h fire resistance rating, and this room shall be situated on the periphery of the basement. Catch pits shall be provided at the low level.
Entry to this room shall be provided with a composite door of 2 h fire resistance.
The boiler rooms shall be provided with fresh air inlets and smoke exhausts directly to the atmosphere.
The furnace oil tank for the boiler if located in the adjoining room shall be separated by fire resisting wall of 4 h rating. The entrance to this room shall be provided with double composite doors. A door of suitable height may be provided as the entrance in order to prevent the flow of oil into the boiler room in case of tank rupture.
Foam inlets shall be provided on the external walls of the building near the ground level to enable the fire services to use foam in case of fire.
2. Provision of First-Aid fire fighting appliances
The first-aid fire fighting equipment shall be provided on all floors, including basements lift rooms etc. in accordance with good practice in consultation to with the authority.
3. Fire alarm system
All buildings with heights of 15 m or above shall be equipped with Manually Operated Electrical Fire Alarm (MOEFA) System and automatic fire alarm systems refer Annexure 23-A.1. However apartment buildings between 15 m and 30m in height may be exempted from the installation of automatic fire alarm system provided the local fire brigade is suitable equipped for dealing with fire
15m in height or above and in the opinion of the Authority, such building does not constitute a hazard to the safety of the adjacent property or occupants of the building itself.
Manually operated electrical fire alarm system shall be installed in a building with one or more call boxes located at each floor.
The installation of call boxes In hostels and such other places where these are likely to be misused shall as far as possible be avoided. Location of call boxes in dwelling units shall preferably be inside the building.
4. Lightning protection of buildings.
The lightning protection for buildings shall be provided as given in Section 16 - Electrical installations.
5. Fire control room
For all buildings 15 m in height or above and apartment buildings with a height of 30 m and above there shall be a control room on the entrance floor of the building with communication system (suitable public address system) to all floors and facilities for receiving the message from different floors. Details of all floor plans along with the details of fire fight equipment and installations shall be maintained in the fire control room. the fire control room shall also have facilities to detect the fire on any floor through indicator boards connection; fire detection and alarm systems on all floors; The fire staff in charge of the fire control room shall be responsible for the maintenance of the various services and fire fighting equipment and installations in co-ordination with security electrical and civil staff of the building.
6. Fire officer / supervisor for hotels, business and mercantile buildings with height more than 30 m.
6.1. A qualified fire Officer with experience of not less than 3 years shall be appointed who will be available on the premises.
6.2. The fire officer shall;
Note: Competent authority having jurisdiction may insist on compliance of the above rules in case of buildings having very large areas even if the height is less than 30 m.
7. House keeping.
To eliminate fire hazards, good house keeping both inside and outside the building, shall be strictly maintained by the occupants and or the owner of the building.
8. Fire drills and fire orders.
Fire notices/orders shall be prepared to fulfil the requirements of fire fighting and evacuation from the buildings in the event of fire and other emergency. The occupants shall be made thoroughly conversant with their action in the event of emergency, by displaying fire notices at vantage points and also through regular training. Such notices should be displayed prominently in broad lettering
For guidelines for fire drills and evacuation procedures for high rise buildings, (See Annexure 23-A.6)
The buildings shall be suitably compartmentalized so that fire / smoke remain confined to the area where fire incident has occurred and does not spread to the remaining part of the building.
For high rise buildings above 60 m in height provision for helipad should be made.
11. Materials for interior decoration/ furnishing
The use of materials, which are combustible in nature and may spread toxic fume / gasses should not be used for interior decoration/furnishing etc.
Annexure 23- A.3.
GUIDELINES FOR FIRE DRILL AND EVACUATION PROCEDURES FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS ABOVE 15 METERS IN HEIGHT.
In case of fire in high rise buildings safe evacuation of its occupants may present serious problems unless a plan for orderly, systematic evacuation is prepared in advance and all occupants are well drilled in the operation of such plan. These guidelines are intended to assist them in this task.
Any person discovering fire heat or smoke shall immediately report such condition to the fire brigade unless he has personal knowledge that such a report has been made. No person shall make, issue, post or maintain any regulation or order written or verbal, that would require any person to take any unnecessary say delaying action prior to reporting such condition to fire brigade.
Fire drills shall be conducted in accordance with the Fire Safety Plan at least once every three months for existing buildings during the first two years after the effective date of these rules, or for new buildings during the first two years after the issuance of the certificate of occupancy. Thereafter fire drills shall be conducted at least once every six months.
All occupants of the building shall participate in the fire drill. However occupants of the building, other than building service employees are not required to leave the floor or use the exits during the drill.
A written record of such drills shall be kept on the premises for a three years period and shall be readily available for fire brigade inspection.
4.1. Signs at lift landings – A sign shall be posted and maintained in a conspicuous place on every floor at or near the lift landing in accordance with the requirements indicating that in case of fire occupants shall use the stairs unless instructed otherwise. The sign shall contain a diagram showing the location of the stairways except that such diagram may be omitted, provided signs containing such diagram are posted in conspicuous places on the respective floor.
A sign shall read “IN CASE OF FIRE USE STAIRS UNLESS INSTRUCTED OTHERWISE” The lettering shall be at least 1.25. cm block letters in red and white background. Such lettering shall be properly spaced to provide good legibility. The sign shall be at least 25 X 30 cm where the diagram is also incorporated in it and 6.25. x 25 cm where the diagram is omitted. In the latter case, the diagram sign shall be at least 20 X 30 cm. The sign shall be located directly above a call – button and squarely attached to the wall or partition. The top of the sign shall not be above 2 m from the floor level.
4.2. Floor numbering signs – A sign shall be posted and maintained with in each stair enclosure on every floor, indicating the number of the floor, in accordance with the requirements given below.
The numerals shall be of bold type and at least 7.5cm high. The numerals and background shall be in contrasting colours. The sign shall be securely attached to the stair side of the door.
4.3. Stair and elevator Identification signs – Each stairway and each elevator back shall be identified by an alphabetical letter. A sign indicating the letter of identification shall be posted and maintained at each elevator landing and on the side of the stairway door from which egress is to be made in accordance with the requirements given below.
The lettering on the sign shall be at least 7.5. cm high of bold type and of contrasting colour from the background. Such signs shall be securely attached.
4.4. Stair Re-entry Signs – A sign shall be posted and maintained on each floor within each stairway and on the occupancy side of the stairway where required, indicating whether re-entry is provided into the building and the floor where such re-entry is provided in accordance with the requirements given below.
The lettering and numerals of the signs shall be at least 1.25 cm high of bold type. The lettering and background shall be of contrasting colours and the signs shall be securely attached approximately 1.5.m above the floor level.
4.5. Fire command station shall be provided with floor plan of the building and other pertinent information relative to the service equipment of the buildings.
A format for the Fire Safety Plan shall be given.
The applicable parts of the approved Fire Safety Plan shall be distributed to all tenants of the building by the building management when the Fire Safety Plan has been approved by the Chief Fire Officer.
The applicable parts of the approved Fire Safety Plan shall then be distributed by the tenants to all their employees and by the building management to all their building employees.
Where the owner of the building is also an occupant of the building, he shall be responsible for the observance of these rules and the fire Safety plan in the same manner as a tenant.
In the event there are changes from conditions existing at the time the Fire Safety Plan for the building was approved, and the changes are such so as to require amending the Fire Safety Plan with in 30 days, after such changes an amended Fire Safety Plan shall be submitted to the fire brigade for approval.
A Fire Command Station shall be established in the lobby of building on the entrance floor. Such command station shall be adequately illuminated.
A means of communication and fire alarm for use during fire emergencies shall be provided and maintained by the owner or person in charge of the building.
8.1. Building address.
Street and pin code number
8.2. Purpose and Objective
8.2.1. Purpose - To establish method of systematic safe and orderly evacuation of an area or building by and of its occupants in case of fire or other emergency in the least possible time to a safe area by the nearest safe means of egress; also the use of such available fire appliances (including sounding of alarms) as may have been provided for controlling or extinguishing fire and safeguarding of human life.
8.2.2. Objective – To provide proper education as a part of continuing employee indoctrination and through a continuing written program for all occupants, to ensure prompt reporting of fire the response of fire the response of fire alarms as designated and the immediate initiation of fire safety procedures to safeguard life and contain fire until the arrival of the Fire brigade.
8.3. Fire Safety Director
8.4. Deputy Fire Safety Director
8.5. Fire Wardens and Deputy Fire Wardens
8.6. Building Evacuation Supervisor.
b). Regularly assigned employment – Title
c). Regularly assigned location
d). How is he notified when at regular location?
e). How is he notified when not at regular location?
f). Normal working hours
g). Duties of Building Evacuation Supervisor.
8.7. Fire Party
8.8. Occupants Instructions – Distribution of instructions to all tenants employees and buildings employees.
8.9. Evacuation drills
8.10. Fire Command Station.
8.12. Fire prevention and fire protection program –See 9.7.
8.13. Representative Floor Plan – See 9.9
8.14. Fire safety plan prepared by See 9.10
Date when prepared
Date when revised
9.1. Fire Safety Director's Duties.
Be familiar with the written Fire Safety Plan providing for fire drill and evacuation procedure in accordance with orders on the subject.
Select qualified building service employees for a Fire party and organize train and supervise such Fire Brigade,
Be responsible for the availability and state of readiness of the Fire Party.
Conduct fire and evacuation drills.
Be responsible for the designation and training of a Fire Warden for each floor and sufficient Deputy Fire Wardens for each tenancy in accordance with orders on the subject:
Be responsible for a daily check for the availability of the Fire Warden and Deputy Wardens and see that up – to date organization charts are posted.
Note: If the number Fire Wardens and Deputy Fire Wardens in the building is such that it is impractical to individually contact each one daily, a suggested method to satisfy the requirements is to make provision for the Fire Warden, or a Deputy Fire Warden in the absence of the Fire Warden, to notify the Fire Safety Director when the Fire Warden or required number of Deputy Fire Wardens are not available. In order to determine the compliance by the Fire Warden and Deputy Fire warden and Deputy Fire wardens when this method is used, the Fire Safety Director shall make a spot check of several different floors each day.
Notify the owner or some other person having charge of the building when any designated individual is neglecting his responsibilities contained in Fire Safety Plan. The owner or the other person in – charge of the building shall bring the matter to the attention of the firm employing the individual. If the firm fails to correct the condition, the Fire Department shall be notified by the owner/person in charge of the building.
In the event of fire shall report to the Fire Command Station to supervise, provided for and coordinate:
Be responsible for the training and activities of the Building Evacuation Supervisor.
9.2. Deputy Fire Safety Director’s Duties.
Subordinate to the Fire Safety Director Perform duties of Fire Safety Director in his absence.
9.3. Fire Wardens and Deputy Fire Wardens Duties - The tenant or tenants of each floor shall, upon request of the owner or person in change of the buildings, make responsible and dependable employees available for designation by the Fire Safety Director as Fire Warden and Deputy Fire Wardens.
9.3.1. Each floor of a building shall be under the direction of a designated Fire Warden for the evacuation of occupants in the event of fire. He shall be assisted in his duties by the Deputy Fire Wardens. A Deputy Fire warden shall be provided for each tenancy, when the floor area of the tenancy exceeds 700 m2 of occipital space, a Deputy Fire Warden shall be assigned for each 700 m 2 or part thereof.
Each Fire Warden and Deputy Fire Warden shall be familiar with the Fire Safety Plan, the location of exits and location and operation of any available fire alarm system.
In the event of fire, or fire alarm the Fire Warden shall ascertain the location of the fire, and direct evacuation of the floor in accordance with directions received and the following guidelines:
In the event that stairways serving fire floor and / or floors above are unusable due to contamination or cut off by fire and/ or smoke or that several floors above fire involve large numbers of occupants who must be evacuated consideration may be given to using elevators in accordance with the following:
9.3.3. Command Station. The Fire Warden shall check the environment in the stairs prior to entry for evacuation. If it is affected by smoke, alternative stair shall be selected, and the Fire Command Station notified.
The Fire Warden shall keep the Fire Command Station informed on the means being employed for evacuation by the occupants of his floor.
Ensure that an alarm has been transmitted.
9.3.4. Organisation chart for fire drill and evacuation assignment - A Chart designating employees and their assignments shall be prepared and posted in a conspicuous place in each tenancy and on each floor of a tenancy that occupies more than one floor and a copy shall be in the possession of the Fire Safety Director.
Have available an updated listing of all personnel with physical disabilities who cannot use stairs unaided. Make arrangements to have these occupants assisted in moving down the stairs to two to more levels below fire floor. If it is necessary to move such occupants to a still lower level during the fire move them down the stairs to the uppermost floor served by an uninvolved elevator bank and then remove the street floor by an elevator, where resistance is required for such evacuation notify Fire Safety Director.
Provide for Fire Warden identification during fire drills and fires such as using armband etc.,
Ensure that all persons on the floor are notified of fire and all are evacuated to safe areas. A search must be conducted in the lavatories to ensure all are out. Personnel assigned as searchers can promptly and efficiently perform this duty.
Check availability of applicable personnel on Organisation Chart and provide for a substitute when the position on a chart is not covered.
After evacuation, perform a head count to ensure that all regular occupants known to have occupied the floor have been evacuated.
When alarm is received the Fire Warden shall remain at a selected position in the vicinity of the communication station on the floor, in order to maintain communication with the Fire Command Station and to receive and give instructions.
9.4. Building Evacuation Supervisor's duties – A buildings evacuation supervisor is required at all times other than normal working or business hours when there are occupants in the buildings and there is no Fire Safety Director on duty in the buildings.
He should be capable of directing the evacuation of the occupants as provided by the fire safety Plan.
During fire emergencies the primary responsibility of Building Evacuation Supervisor shall be to man the Fire Command Station and the direction and execution of the evacuation as provided in the Fire Safety Plan. The Buildings Evacuation Supervisor’s training and related activities shall be under the direction of the fire Safety Director in accordance with these rules and the Fire Safety Plan. Such activities shall be subject to Fire Department Control.
9.5. Fire Party Duties – On receipt of an alarm for fire the Fire Party Shall;
Report to the floor below the fire to assist in evacuation and provide information to the fire Command Station.
After evacuations of fire floor endeavor to control spread of fire by closing doors etc.
Attempt to control the fire until arrival of the Fire Department if the fire is small and conditions do not pose a personal threat.
Leave one member on the floor below the fire to direct the Fire Department to the fire location and to inform them of conditions.
On arrival of the Fire Department, the Fire party shall report to the Fire Command Station for additional instructions.
Have a member designated as runner who shall know the location of the nearest telephone and be instructed in its use. Such member shall immediately upon receipt of information that there is a fire or evidence of fire go to the telephone transmit an alarm and await the arrival of the Fire Department and direct such department to the fire.
Note: A chart designating employees and their assignments shall be prepared.
9.6. Occupant’s Instructions
The applicable parts of the approved Fire safety shall be distributed to all tenants of the building by the building management when the Fire Safety Plan has been approved by the Fire Commissioner.
The applicable parts of the approved Fire Safety Plan shall then distributed by the tenants to all their employees and by the building management to all their building employees.
Ali occupants of the building shall participate and cooperate in carrying out the provisions of the Fire Safety Plan.
9.7. Fire Prevention and fire Protection Programmer.
A plan for periodic formal inspections of each floor area including exit facilities fire extinguishers and house keeping shall be developed. A copy of such plan be submitted.
Provision shall be made for the monthly testing of communication and alarm systems.
9.8. Building Information Form –
9.8.1. It shall include the following information:
Building address ---- pin code............
Owner or person in charge of building – Name, Address and Telephone Number
Fire Safety Director and Deputy Fire Safety, Director’s Name, and Telephone Number.
Certificate of occupancy Location where posted or duplicate attached.
9.8.2. Height, area, class of construction
1). Number type and location of fire stairs and/or fire towers.
2). Number type and location of horizontal exits or other areas of refuge.
3). Number, type, location of horizontal exits or other areas of refuge.
4). Number, type, location and operation of elevators and escalators.
5). Interior fire alarms, or alarms to central stations
6). Communications systems and / or walkie talkie, telephone etc.
7). Standpipe system; size and location of risers, gravity or pressure tank fire pump, location, of Siamese connections, name of employee with certificate of qualification and number of certificate.
8). Sprinkler system; name of employee with Certificate of Fitness and certificate number primary and secondary water supply, fire pump and area protect.
9). Special extinguishing system if any components and operation.
10). Average number of persons normally employed in buildings. Daytime and Night time.
11). Average number of handicapped people in building. Location Daytime and Night time.
12). Number of persons normally visiting the buildings. Day time and Night time.
Service equipment such as:
9.9. Representative Floor Plan - A floor plan representative of the majority of the floor designs of the entire building shall be at the command post in the main lobby under the authority of the Fire Safety Director. One copy of a representative floor plan shall be submitted to the fire Department with the Fire Safety Plan.
9.10. Fire Safety Plan - In planning, evaluate the individual floor layouts the population of floors the number and kinds of exits the zing of the floor by area and occupants. Determine the movement of traffic by the most expeditious route to an appropriate exit and alternative route for each zone since under fire conditions one or more exits may not be useable. This format is to be used in the preparation of the Fire Safety Plan. Nothing contained in the Fire Safety Plan format is to be construed as all inclusive. All rules and other requirements are to be fully complied with.
9.11. Personal Fire Instruction Card - All the occupants of the building shall be given a personal Fire Instruction Card giving the details of the floor plan and exit routes along with the instruction to be followed in the event of fire. A typical personal Fire Instruction Card shall be as follows:
For your own safety you should know;
1. Two push button fire alarm boxes are provided per floor. You should read the operating instructions.
2. You should read the operating instructions on the body of the fire extinguishers provided on your floor.
3. The nearest exit from your table
4. Your assembly point on the ground floor (check with your Fire / Dy. Fire Warden)
5. For your own protection you should report to your fire / deputy Fire Warden.
a) If any exit door/route is abstracted by loose materials, goods, boxes etc.,
b) If any staircase door, lift, lobby, door does not close automatically, or does not close completely.
c) If any push button fire alarm point r fire extinguisher is obstructed, damaged or apparently out to order.
If you discover a fire,
If you hear evacuation instructions
1. Leave the floor immediately by the south / north staircase
2. Report to your warden at your predetermined assembly point outside the building.
3. Do not try to use lifts.
4. Do not go to cloakroom.
5. Do not run or shout.
6. Do not stop to collect personal belongings.
7. Keep the lift lobby and staircase doors shut.
YOUR ASSEMBLY POINT IS …………………………
SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE SAFETY OF BUILDINGS (GENERAL): EXPOSURE HAZARD (Extract of IS: 1643-1988)
This standard covers requirements regarding spacing of buildings to provide adequate safety against exposure hazard.
The construction and spacing of buildings with due regard to their classification (see IS: 1641-1988) are the major factors to be considered which otherwise may lead to a serious conflagration in intensely built-up areas. Thus exposure hazard expressed the danger or risk of spread of fire through the open air in a building on fire to another situated in the vicinity.
The precautions taken by keeping proper spacing of the building prevent spread of fire by direct contact of flames and hot gases emitted from the burning building or by radiated heat and flying brands.
The factors like type of construction (see IS: 1642-1988) based on occupancy distance between the buildings and size of the buildings influence the severity of exposure hazard.
Every building should be restricted in its height above the ground level and the number of storeys, depending upon its occupancy and the type of construction. The maximum permissible height for any combination of occupancy and types of construction should necessarily be related to the width of street fronting the building or floor area ratio (see 4).
The comparative floor area ratios for different occupancies and types of construction are given in Table 1. Each portion of a building, which is separated by one or more continuous fire resisting walls, having a fire resistance of not less than 4 h, extending from the foundation to 1 m above the roof at all points, may be considered to be a separate building for the calculation of maximum permissible height and floor area, provided openings, if any, in the separating wall, are also protected by fire assemblies of 4 h.
Table 1 Comparative floor area ratios for occupancies facing one public street of at least 9 m width.
Floor area ratio’s
Type of construction
Storage (see Note 4)
Hazardous (see Note 4)
UL – Unlimited
NP – Not Permitted
Note 1:The FAR/values given in this table are subject to overall restrictions on the heights of buildings in the case of educational, institutional, assembly, storage and hazardous occupancies is specified in col. 3 of Table 2.
Note 2: This table has been prepared, taking into account the combustible content in the different occupancies as well as the fire resistance offered by the type of construction.
Note 3: This table shall be modified by the authority, taking into account the other aspects as given below:
Note 4: The FAR values specified in this table may be increased 20 percent for the following services:
a) A basement or cellar; space under a building constructed on stilts and used as a parking space and air-conditioning plant room used as accessory to the principal use;
b) Watchman’s booth, pump house, garbage shaft, electric cabin or substation and other utility structures meant for the services of the building under consideration;
c) Projections and accessory buildings as specifically exempted under the code; and
d) Staircase room and lift rooms above the topmost storey; architectural features; and chimneys and elevated tanks of dimensions as permissible under the code; the area of the lift shaft shall be taken only on one floor.
Note 5: In so far as single storey storage and hazardous occupancies are concerned, they would be further governed by Volume to Plot Area Ratio (VPR) to be decided by the authority.
5.1. General – Every room intended for human habitation should have an interior or exterior open space or an open verandah open to such interior or exterior open space.
The open space inside and around a building have essentially to cater for the lighting and ventilation requirements of the rooms abutting such open spaces, and in the case of buildings abutting on streets in the front, rear or sides, the open spaces provided should be sufficient for the future widening of such streets.
5.2. Open spaces separate for each building or wing – The open spaces should be separate or distinct for each building and where a building has two or more wings, each wing should have separate or distinct open spaces for the purpose of lighting and ventilation of the wings.
However, separation between accessory and main buildings more than 7 m in height should not be less than 1.5 m; for buildings up to 7 m in height, no such separation shall be required.
5.3. Residential buildings
5.3.1. Exterior open space
188.8.131.52. Front open spaces
a) Every building fronting a street should have a front space, forming an integral part of the site as below:
Front open space Min.
Width of street fronting the plot
7.5 to 18
18 to 30
* For buildings up to a maximum height of 7 m.
Note: In case a building abuts two or more streets the value of open spaces is to be based on the average width of streets, of 1.8 m for cases (ii), (iii) and (iv).
b) For streets less than 7.5 m in width, the distance of the building (building line) should be at least 5 m from the centre line of the street)
Note: This limiting distance has to be determined by the authority for individual road/street widths taking into account the traffic flow.
184.108.40.206. Rear open space
a) Every residential building should have a rear open space, forming an integral part of the site, of an average width of 3 m and at no place measuring less than 1.8 m, except that in the case of a back-to-back site, the width of the rear open space should be 3 m throughout. Subject to the condition of free ventilation, the open space left upto half the width of the plot should also be taken into account for calculating the average width of the rear open space. For plots of depth less than 9 m, for building upto 7 m in height, the rear open space may be reduced to 1.5 m.
b) Rear open space to extend throughout the rear wall – The rear open space should be co-extensive with the entire face of the rear wall. If a building abuts on two or more streets, such rear open space should be provided throughout the face of the rear wall. Such rear wall should be the wall on the opposite side of the face of the building abutting on the wider street, unless the authority directs otherwise.
220.127.116.11. Side open space
a) Every semi detached and detached building should have a permanently open air space, forming an integral part of the site as below:
1) For detached buildings, there should be a minimum side open space of 3 m on both the sides.
Note: For detached residential buildings, there should be a minimum side open space of 3 m on both the sides.
2) For semi-detached buildings, there should be a minimum side open space of 3 m on one side.
Note: For semi-detached buildings up to 7 m in height on lots with a frontage less than 9 m, the side open space may be reduced to 1.5 m.
3) For row-type buildings, no side open is required.
b) In the case of semi-detached buildings, the open spaces provided on one side should be as in (a) and all habitable rooms should abut either on this side open space or front and rare open spaces or an interior open space.
5.3.2. The provisions of 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124 are not applicable to parking lock-up garages up to 3 m in height located at a distance of 7.5 m in any street line or font boundary of the plot.
5.3.3. The open spaces mentioned in 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52 should be for residential buildings up to a height of 10 m.
184.108.40.206. For buildings of height above 10 m, the open spaces (side and rear) should be as given in Table 2.
Table 2 Side and rare open spaces for different heights of buildings (Clause 220.127.116.11)
Height of buildings
Side and rear open spaces to be left around building
53 and above
Note 1: For buildings above 24 m in height, there should be a minimum front open space of 6 m.
Note 2: Where rooms do not derive light and ventilation from the exterior open space, the width of such exterior open space as given in col. 3 may be reduced by 1 m subject to a minimum of 3 m and a maximum of 8 m. No further projections shall be permitted.
Note 3: If the length or depth of the building exceeds 40 m, add to col. 3 ten percent of length or depth of building minus 4.0 m.
18.104.22.168. For tower-like structures, as an alternative to 22.214.171.124, open spaces should be as below:
a) Up to a height of 24 m, with one setback, the open spaces at the ground level, should be not less than 6 m;
b) For heights between 24 and 37.5 m with one setback, the open spaces at the ground level should not be less than 9 m.
c) For heights above 37.5 m with two set-backs, the open spaces at the ground level should not be less than 12 m; and
d) The deficiency in the open spaces should be made good to satisfy 126.96.36.199 through the setbacks at the upper levels; these setbacks should not be accessible from individual rooms/flats at these levels.
5.3.4. The front open space would govern the height of the building.
5.3.5. Interior open spaces
a) Inner courtyard – In case the whole of one side of every room excepting bath, WC and store room is not abutting on either the front, rear or side(s) open spaces it should abut on an inner courtyard where minimum width should be 3 m.
Further, the inner courtyard should have an area, throughout its height of not less than the square of one-fifth the height of the highest wall abutting the courtyard. Provided that when any room (excluding staircase bay, bathroom and water closet) is dependent for its light and ventilation should be such as is required for each wing of the building.
Where only water closet and bathroom are abutting on the interior courtyard the size of the interior courtyard should be in line with the provision for ventilation shaft as given in 5.3.5(b).
Ventilation shaft – For ventilating spaces for water closets and bathrooms, if not opening on to front, side, rear and interior open spaces, these should open on to the ventilation shaft, the size of which should not be less than the values given below:
Height of building
Size of ventilation shaft
Minimum size of shaft
Up to 10
Note 1: For buildings of height above 30 m, a mechanical ventilation system should be installed besides the provision of minimum ventilation shaft.
Note 2: For fully air-conditioned residential buildings for lodging purposes, the ventilation shaft need not be insisted upon, provided the air-conditioning system works in an uninterrupted manner, also, provided there is an alternative source of power supply.
c) Outer courtyard – The minimum width of the outer courtyard (as distinguished from its depth) should be not less than 2.4 m. if the width of the outer courtyard is less than 2.4m, it should be treated as a notch and the provisions of outer courtyard should apply. However, if the depth of the outer courtyard is more than the width, the provisions of 5.1.2 should apply for the open spaces to be left between the wings.
5.3.6. Joint open air space – Every such interior or exterior open air space, unless the latter is a street, should be maintained for the benefit of such building exclusively and should be entirely within the owner’s own premises.
If such interior or exterior open air space is intended to be used for the benefit of more than one building belonging to the same owner, the width of such open air space should be the one specified for the tallest building as specified in 5.3.3 abutting on such open air space.
If such interior or exterior open air space is jointly owned by more than one person, its width should also be as specified in 5.3, provided every such person agrees to allow his portion of such joint open air space to be used for the benefit of every building abutting on such joint open air space and provided he sends such written consent to the authority for record. Such common open air space should thenceforth be treated, as a permanently open air space required for the purposes of the this section. No boundary wall between such joint open air space should be erected or raised to a height of more than 2.0 m.
5.4. Other occupancies
5.4.1. Open spaces for other occupancies should be as below
a) Educational buildings – Except for nursery schools, the open spaces around the building should be not less than 6 m;
b) Institutional buildings – The open space at front should not be less than 12 m and the other open spaces around the building should not be less than 6 m;
c) Assembly buildings – The open space at front should be not less than 12 m and other spaces not less than 6 m;
Note: However, if assembly buildings are permitted in purely residential zones, the open spaces around the building should be not less than 12 m.
d) Business, mercantile and storage buildings – The open spaces around the building should be not less than 4.5 m. where these occur in purely residential zone or in a residential with shops line zone the open spaces may be relaxed.
e) Industrial buildings - The open spaces around the building should be not less than 4.5 m for heights up to 16 m, with an increase in the open spaces of 0.25 m for every increase of 1 m or fraction thereof in height above 16 m; and
Note: Special rules for narrow industrial plots in the city, namely, plots less than 15 m in width, and with appropriate set-backs from certain streets and highways, should be applicable.
f) Hazardous occupancies – The open spaces around the building should be as specified for industrial buildings.
5.5. Exemption to open spaces
5.5.1. Projection into open spaces – Every open space provided either interior or exterior should be kept free from any erection thereon and should be open to the sky, except as below:
a) Cornice, roof or weather shade not more than 0.75 m wide;
b) Sunshades over windows/ventilators or other openings not more than 0.75 m, wide;
c) Canopy at first level, but not to be used as sitout with clearance of 1.5 m between the plot boundary and the canopy.
d) Projected balcony at higher floors of width not more than 0.9 m; and
e) Projecting rooms/balconies [see 5.5.1(d)] at alternate floors such that rooms of the lower two floors get light and air and the projection being not more than the height of the storey immediately below.
However, these projections into open spaces should not reduce the minimum required open spaces.
188.8.131.52. Accessory building – The following accessory buildings may be permitted in the open spaces:
a) In an existing building, sanitary block of 2.4 m in height subject to a maximum of 4 m in the rear open space at a distance of 1.5 m from the rear boundary may be permitted, where facilities are not adequate;
b) Parking lock-up garages not exceeding 2.4 m in height should be permitted in the side or rear open spaces at a distance of 7.5 m from any road line or the front boundary of the plot; and
c) Suction tank and pump room each up to 2.5 m in area.
5.5.2. Projection into street
184.108.40.206. In existing built-up or congested areas, no projection of any sort whatsoever, except sunshades (see 220.127.116.11) extending more than 23 cm below a height of 4.3 m, should project over the road or over any drain or over any portion outside the boundaries of the site, provided the projection arising out of the vertical part of the rain-water spouts projection at the road level or the water pipe may be permitted in accordance with the drainage plan.
18.104.22.168. Porticos in existing developed area - Porticos in bazar areas of existing developed areas may be permitted to project on road and subject to the following limitations:
a) Porticos may be allowed on such roads leaving a minimum clear space of 28 m between kerbs;
b) The porticos should not be less than 3 m wide;
c) Nothing should be allowed to be constructed on the portico, which should be used as open terrace;
d) Nothing should be allowed to project beyond the line of arcades; and
e) The space under the portico should be paved and channeled as required.
22.214.171.124. Sunshades over windows and ventilators – Projections of sunshades over windows or ventilators in existing built-up or congested areas, when permitted by the authority should fulfill the following conditions:
a) No sunshade should be permitted over the road or over any drain or over any portion outside the boundaries of the site below a height of 2.8 m from the road level;
b) Sunshades provided above a height of 2.8 m from the ground level should be permitted to project up to a maximum width of 60 cm, if the road over which they project exceeds 9 m in width; and
c) No sunshade should be permitted on roads less than 9 m in width or on roads having no footpaths.
5.6. Limitations to open space
5.6.1. Safeguard against reduction of open space – No construction work on a building, should be allowed if such work operates to reduce an open air space of any other adjoining buildings, belonging to the same owner to an extent less than what is prescribed at the time of the proposed work or to reduce further such open space, if it is already less than that prescribed.
5.6.2. Additions or extensions to a building – Additions or extensions to a building should be allowed, provided the open spaces for the additions/extensions satisfy 5.3 after such additions/extensions are made.
6.1. For high rise buildings, the following additional provisions of means of access to the building should be ensured:
a) The width of the main street on which the building abuts should not be less than 12 m and one end of this street should join another street not less than 12 m in width;
b) The road should not end in a dead end;
c) The compulsory open spaces around the building should not be used for parking; and
d) Adequate passageway and clearance required for fire fighting vehicles to enter the premises should be provided at the main entrance; the width of such entrance should be not less than 4.5 m. If an arch or covered gate is constructed, it should have a clear head-room of not less than 5 m.
6.2. Mixed occupancy – When any building is used for more than one type of occupancy, it should conform to the requirements for the most hazardous of the occupancies. If mixed occupancies are separated by a separating wall of 4 h fire rating, the occupancies should be treated individually.
SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE SAFETY OF BUILDINGS (GENERAL): ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS (Extract of IS: 1646-1997)
This standard covers recommendations relating to fire safety of electrical installations in buildings.
The Indian Standards listed in Annex A contain provisions, which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards given in Annex A.
3.1. Besides conforming to this section all equipment shall comply with relevant Indian Standard Specifications (wherever available) as regards construction, temperature rise, current rating, overloads and performance, etc, where an Indian Standard does not exist the various items of electrical equipment’s should be those approved by the competent authority.
Execution of work unless otherwise exempted under the appropriate rule of the Indian Electricity Rules, the work of electrical installations shall be carried out by an electrical contractor licensed and under the direct supervision of a person holding a certificate of competency and by persons holding a valid permit issued and recognized by any Indian Government.
All equipment shall be capable of developing and/or consuming the rated power safely and continuously (unless specifically meant for intermittent use), without undue heating, sparking, noise and vibration.
All electrical equipment shall be securely mounted on the surface on which they are installed.
3.2. All electrical equipment, fittings, accessories and wiring systems in locations which are exposed to the following shall be of types approved for particular situations and subject to special conditions as laid down in the appropriate clauses of this code:
b) Flammable or other gases, vapour or liquids having deleterious effect on equipment and conductors or creating dangerous situations;
c) Dust and fibrous accumulations;
d) Damp or wet locations; and
e) Excessive temperature.
3.3 Manufacturer’s name, trademark or other description markings by which the manufacturer may be identified shall be placed n all electrical equipment, accessories, electrical cables, etc. Other markings like voltage current and wattage shall also be provided as necessary. Marking shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environmental conditions.
3.4. The type of wiring installed in a particular occupancy shall be as permitted under the relevant provision of this standard.
3.5. Where aluminium conductors are used in the electrical installation, special precautionary measures as given in IS: 732 shall be followed.
4.1. The term power equipment shall be deemed to include motors, motor-generators, control gears, switch gears, rotary converters, rotary balances, rotary condensers phase advancers, frequency changers and any other rotating electrical equipment, rectifiers and inverters.
4.2. All electrical equipment located in situations where:
a) The atmosphere is likely to contain flammable/explosive gases or vapours; and
b) Combustible dust, fluff or similar materials like saw mills and other wood working occupancies, cotton/jute/wooden/viscose and acrylic, nylon 66 fibre mills, flour mill, pulverizing works, etc, shall comply with the special requirements in respect of Hazardous Location specified in 13.
4.3. Equipment which depends on natural air for cooling shall be so located and installed that air flow over the exposed cooling surface shall not be prevented by adjacent equipment or walls. For floor mounted equipment, clearance between top surface of the equipment and the adjacent surface shall be provided to dissipate rising hot air.
4.4. Equipment ventilating openings shall be so installed that no obstruction may prevent free air circulation through them; nor shall any material be dumped or allowed to settle on them so as to clog the ventilation openings or interfere in any way with normal cooling of such equipment
4.5. All equipment of more than ¼ kW shall be separated from unprotected woodwork by a distance of at least 300 mm horizontally and 1200 mm vertically. Equipment of ¼ kW or less, except those of totally enclosed type, shall be suitably guarded to avoid heat being transmitted to readily combustible material in the vicinity.
4.6. Equipment shall be periodically inspected and maintained as per relevant Indian Standards by competent staff who shall keep complete records of all such activities.
4.7. The position of equipment shall be selected with due consideration of accessibility, maintenance and overhaul.
4.8. Equipment terminals shall be rigidly designed and planned according to size and type of machine. Industrial motors shall have a robust metal clad terminal box of adequate dimensions arranged to receive armored or vulcanized rubber insulated/PVC cables in conduits without unnecessary bends in the cables. All terminal boxes shall be entirely reptile, rodent and insect proof.
Switchboards shall be erected in easily accessible and approved positions where cotton fluff, dust or dirt is not present. The switchboard shall be located in dry locations.
The space around the switchboards shall not be used for storing of clothing or other materials, even for temporary period.
Each outgoing circuit from the switchboard shall be separately controlled by a suitable automatic circuit breaker or linked switches and cutouts. In case the electrical installation draws power from a distribution transformer having a capacity of 150 kVA or more, the switches shall be provided with HRC fuses at all fuse points, irrespective of current rating of the circuit. This, however, need not be insisted in case of low tension installation.
All switches and circuit breakers shall be operated from the front of the switchboard.
All fuses shall be mounted on the front of the switchboard as far as practicable.
All screws, bolts and nuts, which secure current carrying parts to the board, shall be of brass, copper or similar rustproof material.
All wires and cables shall be provided with soldered or approved lugs or crimped joints or any other approved means of connection.
In situations where the atmosphere is likely to contain explosives gases or vapour, switchboards shall be of explosion protected type. Selection of electrical equipment shall be as per IS 5571 (see also IS: 5572 for classification of hazardous areas). Alternately, pressurized air lock enclosures may be provided for switch rooms. Wherever not possible switch room should be themselves pressured.
Where the switchboard is erected in a room of a building isolated from the source of supply or at a distance from it, adequate means of control and isolation shall be provided both near the boards and at the origin of supply.
All switchboards shall be of metal clad totally enclosed type or any insulated pattern which should be fixed at close proximity to the point of entry of supply.
In case of outgoing circuits from the switchboard, where the current rating exceeds 63A, connection between the bus bar chamber and the automatic circuit breaker or switch fuse or any other control gear shall be made only by solid connections.
Timber shall not be used in construction of a switchboard.
All circuits shall be clearly and indelibly labeled for identification in English and vernacular.
Molded case circuit breakers shall not be permitted except inside a metal enclosure.
The neutral of each main and branch main circuit shall be provided with a removable link placed in an easily accessible position, for purpose of testing. The neutral shall not be punched at the back of the board.
All equipment shall be of metal clad construction throughout, dust tight, suitably proportioned and of adequate capacity and shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards.
Equipment shall be accessible at all times, stacks of goods and the like shall not impede access to any part of the equipment.
Wiring to and from the gear shall be of the armored, mineral insulated or screwed steel conduit type and provision shall be made to secure the same by approved and efficient mechanical methods. Flexible tubing shall not be accepted for general wiring. It may, however, be used for connections between the terminal boxes of motors and starters, switches and motors but the length shall be restricted to a maximum of 1 200 mm.
Note: Non-metallic conduits conforming to IS: 9537(Part 3) may be used for medium voltage installation, subject to following conditions:
a) The conduits should be supported not more than 800 mm distance and should have suitable joints.
b) Separate earthling conductor shall be run inside the conduit for earthling the equipment to which the conductor is connected.
c) Expansion joints shall be provided where required to compensate for thermal expansion and contraction.
Such non-metallic conduit shall not however be allowed in following locations:
a) In locations less than 2.5 m above walking floor level unless protected against mechanical damage.
b) Where ambient temperature is likely to be above 55°C at some time or other during year.
c) In concealed places of combustible construction.
d) In locations where the atmosphere is likely to contain flammable gases or vapours.
e) In locations where the surrounding atmosphere is likely to affect the non-metallic conduits.
The ends of all conduits shall be bushed.
All unused cable holes shall be effectively closed.
All current carrying parts, namely terminals, washers and clips shall be of copper, brass or of any other equally non-rusting material, properly tinned at joints.
All cables shall be provided with soldered lugs or other approved means for connection.
Where a distribution board or group of distribution boards is/are erected in a room of a building isolated from the source of supply, adequate means of control and isolation shall be provided both near the board and at the origin of supply. Similar means of control and isolation shall be provided even if the source of supply and the distribution board(s) is/are located inside the same compartment but separated from each other by more than 15 m.
Outgoing circuits shall be clearly marked in English and vernacular, indicating the department or place or item controlled, by each.
All circuits shall be arranged symmetrically, as far as practicable.
Each circuit from a main distribution board shall be provided with a circuit breaker, linked switches or cutouts.
Looping of conductors and tee joints in power wiring shall be provided with a circuit breaker, linked switches or cutouts.
Detachable inspection covers shall be provided to examine connections.
Woodwork shall not be permitted mounting of or construction of framework of any ironclad switch control or distribution gear.
Motors shall not be connected to lighting distribution boards.
Suitable guard enclosures shall be provided to protect exposed current carrying parts of motors and insulation of motor leads where installed directly under equipment or in other locations where dripping or spraying of oil, water or other injurious liquids may occur, unless the motor is designed for such conditions.
In situations where dust or flying materials may collect on or in motors in such quantities as to seriously interfere with ventilation or cooling of motors, totally enclosed or totally enclosed fan cooled motors that will not overheat under prevailing conditions, shall be used.
7.1. Every oil-filled apparatus, such as transformer, static condenser, switchgear or oil circuit breaker having an individual or aggregate oil capacity of 2 000 litres or more shall be housed in a locked, weather and fire resistant building and shall be properly ventilated to the outside of the building only. The building housing the oil-filled apparatus shall be separated by a distance of not less than 6 m from all other buildings.
1. If the building housing the transformer is within 6 m of the surrounding building there shall not be any door or window opening in the substation or the surrounding building.
2. If the building or compartment housing oil-filled apparatus is communicating with another building or compartment, the substation shall be segregated by separating walls of 355 mm thick brick wall or
230 mm thick RCC, carried up to roof level with door openings therein protected by single fireproof doors of 2 h rating.
3. No withstanding the above, if the substations supplies power to fire pumps, the same shall be segregated from, the adjoining building by 400 mm thick brick wall or 300 mm thick RCC wall without any door opening therein where, however, door openings are absolutely necessary, the openings shall be protected by double fire resisting doors of 2 h rating each. If the substation is attached to a storeyed structure, in addition to segregations, it will also be necessary for the substation to be provided with RCC slab roof.
7.2. Each oil-filled apparatus, such as transformer, bank of static condensers, including high tension circuit breakers, switch and main distribution boards, having an individual or aggregate oil capacity of 2 000 litres, shall also be segregated from all other apparatus by 355 mm thick fire resisting brick wall or 230 mm thick RCC. The separating wall shall be carried right up to the roof level unless the roof is more than 3 m above the highest point of the equipment, in which case the all shall be carried up to a height at least 600 mm above the top of the equipment so separated.
1. This provision need not be applied to furnace and rectifier transformers as also to transformers of testing apparatus or other equipment of which the transformer is an integral part, whether they are oil-filled or not.
2. The requirements given under this rule, however, do not apply to dry type transformers or transformers having Sulphur hexafluoride, non-flammable coolants and having primary voltage not more than 33 kV.
3. If the substation supplies power to fire pumps, separating walls as described above will be necessary between the various items irrespective of the oil contents.
7.3. Each building or compartment housing oil-filled apparatus containing 2000 litres or more of oil shall be provided with oil drains of at least 150 mm in diameter and soak pits, the latter being not less than 2.5 m away from the substation. Floors shall be sloped not less than 1 in 96 towards oil drains. The soak pits shall be of sufficient capacity to take the entire oil content of the equipment and designed to provide for drainage of liquids to a safe location.
7.4. A minimum clearance of 750 mm shall be provided between the transformer or other apparatus and enclosing or separating walls.
7.5. Substations and switchgear rooms shall only be used to house the intended equipment. Storage of any kind/or any repair work shall not be permitted therein.
7.6. Suitable apparatus shall be provided in approved positions for the control and protection of windings of transformers.
7.7. All transformers shall have suitable isolating equipment on both high and low/medium tension side.
7.8. Cable trenches inside substations shall be filled with sand, pebbles or similar non-flammable materials or covered with incombustible slabs. If a number of cables are taken in a trench, it is desirable that cables are taken on racks.
7.9. All control gears shall be protected against rodents, reptiles and inspects.
7.10. It is essential in all transformer houses and in places of similar applications that an efficient and distinctive indicating device be provided to show clearly whether the supply in the main incoming cable is ‘On’ or ‘Off’ for the safety of fire-fighting personnel in the event of an outbreak of fire.
7.11. Transformers and equipment installed outdoors, having an individual or aggregate oil content of 2 000 litres or more shall be located in a suitably fenced and locked enclosure separated on all sides by at least 6 m from any building including substation. Separating walls are necessary between transformers having an individual or aggregate oil content of 2 000 litres.
1. There should be no door or window opening in the surrounding building, if the transformers are within 6 m thereof.
2. If the transformers are within 6 m of doors and window openings of surrounding buildings then they shall be protected by single fire proof doors and 6 mm thick wired glass in steel frames respectively.
3. Separating walls shall not be necessary in case of transformers having an aggregate oil capacity of less than 5 000 litres if the distance between transformers and other apparatus is more than 6 m or if the transformers are protected by an approved high velocity water spray system.
4. Where however oil capacity of individual transformer is larger than 5 000 litres separating walls shall be provided unless all equipment/building/plant are located at a clear distance of not less than the following:
Oil capacity of Individual Transformer (l)
Clear separating distance(m)
5 000 – 20 000
Over 20 000
5. The provisions of 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.11 are not applicable if the transformer is filled with non combustible insolent liquid.
All earth connections shall strictly comply with IS: 3043.
In no case shall gas, steam, sprinkler or humidifier pipes be used for an earth connection.
9.1. General Requirements
Only such wiring methods as are permissible for a particular situation or location as laid down in rules under this clause, shall be allowed.
Wherever aluminium conductors are used, the special precautionary measures laid down in IS: 732 shall be followed.
Conductors shall be insulated except where enclosed or bare conductors are specifically permitted under the rules.
Conductors exposed to oils, greases, vapours, gases, fumes, liquids or other substances having deleterious effects upon the conductor or its insulation shall be of approved type for the purpose.
Conductors may be permitted to be connected in parallel (electrically joined at two ends to form a single conductor only) if such conductors are of same length, material and cross-sectional area, have same types of insulation and terminated in same manner.
Where cables, conduits, cable ducts or turnings pass through floors, walls partitions or ceilings, the surrounding holes shall be made good with cement or similar incombustible material to the full thickness of floor, wall, etc. In addition where conductors are installed in channels, ducts, turnings or shafts passing through floors, walls, partitions or ceilings, suitable internal fire resisting barriers shall be provided to prevent spread of fire from one side to the other.
Cables of ac circuits installed in steel conduits shall always be so bunched that the cables of all phases and the neutral (if any) are contained in the same conduit.
Ducts of metal or insulating material and trucking shall be securely fixed and where they are liable to suffer mechanical damage shall be adequately protected.
Turnings shall be constructed of metal or non-combustible insulating materials.
Cables, cable ducting or trucking of metallic construction and conduits may be buried under ground provided they meet the following minimum earth cover requirements:
Minimum Depth of Earth Cover
Other type of conduits
Metallic ducting or turnings
Directly buried cables
450 mm (with concrete envelope of not less than 50 mm around the ducting of trunking)
No wiring system of any kind shall be permitted inside ducts needed for transporting dust, loose materials or flammable vapours. Electrical services shall not be installed in the same conduit or trunking as pipes or tubes or non electrical services like air, gas, oil, water, etc. Only PVC sheathed armored cables or rigid metallic conduits shall be allowed in ducts or plenums used for movement of environmental air.
Wiring shall be on distribution board system with main, branch main and final sub-circuit boards fixed at convenient positions and shall conform to IS: 732.
Conductors which are not arranged for connection to the same system and circuit or which supply different phases of the same supply, shall be kept apart throughout their entire run. This shall particularly apply to installations in which there are pilot lights in addition tot he main lighting and the like.
Conductors for final sub-circuits shall not be enclosed in the same conduit or casing as sub main and branch of main conductors.
Conductors which pass through windows or door frames, wood beams walls, ceilings and floors shall be protected by porcelain tubes or conduits according to the conditions. The tube or conduit shall extend at least 13 mm on both sides of the wall and 25 mm above the floor and below the ceiling.
All conduits ends shall be bushed.
Cables which are unarmoured shall be mechanically protected up to a height of 1.8 m above working floor level or up to the height of switchboard.
Branch main and distribution boards shall be mounted in suitable accessible positions, not higher than 2 m above floor level. Adequate working spaces and freedom from danger shall be provided.
Incoming mains shall be used for control of circuit in conjunction with suitable circuit breakers.
The system of wiring and all other details shall be suitable to the conditions prevailing.
Linked tumbler switches shall not be used for control of circuits.
Flexible leads shall hang vertically downwards from the ceiling rose without any obstructions, shall not be in contact with shafting structural member, pipe work, etc, and shall not be coiled or tied up but cut to correct length.
Flexible leads shall be renewed when they show signs of deterioration. Joints in flexible conductors of pendants shall not be permitted.
Flexible leads shall not be used where they are likely to swing due to ventilation or humidifier apparatus or any other cause; fixed rod or conduit protection shall be used in such cases.
Flexible leads and fittings shall not be allowed to vibrate.
Ceiling roses shall be securely fixed and shall be complete with caps.
Straight or slanting wall batten holder shall not be fitted at switchboard height or on the switchboard.
Shades or reflectors of light points shall not be in contract with structural members, pipe work, etc.
Temporary wiring shall not be permitted.
Pendants in close proximity to humidifiers shall be provided with approved watertight fittings.
Only rod pendants shall be used in industrial buildings like textile mills, flour mills, saw mills, etc.
In ducts and tunnels only bulkhead fittings with wires in conduits or armoured cables shall be used for lighting.
The base of accessories shall be of vitreous materials.
1. Bakelite ceiling roses may be permitted in industrial buildings except in areas where the atmosphere is likely to contain explosive gases or vapours.
2. Bakelite switches may be permitted in industrial buildings except in ‘Hazardous Locations’ as defined later in this section.
Reflector fittings meant to be suspended by chain shall not be suspended by string or any other similar material.
Fittings for lamps in places where considerable dust or fluff is present (such as willowing, lap breaking, waste opening, mixing, blowing, and raising rooms in textile mills, flour mills, saw mills and other wood working factories, etc) shall be of dust tight type conforming to IS 4013.
In situations where the atmosphere is likely to contain explosive/flammable gases or vapours, fittings of flameproof type shall be used unless otherwise permitted under clauses relating to ‘Hazardous Locations’.
The run or course of wiring shall be arranged to avoid crossing of belt drives; where such crossing is unavoidable mechanical protection shall be provided against damage by belt breakages.
The paper insulated lead covered cables shall not be brought right through the sealing box without a break. The conductors of paper insulated cables shall be terminated in the trifurcating box and tails of India Rubber (VIR) Conductors sweated by ferrules to the conductors of paper insulated cables shall be brought through the trifurcating box.
All filament lamps shall be so placed or so guarded as to prevent ignition of combustible material. Any shade or guard used for this purpose shall be suitable to withstand the heat of the lamp.
Wiring of lighting circuits shall be on distribution board system and circuit diagrams shall be attached to it.
Conductors shall be run as far as possible along the walls and ceiling, so as to be accessible for inspection.
Where two or more points are mounted, with a voltage differences exceeding 230 V between them, a minimum distance of 2 m between the points shall be maintained to avoid possibility of shocks.
Cord grips shall be provided for pendant lamp holders of bayonet contact type, and chain suspended reflector fittings shall have the cable entries made bell-shaped or bushed to avoid damaging the flexible cables. Chain suspended fittings, fans, etc, shall be fixed at a distance not exceeding 250 mm away from ceiling rose.
Where long spans occur between beams and supports, battens shall be provided for attachments of conduits, casing, or other wiring or fittings. The runners shall be of well seasoned teak wood, free form shakes, splits, etc, and shall not be less than following dimensions:
1.2 to 1.8
1.8 to 2.4
2.4 to 3.4
3.4 to 4.4
75 x 38
75 x 50
75 x 63
100 x 75
Alternatively, they may be suspended from a catenaries arrangement or be supported on steel sections of suitable size.
The wiring for hot air chambers shall be mounted on the walls outside the chamber, as far as possible. The light fittings inside the chambers shall be of oyster type or shall be waterproof fittings.
Where wiring is to be carried along the face of rolled steel joists or stanchions, a wooden or non-conducting backing, preferably of the full width of joists or stanchions shall first be laid on the joist or stanchions and secured rigidly thereto. Wooden pieces for the support of casing or conduit to steel joists or stanchions shall be secured by metal clips with at least two screws.
Scaffolding ropes shall not be tied round conduits, casings or other forms of wiring.
All strands of cables shall be fitted into terminals of switches, fuses, etc; strands of cables shall not be cut. In damp locations, the strands shall be soldered together.
10.2. The wiring methods specified in 10.3 to 10.7 shall only be permitted subjected to conditions stipulated therewith.
Conduits and fittings shall be of solid drawn and welded steel of heavy gauge screwed type, conforming to IS: 2667.
Note: Rigid non-metallic conduits conforming to IS: 9537(Part3) may, however, be used for low and medium tension installations except in locations mentioned under 9.3.5 and subject to the following conditions:
Conduits should be supported not more than 800 mm and should have suitable joints;
10.3.2. For earthling, separate earthling conductors shall be run inside the conduit from end to end; and
10.3.3. Expansion joints shall be provided, where required, to compensate for thermal expansion and contraction.
Solid drawn welded steel conduit shall be permitted under all atmospheric conditions and in all occupancies subject to stipulations laid down in 10.3.3 and 10.3.4.
In damp situations, such as textile sheds, the conduits shall be hot galvanized or zinc impregnated or treated with special rust-proof paint.
10.3.4. In occupancies like chemical factories, bleach and dye houses, where strong corrosive vapours are present special conduits or conduits with additional coatings of bitumen paint or with a glass wool lagging provided with a protective covering shall be used.
Non-metallic conduits shall not be permitted in the following locations:
(1). Where wiring height is less than 2.5 m above working floor level, unless protected against mechanical damage.
(2). Where exposed to ambient temperatures likely to be above 55° C at sometime or other during the year.
(3). In concealed places of combustible construction;
(4). Where the atmosphere is likely to contain flammable gases or vapour;
(5). Where conductor operates at voltage above 650 V; and
(6). In location where surrounding atmosphere is likely to affect the non-metallic conduits.
Flexible conduits shall not be used for general wiring. It may be, however used for connections between terminal boxes of motors and starters, switches and motors but the length shall be restricted to a maximum of 1 200 mm.
10.4. Mineral insulated and other types of metal sheathed cables
Mineral insulated metal sheathed cables and other types of metal sheathed cables are permitted under all atmospheric conditions and in all occupancies except as mentioned hereunder:
(1). Where they would be exposed to destructive corrosive conditions.
(2). Where directly buried under ground, without suitable protection against mechanical damage and corrosive conditions.
(3). Metal sheathed cables of other types shall not be directly buried under ground, nor shall they be used in wet locations unless:
a). the metallic sheath is impervious to moisture,
b). a lead sheath or waterproof jacket is provided under the sheath, and
c). the insulated conductors under the sheath are approved for use in wet locations.
In case of wet locations like in parts of laundries, tanneries, etc, and in locations where walls are frequently washed, a minimum clearance of 6 mm shall be maintained between mineral insulated cable and the wall to which it is affixed.
10.5. Armored cables
Armoured cables shall be permitted under all atmospheric conditions and in all occupancies except in commercial garages, storage battery rooms and in locations where they would be exposed to corrosive fumes or gases.
10.6. Tough rubber and other non-metallic sheathed cables
Tough rubber or plastic sheathed cables shall not be permitted in the following locations:
(1) Where considerable dust and/or fly in generally present (for example cotton and jute mills and other vegetables, fibre processing factories, flour mills, saw mills and other wood working factories, plastic and rubber goods factories, pulverising works, etc);
(2). Where atmosphere is likely to contain flammable/explosive gases or vapours;
(3). Where the hazardous trades or processes are carried out (for example, oil mills, paint and varnish factories);
(4). Where they would be exposed to mechanical damage (godowns, engine rooms, rope and motor alleys, etc); and
(5). Where wet processes are carried out.
These systems shall generally be permitted in office; and residential buildings. Appropriate authorities may however specially permit their use in industrial buildings of types other than those indicated in 10.6.
10.7. Cleared wiring system
This system shall be permitted for use in industrial buildings for low-tension circuits only. With prior approval of appropriate authority.
When installed in bleaching or dyeing sections of textile mills, the wiring shall be held by porcelain bobbins secured to teak wood battens by brass screws and the whole run inverted.
This system shall not be used for any type of building of permanent nature other than of the kind mentioned in 10.7.2.
10.8. Cable trays or wire or bus ducts
All cable trays or wire or bus ducts shall be constructed from earthed sheet metal, enclosed or open troughs with hinged or removable covers housing and protecting either electric wires and cables, installed at site, or factory mounted bare conductors of aluminium or copper and shall be capable of withstanding electro-mechanical stresses.
Such systems shall be permitted under all atmospheric conditions and all occupancies except in following locations:
(1). Where exposed to severe mechanical damage;
(2). Where exposed to corrosive vapour;
(3). Where the atmosphere is likely to contain flammable or explosive vapour ;
(4). Where wet processes are carried out; and
(5). Where it is concealed.
The system shall be securely supported at intervals not exceeding 1.5 m.
Such systems of totally enclosed type shall be permitted to be extended vertically through floors provided they are adequately protected against mechanical damage upto a minimum distance of 2.5 m above working floor level.
Dead ends of all cable troughs or ducts shall be closed.
Extensions and branches of such systems shall also be of the same type.
10.9. Under floor cables trenches (within buildings)
Such systems may be permitted under all atmospheric conditions and in all occupancies except where exposed to corrosive vapour and locations where flammable/explosive vapour or gases may be present, unless the cables or conductors are specially approved for such use or the trenches are completely filled with sand.
Conductors or cables inside the trenches shall be so mounted on insulated racks or other supports as to be at least 75 mm above trench bottoms.
The top of the trenches shall be covered with removable concrete slabs or chequered plates.
In case of long trenches, it is recommended that trench of more than 1 000 cm2 cross-sectional area is divided by incombustible barrier walls at intervals not exceeding 45 m. Such barrier walls shall be of at least 50 mm thickness and of the same height as of the cable trench. The cables shall be carried through holes in these barrier walls, which shall be made good thereafter to prevent passage of fire beyond the barriers (see also IS: 12459).
Note: This provision need not be applied if the trenches are completely filled with sand, pebbles, etc.
The combined cross-sectional area of all conductors or cables shall not exceed 40 percent of the internal cross-sectional area of the trench.
The trench shall be kept free of accumulation of water, dust and waste materials.
10.10. Compartmentation of cable tunnels / galleries
The requirement for Compartmentation of cable tunnels/galleries should be as per IS: 12459.
10.11. Flexible cables and cords
Flexible cables and cords shall be permitted only as:
(a) Pendants; (b)Wiring of fixtures; (c)Connections of portable appliances or lamps; (d)Lift cables; (e) Wiring for cranes and hoists; and (f) Connections to mains-operated electrical stickers and motors mounted on parts of a stationary machine, which undergo to and fro motion during operation.
Where a lighting fitting is supported by one or more flexible cords, the maximum mass to which twin flexible cords may be subjected shall be as follows:
Nominal cross sectional area of twin flexible cord, mm2
Number and diameter of lines, mm
Maximum permissible mass, kg
Where flexible cables or cords are exposed to risks of contact with oil or petrol or where cable which will not support combustion is required, use shall be made of cables or cords having a PVC or oil resisting and fire retardant sheath.
Flexible cables and cords shall not be used as fixed wiring unless contained in earthed metal or any other non-combustible and mechanically strong enclosure. This requirement need not, however, apply to short lengths of sheathed flexible cable or flexible cord used final connections to fixed apparatus or for connections of control gear of fluorescent lamps or discharge lamps. Non-sheathed flexible cables and flexible cords shall not be drawn into conduits or ducts.
Flexible cables or cords shall also not be run through holes in walls, ceiling or floors or through doors, windows or other similar openings. Nor shall they be permitted to be concealed behind walls, ceilings or floors.
10.12. Bare conductors
Bare conductors are permitted for low-tension side, of drawing frame transformer circuits where the potential difference does not exceed 12 volts. Bare or lightly insulated conductors of extra low voltage systems shall have adequate insulation and further protection, where necessary, to ensure that they do not cause risk of fire.
Bare conductors are also permitted for cranes and hoists subject to special conditions laid down in this code for such equipment.
10.13. Lightning protection and overhead lines
The lightning protection system for buildings shall generally conform to IS: 2309.
All overhead transmission lines, including compound lines shall not be run above any process or storage blocks or open storage site.
Lightning arrestors shall be provided for lines at both ends and at supports were exposed to and liable to damage or injury from lightning. The arrestors shall preferably be of the non-horn type of low and medium tension because of likely damage of buds and distortion.
10.14. Wall-Plugs and sockets
All wall plugs and sockets in industrial buildings shall be of metal clad three pin pattern separately controlled by a switch, adjacent to the wall socket.
Note: This shall not apply in case of wall plug and socket with current rating of 5 amp and less.
Where it is necessary to earth the metal case to wall plug and /or portable appliances, the connection shall be done with soldered or approved legs or crimped joints or any other approved means of connection.
11.1. Fluorescent Lamp Fittings
11.1.1. These fittings may be one of the following types;
(1). General purpose type – For use in office, residence and similar locations.
(2). Industrial type – For use in places where dust, fly or corrosive vapour may be present (see Annex B for specification of fittings)
(3). Flameproof explosion type – For uses in places where flammable/explosive gases and vapour are present.
Where fumes or corrosive vapour or gases evolved due to chemical action, may be present, the reflector shall be of vitreous enamel or non-combustible plastic and wiring shall be in load sheathed conductors. Rayon Spinning Sections should have leaded coated metal reflectors or equipment.
The position of fittings shall be carefully selected to avoid any mechanical damage by belt drives, shafts, etc, and if necessary suitable guards shall be provided. The fittings shall be clear of the humidifier jets.
Where flammable/explosive gas or vapour may be present the fittings shall be of proof type.
11.2. Lighting switchboard
Main switches and fuses shall be metal clad and branch main board shall be metal clad when used on medium tension circuits.
All equipment shall be of robust construction, of adequate dimensions and thoroughly dust tight.
Each circuit from main distribution centre except fuse distribution board shall be provided with a circuit breaker of linked switches and cutouts.
Adequate means of control in approved positions shall be provided for distribution boards or a group of distribution boards which are fed from switch board or distributing centre and within a reasonable distance there from, such as one or more boards erected in a room or building isolated from source or supply.
Each final sub-circuit from a distribution board shall be controlled by a single pole switch connected to the live, outer or phase conductor.
Woodwork shall be used for mounting of or construction of the frame work of iron clad switch, distribution boards and control gear.
All equipment shall be numbered in English and vernacular for ready identification and to indicate the department, place or circuit controlled.
Circuits shall be arranged in symmetry as far as practicable.
12.1. Radio and Television sets and sound apparatus
The antenna of radio and television sets shall be connected through a double pole change over switch so connected that the antenna and the set completely earthed when not in use of during thunderstorms.
The antenna shall be provided with suitable lightening arrestors is situated in an area subject to heavy thunderstorms.
All circuits (aerial and all internal wiring) shall be so constructed that contract with any other electric light and power circuits is impossible.
The lead-in conductor shall be in copper and shall be not less than 2 mm in diameter.
The lead in conductor shall enter the building through a non-combustible and non-absorptive insulating bushing
12.2. X-ray Apparatus.
The installation and precautionary measures shall comply strictly with Rule 73 of Indian electrically Rules.
All such apparatus shall be located either in independent detached building or in compartments segregated by 355 mm thick brick walls with each opening protected by a fire resisting door/shutter.
12.3. Electrolyses Apparatus
Motor generator sets and/or separate generators and/or rectifiers together with necessary switch and control gear shall be separated by blank walls or located sufficiently away from the electrolyses. Circulating pumps and electrical equipment thereof, where mounted in close proximity to the electrolyses, shall be specially treated with anti-corrosive paint at frequent intervals. The electrical apparatus shall be of totally enclosed type or of an equivalent type.
Windings and insulation generally shall be specially treated to resist the corrosive effects of the electrolytic fumes.
12.4. Electrostatic charge eliminators
Electrostatic charge eliminating devices shall be provided for all high speed machines and equipment of similar type where static electricity may be developed, specially during dry seasons of the year.
12.5. Cold Storage Buildings
The lighting inside cold storage shall be in heavy gauged screwed steel conduit and water tight fittings shall be used throughout.
Machinery and control gear shall be mounted external to cold storages.
12.6. Electrically Driven Fire Pumps for Hydrant and/or Sprinkler Installation
In industry sufficient spare power shall always be available to drive the fire pump set(s) at all times throughout the year.
The power station and/or substation(s) supplying power for fire pump circuit shall be so placed that any falling masonry and the like from other buildings occasioned by a fire or other cause cannot damage the station and cut off power to the fire pump circuits.
Note: It is preferable to locate the sub-station(s) at least 6 m away from all surrounding buildings.
A direct feeder, without any tapings shall be laid from the substation to the pump house to ensure that the supply to the pumping set(s) is entirely independent of all other electrical equipment in the premises viz., even when power throughout the rest of the premises is switched off the supply to the fire pumps remains available uninterrupted. Overhead feeders to sub-stations supplying power to the fire pumps are not permitted within a horizontal distance of:
In case the feed to such sub-station is by means of under-ground cables, the cables shall not pass under any building or permanent structure.
Where there is more than one sources of power for the operation of pumping set(s), the electrical circuits shall be so designed as to ensure that when necessary the set(s) shall continue to operate without manual operation of any emergency switch, when the supply is interrupted.
Indicator lamps shall be fitted in prominent position(s) both in the sub-station and pump house, which would continuously glow as long as power is available to the fire pump(s). A sound alarm shall also be provided in the vent of power failure to the fire pumps.
The pump set(s) shall be of direct coupled type, securely mounted on robust bed-plate(s), if or horizontal type and should be free from vibrations at all variations of load.
The motors of fire pumps shall be either of totally enclosed or drip-proof type, the latter having air-inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels to exclude rodents, reptiles and insects.
The motors shall be wound for Class-E insulation and the windings shall be vacuum impregnated with heat and moisture-resisting varnish preferably glass-fibre insulated, to withstand tropical conditions.
Motors wound for high-tension supplies shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition at all times and particularly under monsoon conditions. The resistance shall be fed from medium voltage circuits.
Heating apparatus shall also be provided, when necessary, for medium tension motors where they are located below ground level, in order to maintain the motor winding in a dry condition. Adequate drainage shall also be provided in the pump house in such cases.
The pumping set shall preferably be housed in a separate building located at least 6 m away from all other buildings and at least 15 m away from units and/or storage tanks of plant handling flammable liquids/gases.
The motor rating should be adequate to drive the pump when operating on 150 percent of rated flow.
The fire pump circuit shall be protected at its origin by an automatic circuit breaker, from which either the no volt coil is removed or which is fitted with automatic re-setting type of no-volt coil, and the overload setting shall be so adjusted as to permit the motor to carry on overload of 50 percent of its rated capacity.
Cables for motors of fire pumps and their switchgear shall be armored or shall be enclosed in heavy gauge screwed steel conduit. Overhead lines shall not be permitted within 6 m of window, door or other opening in any of the protected building or any other building within 15 m of a protected building.
Equipment shall be painted throughout in red or in orange yellow colour.
Pumping sets shall be worked for at least 15 min each week and records of the same shall be maintained.
The incoming cable to the fire pump room shall terminate in an isolating switch fuse unit incorporating HRC fuses and where necessary provided with distribution system.
The starting switchgear for the fire pumps should be suitable direct on line starting but other alternative arrangements are acceptable with the approval of competent authority.
13.1. Hazardous locations
For the purpose of this code a location shall be regarded as hazardous where any one or more of the following conditions exist:
13.1.1. In locations where the atmosphere may contain flammable gases or vapours the classification of areas and selection of Electrical Equipment permitted to be installed therein shall be governed by IS: 5572 (Part 1) and IS: 5571 respectively. These requirements may, however, be modified in any particular situations as per the provisions of 13.1.3.
13.1.2. In case of process or operations involving combustible liquid(s), the presence of flammable vapour in the atmosphere may be deemed probable only if the flash point of the liquid(s) is below 32.2°C. However, locations where combustible/flammable liquids having flash points above 32.2°C but not above 93.3°C are handled shall be regarded as hazardous if such liquid(s) sprayed or (b) present in the form of mist or (c) heat to or above its flash point.
13.1.3. Wherever possible, the hazardous locations where installation of flameproof electrical equipment and fittings is required shall be located either in a detached building or in a compartment segregated from the remainder of the premises at least by a non-combustible fire resisting wall of 2 h rating without any kind of opening. Areas where, however, this is not practicable, shall be demarcated by fencing, railing or boundary lines painted on floor and all electrical equipment and fitting shall be of flameproof type within the hazardous location as also up to a distance from the boundaries of the demarcated area indicated hereunder:
a) Where the processes or operations necessitating the use of flame-proof equipment and fittings are carried out in the open.
All space within 6 m horizontally in any direction from the demarcating fencing/railing or boundary line and 3 m vertically above the highest hazard source.
b) Where the processes or operation necessitating the use of flame-proof equipment is carried out in enclosed space of equipment, as in the case of paint spray booths, baking or drying ovens, enameling or coating equipment, etc.
All space within 6 m horizontally of open face or door opening of such equipment and 3 m vertically above the roof of such equipment.
13.1.4. Except the wiring of rigid metal conduits and armoured cable wiring, no electrical equipment or fittings shall be permitted where it may be subjected to hazardous accumulation of readily ignitable deposits or residue, as within a spray painting booth or drying oven.
13.1.5. Illumination of spray painting booths or similar coating or finishing equipment through glass panels is permitted provided the:
13.1.6. Electrical installation in hazardous locations involving presence or use of combustible dust or fibre (vegetable, animal or synthetic) shall comply with the following special provisions:
Wiring methods – The type of wiring methods permitted shall be as follows:
Screwed steel or rigid metal conduits, mineral insulated or other sheathed cables, armoured cables and enclosed metal covered cable or bus ducts.
Motors- Motors shall be either of totally enclosed, or totally enclosed fan – cooled or dust tight type.
Distribution and panel boards – Location of distribution and panel boards where combustible dust is evolved shall be avoided as far as possible.
Switchgears – In areas where combustible dust may be present, oil circuit breakers shall be preferred.
Lighting fittings – Use of incandescent lamps shall be avoided as far as practicable and the fluorescent light fitting used shall be of industrial type.
In case of incandescent lamps being used, the fitting shall be enclosed in dust tight enclosures.
The leads from ceiling rose to lamp terminals shall be enclosed in conduits.
The installation of lifts and care of electrical installation shall fully comply with relevant provisions of IS: 1860 and IS: 4666.
13.3. Petrol stations
Electrically operated valves shall be so designed that they can also be manually operated.
The valve or valves shall close automatically when the electric supply ceases.
All fusible links in the circuit supplying the valve or valves shall be in series and on the live lead.
The circuit in which the possible links form a path for the current to the fire valve shall be a separate final sub-circuit controlled by a switch and by a fuse not exceeding 5A capacity on the line lead.
Equipment shall be of certified ‘flame proof’ type unless it is separately mounted and is away from any possible source of fumes.
13.4. Cinematographic projection and rewinding rooms
Where general lighting of the auditorium and exists can be controlled from within the enclosure, separate and independent means of control shall also be provided outside the enclosure and well away from it.
All switches, fuses and connections thereof shall by totally enclosed and iron-clad and all electric lamps and resistance’s so protected as to avoid their possibility of coming into contact with or in close proximity of films or other combustible materials. Resistance connected with auditorium or stage lighting shall not be located in projection or rewinding rooms.
The insulating material of all electric cables including leads to lamps shall be covered with fire resisting material.
There shall be no unnecessary and loose electric cable. The ‘leads’ to the projector lamps shall be taken as separate circuits from the source of supply and from the supply side of main fuses in general lighting circuit. Efficient switches and fuses shall be inserted at the point where the supply is taken, and, in addition, an efficient double pole switch shall be fitted in the cinematography lamp circuit inside the enclosure. When the cinematography lamp is working the voltage across the terminals of the doubles pole switch inside the enclosure shall not exceed 110 volts.
Cables from projector lamps should be taken as separate circuits from the source of supply and from the supply side of main fuses in general lighting circuit. Efficient switches and fuses should be inserted at the point where the supply is taken, and in addition, an efficient double pole switch should be fitted in the cinematograph lamp circuit inside the enclosure when the cinematograph lamp is working the voltage across the terminals of the double pole switch inside the enclosure should exceed 110 volts.
Resistance shall be made entirely of incombustible material and shall be so constructed and maintained that no coil or other part shall at any time become unduly heated. All resistances, with the exception of a resistance for regulating purposes shall be placed outside the enclosure and if reasonable practicable outside the auditorium. If inside the auditorium, they shall be protected by wire guard of other efficient means of preventing accidental contract.
The operator shall satisfy himself before the commencement of each performance that all cables lead connections and resistances are in proper working order. The resistance shall be inspected at least once during each performance. If any fault is detected, current shall be immediately switched off and shall remain switched off until the fault has been remedied
13.5. Accumulator or Battery Service Stations
Charging shall be carried out in well-ventilated situations and no smoking or naked lights shall be allowed.
Accumulators/batteries shall stand directly or non-ignitable, non-absorbing, non-conducting material, such as glass, porcelain or glazed earthenware. These materials shall rest on bench that shall be kept dry and shall be insulated from earth, or constructed of wood. It shall be of slat formation and treated with anti-sulfuric enamel.
1The accumulators shall be so arranged on the bench that potential difference exceeding 12 volts shall not exist between adjacent cells. The bunching of accumulators or arranging them in circular formation shall not be allowed.
All combustible material within a distance of 60 cm measured horizontally or within 2 metres measured vertically, from any accumulator shall be protected by asbestos sheets.
The charging circuit shall be provided with double pole switches and fuses, and, where a motor generator is employed the motor shall be provided with double pole switches and fuses and an automatic battery cutout shall be placed in the generator circuit. Any sub-circuit shall be provided with a fuse rated at not more than 7A in each live conductor.
Charging control panels shall be of durable non-ignitable, non-absorbent, non-conducting material and together with the rectifiers, transformers and supports for resistances of lamps, shall preferably be fixed to brick or similar wall. If, however, they are fixed to woodwork, such woodwork shall be covered with hard-asbestos sheets or similar fire-resistive material.
If accumulators are charged through resistance coils or lamps, such resistance coils or lamps shall be at least at distance of 60 cm from the nearest accumulator.
All wiring shall be securely mounted and protected against mechanical injury and efficient terminal or connections shall be provided from which the connections to the accumulators can be made. Rubber or P.V.C insulated wiring, if on insulators shall not be run in such a position that a fire arising at any accumulator could reach it. All conductors connecting supply terminals to the accumulators shall have either rubber or tough compound insulation without a tape or braid.
If the supply is taken from mains having one conductor earthed, the lamps or other resistances shall be connected on non-earthed lead and the accumulators connected direct to earthed conductor. Precaution shall be adopted to prevent the attendant receiving shocks.
Celluloid-cased accumulator shall not be kept on charge at any time without an attendant.
Spring-jacks shall be used for final connection to the accumulator terminals.
All insulators shall be kept as dust free as practicable.
13.6. High-rise buildings
All electric distribution cables/wiring shall be laid in a separate fire resistant duct. The duct shall be sealed at every floor with non-combustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct. Low and medium voltage wiring running in shafts and in false ceiling shall run in separate conduits.
Separate circuits for water pumps, lifts and staircase and corridor lighting and blowers in pressurizing system shall be provided directly from the main switchgear panel and these circuits shall be laid in separate conduits so that fire in one circuit will not affect the others. Master switches controlling essential service circuits shall be clearly labeled.
Staircase and corridor lights shall be on separate circuits and shall be independently connected so that it could be operated by on switch installation on the ground floor easily accessible to fire fighting staff at any time.
A standby electric generator shall be installed to supply power to staircase and corridor lighting circuits, fire lifts, the electrically operated fire pumps, pressurizing fans and blowers in case of failure of normal electric supply.
If more than 200 litres of oil are contained in any oil immersed electric gear a retaining sill threshold shall be provided around the gear or at the door.
14.1. General - Wiring shall either be in rigid steel conduits or armored cable. Wall brackets shall be eliminated and rod pendants and batten holder fittings shall be erected for the lamps, which shall be of a type protected against mechanical damage. Industrial type fluorescent light fittings shall, however, be permitted. The fittings for lamps shall be fixed at sufficient height above the highest level of bulk or other goods, which are stored in the godown. The circuit shall be controlled by a linked switch and cutouts, which shall be placed outside the godown in a convenient portion.
14.2. Raw jute godowns
The supply of electrically shall be at low voltage, that is, not exceeding 250 volts.
All wiring shall be encased in screwed steel conduits, the horizontal portions of which shall be sloped to allow condensed moisture to collect at set places where drainage outlets shall be provided. Such outlets shall be properly secured, against entry of insects, etc.
The cable used shall not be of less than 3/.029 size of 250-V grade and shall be of single core, rubber or PVC insulated, taped and branded.
No joint boxes or cutouts of cables shall be allowed inside the godown.
The conduit shall be affixed to (not recessed into) walls or roofs of godowns by means of saddles grouped on walls or roofs, the distance between saddles not exceeding 750 mm. All conduits must be laid externally on the outside walls or roofs of the godown except those lengths, which are required to carry the cables to light fittings. In the latter case, the conduit should be run above the level of highest stacking.
Only bulkhead light fittings of approved design with C.I. frames of robust construction and bulkhead glasses protected with thick steel lined guards shall be used.
Each lighting fitting shall be affixed to the wall or at not more than 450 mm below the roof of the godown. In case of a sprinklered godown each lighting fitting shall either be above the level of the sprinkler heads or not less than 300 mm below that level, it being understood that in no case shall a light fitting be installed low than 750 mm above the maximum stacking height.
All lights in the godown shall be controlled by one or more double pole metal-clad switches and fuses situated outside the godown in a convenient place and effectively protected from weather.
An indicator light controlled by the switch (es) shall be provided on the switch panel to show whether the lights inside the godown are on or off when the godown is closed and locked.
14.3. Strong rooms
Permanent lighting shall be provided by means of concealed wiring or solid drawn conduit wiring with the main switch located outside.
14.4. Nitrocellulose (and chemicals having similar fire hazard characteristics) godowns
14.4.1. Lamps in nitrocellulose storage rooms shall be rigid fixtures of glass enclosed and gasket type or flameproof fluorescent fittings. Lamps shall be controlled by a switch having a pole in each unearthed conductor. This switch shall be located outside the room and provided with a pilot light to indicate whether the switch is ‘on’ or ‘off’. This switch shall disconnect from all sources of supply all unearthed conductors terminating in any outlet in the room.
No socket outlets, electric motors, heaters, portable lights or other portable electric equipment shall not be located in nitrocellulose storage room.
15.1. The electrical installation in a new building or an addition to an existing installation shall be tested as per IS: 732 before it is put to service. The installation shall also be checked periodically as decided by the appropriate authority.
15.2. The following tests shall be carried out as required by the appropriate authority:
Full load and / or flash tests of rotating machinery, transformers, condensers, rectifiers, etc.
Insulation resistance tests of rotating machines, transformers, condensers, regulators, cable circuits, etc, by Meggers of appropriate voltage.
15.3. Lighting circuits shall be tested in following manner:
1) All switches ‘on’ and consuming devices in circuit, both poles connected together to obtain resistance to earth;
2) Between poles with lamps and other consuming devices removed and switches; on; and
3) With lamps and other consuming devices in position but switches ‘off’.
d) Earth continuity tests.
e) Power circuits to be tested between phases or outer and middle or neutral wires and to earth.
15.4. The appropriate authority shall have the right to vary the foregoing tests or carry out further tests as may be considered necessary.
16.1. All electrical inspections shall be inspected periodically and proper vigilance shall be kept. Any faults or defects that are notice shall be attended to and the defects rectified immediately
ANNEX A (Clause 2) LIST OF REFERRED INDIAN STANDARDS
1860 - 1980
2309 - 1989
2667 - 1988
3043 - 1987
4013 - 1967
4666 - 1980
9537 (Part 3) - 1983
Code of practice for electrical wiring installations (third revision)
Code of practice for installation, operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lifts (first revision)
Code of practice for the protection of buildings and allied structures against lighting (second revision)
Fittings for rigid steel conduits for electrical wiring (first revision)
Code of practice for earthing
Dust tight electric lighting fittings
Electric passenger and goods lifts (first revision)
Guide for selection of electrical equipment for hazardous areas (first revision)
Classification of hazardous areas (other than mines) having flammable gases and vapour for electrical installation (second revision)
Conduits for electrical installations: Part 3 Rigid plain conduits of insulating materials
Code of practice for fire – protection of cable runs
FLUORESCENT LAMP FITTINGS (Clause 11.11)
B-1.1. The general design of reflectors shall be of suitable type and material. The material shall be any suitable metal or plastic. If plastic of a combustible nature is used, it shall not be in contact with any electrical conducting part and shall not ignite by the radiation from the lamp.
B-1.2. The auxiliary equipment, that is, choke coil, power-factor condenser and starting unit (comprising thermal switch, radio-suppresser condenser) shall comply with relevant Indian Standards Specifications and shall preferably be mounted on the lamp fittings itself in a dust-tight enclosure, but if any item is mounted separately it shall be mounted on parts made of non-combustible material.
B-1.3. The wiring connections between the equipment, that is, chokes and condensers, shall be in PVC insulated wiring, properly clamped as necessary.
B-1.4. The suspension shall be made by two conduits or rods or robust chains, spaced to share equally the weight of the fitting.
B-1.5. The lamp or tube holders may be of plastic material provided these are of efficient and approved design, and that each tube is securely held by suitable metal spring clips at each end.
B-1.6. Earthing of the fixture shall be made with an unbroken conductor, the suspension chains (where employed) shall not be regarded as an approved means of earthing.
B-1.7. Fluorescent fixtures may be suspended from conduit wiring junction boxes as a means to prevent exposure of conductors from the fitting to the wiring ion the conduit. The connection inside the junction box shall be made to a porcelain junction base. Plain porcelain connectors shall not be permitted in the box.
B-2. Industrial type fittings
B-2.1. Mild steel trough suitably enameled or painted or any other robust reflectors shall be used which may, if necessary, have upward lighting slots.
B-2.2. The auxiliary equipment, that is, choke coil, power-factor condenser and starting unit (comprising thermal switch and radio-suppresser condenser) shall conform to relevant Indian Standards and shall be mounted on suitable framework in a separate detachable dust-proof non-ventilated box, with tight fitting covers securely fixed by machine screws and bolts to the main trough.
B-2.3. The wiring connections between the equipment housed in the choke and condenser box shall be vulcanized rubber insulated flexible cabling or approved PVC insulated conductors in heavy gauge, welded or solid-drawn steel conduit, or run internally and properly clamped.
B-2.4. suspension shall be made by two conduits spaced to share equally the weight of the fitting. Each conduit rod shall be provided with a spring-loaded ball-and-socket joint ceiling plate at the top, and the other end shall be bolted to the trough.
B-2.5. Lamp or tube holders shall be made of plastic provided an efficient and approved design is employed and each tube is held with suitable metal spring clips at each end.
B-2.6. Earthling of fixtures shall be made with an unbroken conductor.
B-2.7. Fluorescent fixtures may be suspended from conduit wiring junction boxes, as a means to prevent exposure of conductors from the fitting to the wiring in the conduit. The connection inside the junction box shall be made to a porcelain junction base. Plain porcelain connectors shall not be permitted in the box.
B-2.8. The chokes of all fluorescent fittings shall be mounted on incombustible material.
B-2.9. Incoming twin twisted flexible conductor shall enter the side of the box through a dust-tight bushed hole.
B-2.10. The lighting tubes and reflectors shall be kept clean to obtain maximum efficient light. Cleaning shall be carried out by competent personnel.
2. References - The following Indian Standards are necessary adjuncts to this standard:
Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general) : Electrical installation (first revision)
Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of portable first-aid fire extinguishers (second revision)
Fire protection – Safety sign
3. Causes of fire hazards at construction sites
At any construction workplace fire hazards may take place due to the following:
4.1. The construction site should be clear of any vegetation and debris prior to the start of construction.
4.2. Temporary buildings to house offices, canteen, shops and supplies are normally present at any large construction site and often they are grouped together. a fire in one can easily spread to the other and result in the destruction of all or ;may of them. A canteen building or any other unit being source of fuel should, therefore, be located sufficiently away from other units.
4.3. The construction site should be secured by a properly constructed fence.
4.4. Materials and equipment’s stored in storehouses, sheds or in open yards should be sub-divided into fire sections having sufficient firebreaks.
4.4.1. Inflammable liquids, gas cylinders and explosive substances should be stored separately at a distance not less than 15 m from buildings, plants and stores. For storing of explosive substances the existing regulations of Indian Explosives Act shall be followed.
4.5. Combustible materials like saw dust, wood shavings and packing materials should be marked clearly and stored separately.
4.6. Stairs should be kept free and not to be used as storage space.
4.7. Aisles of sufficient width should be provided for easy passage of people during an emergency.
4.8. Exit paths should be clearly identified and the minimum width of exit paths should be 1.5 m.
4.9. Good house keeping like orderly storage, cleaning of the site and regular removal of packing materials should be ensured.
4.10. At nights Hurricane Lamps with red colored paper should be displayed at proper location to ward off any accident.
5.1. All possible steps should be taken to have electrical connections and distribution through proper terminals.
Electrical wiring should be either PVC sheathed conductors or vulcanized rubber cables. All joints should be made in porcelain insulated conductors and the wiring should not be permitted to trail on the floor. No part of the electrical circuit should be laid within 150 mm of any combustible material. All electrical installations should be as per the requirements laid down in IS: 1646-1982 and National Electrical Code, 1984.
5.2. Open flames, welding and cutting operations, wherever necessary, should be carried out with stringent precautions and under proper supervision. All combustible materials lying around should be removed or covered with wet gunny bags, tin sheets, etc, as welding sparks can fly up to 10 m. After completion of such work the area should be inspected.
5.3. Storing, dispensing and usage of flammable liquids and disposal of rags soaked with paints, kerosene and other flammable liquids should be done properly. For this, the provisions given in 5.3.1 to 5.3.4 should be followed.
5.3.1. Storage of inflammable liquids - In case of storage in open space, the storage area should be fenced off with barbed wire and covered against dust and weather by a non-flammable covering like asbestos cement sheet.
In case of storage in confined spaces, the storage should be done in separate lockable room protected against danger from open electric sparks, cutting and welding sparks, open flames and smoking.
5.3.2. Measuring and dispensing of flammable liquids - Any spillage during measurement and dispensing should be caught in large leak-proof tray or pan.
5.3.3. Usage of flammable liquids - Only such amounts of flammable liquids should be issued as may be required for immediate use. Cans for carrying flammable liquids should be leak proof and properly Stoppard.
5.3.4. Rags soaked in paints, kerosene and other flammable liquids should be disposed off daily under supervision. Large quantities of such rags should not be allowed to accumulate where there is danger from sparks or in confined spaces.
5.4. Combustible scrap and other construction debris should be disposed off from the premises regularly. If scrap is to be burnt, the burning site should be specified and located at a distance not less than 12 m outside the construction site and away from combustible materials.
5.5. Use of tar kettles involves burning of fuels, hating of combustible materials and possible exposure of combustible construction. Kettles should be located outside the buildings and should never be placed on a wooden roof. Roofing mops soaked with tar are susceptible to spontaneous ignition and should not be let inside a building or near combustible materials.
5.6. If use of temporary electrical installations and insulation, is unavoidable, it should be ensured that these are properly guarded against the hazards of mechanical injury from construction equipment.
5.7. Gasoline powered fixed equipment should be located in such a way that exhausts are not directed towards combustible materials. Mobile equipment should be refueled and stored outside the building.
5.8. ‘No Smoking’ signs should be displayed at conspicuous locations and should be enforced. Fire protection safety signs as per IS: 12349-1988 may be used for display at appropriate places.
6.1. Adequate number of appropriate type fire extinguishers should be placed near vulnerable places, which are easily accessible. Guidelines given in IS: 2190-1970 and National Building Code of India, 2005 should be followed for the purpose.
6.2. Recharging of fire extinguishers and their proper maintenance should be ensured at prescribed time as per IS: 2190-1979.
6.3. Supervisors and workmen at the site should be trained in the use of first aid fire fighting equipment provided at site (see also National Building Code of India, 2005).
6.4. Water supply for fire fighting purpose should be provided at the construction site. This may be in the form of static water tank of adequate capacity or a hydrant line with adequate water pressure at all outlet points as per the details given in National Building Code of India, 2005.
6.5. Sufficient number of fire hoses with branch pipes should be provided at the site so that fire can be controlled till the arrival of the fire brigade.
6.6. Telephone number of local fire brigade should be prominently displayed near each telephone provided at construction site.
6.7. Watch and ward services should be provided at construction sites during holidays and nights.
6.8. Approach roads for fire fighting should be planned, properly maintained and kept free from blockage. Width of approach road should be not less than 5 m to facilitate fire fighting operations.
6.9. Emergency plan and fire order specifying the individual responsibility in the event of fire should be formulated and mock drills should be practiced periodically in case of large and important construction sites to ensure upkeep efficiency of fire fighting appliances.
6.10. A site engineer should be assigned with the specific responsibilities of ensuring compliance with fire safety provisions by contractors and also of coordinating with fire services and other agencies concerned with fire safety.
6.11. Periodical inspection should be carried out to identify any hazard and proper records maintained and follow up action taken. Guidelines given in IS: 2190-1979 should also be followed for the purpose.
6.12. Evaluation facilities and fire exits should be provided at all locations susceptible to fire hazards.
6.13. When space does not permit adequate clearance between heating facilities and combustible materials, an appropriate fire proof barrier should be installed.
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