TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION IN INDIA
In India, the road agencies in various States carry out the road works following the standards and codes adapted by organizations such as Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Indian Roads Congress (IRC), Central Public Works Department (CPWD), Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) etc. It is a common practice to follow International Specifications like BS, ASTM, AASHTO etc where Indian Standards are not available.
1. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
BIS is the national Standards body of India. BIS is a founder member of International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). It represents India in the International Organisation for Standards (ISO), the International Electro technical Commission (IEC) and the World Standards Service Network (WSSN). One of the major functions of the Bureau is the formulation, recognition and promotion of the Indian Standards. BIS (Formerly Indian Standards Institution). The National Building Code was first published by BIS in 1970 at the instance of the Planning Commission of India.
2. Indian Roads Congress (IRC)
Indian Roads Congress (IRC) was set up by the Government of India in 1934 with the objective of promoting and encouraging the science for building and maintenance of roads. In the past several years IRC has published several standards, specifications and codes of practice, related to road and bridge works. IRC also publish plans and specifications for the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH). The most important among those is the Specifications for Road and Bridge Works (5th revision 2013).
3. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) Specifications
Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) is an apex body under the Government of India. It is responsible for the planning, development and maintenance of National Highways in India. The standard specifications for road and bridge works in the country are evolved by MoRTH.
4. Central Public Works Department (CPWD)
The Central Public Works Department of India, commonly referred to as CPWD, is a Government of India owned authority in charge of public sector works. The CPWD, which came into existence in 1854, builds and maintains public buildings. CPWD also has developed many codes, manuals, schedules, technical specifications, design manuals and other necessary technical publications for effective working.
5. British Standards (BS)
British Standards are produced by the British Standards Institute (BSI) group established in 1901 under the National Standards Body (NSB) for the UK.
6. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM was formed in 1898 by Chemists and Engineers from the Pennsylvania Railroad, USA. In 2001, the Society became known as ASTM International.
7. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO) AASHTO, founded in 1914, is a standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols and guidelines used in highway design and construction. The association represents not only highways but air, rail, water, and public transportation as well.
8. INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDS
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organisation of the 163 member countries. ISO's main products are international standards. ISO also publishes technical reports, specifications, and guides.
Some ISO standards are mentioned below for reference:
9. HIGHWAY CLASSIFICATION
Roads are generally classified into Non-urban and Urban roads.
9.1 Non-urban roads
The six categories of non-urban roads in India are as below:
9.2 Urban roads
There are five categories of urban roads as below: