PROVISIONS FOR STRUCTURAL SAFETY
7.1 Structural design and safety
For any building under the jurisdiction of these bye-laws structural design/retrofitting shall only be carried out by a registered Structural Engineer on Record (SER) or Structural Design Agency on Record (SDAR). Proof checking of various designs/ reports shall be carried out by competent authority as per Table 7.1wherever applicable.
7.1.1 Additional provisions for natural hazard prone areas
Generally, the structural design of foundations, elements of masonry, timber, plain concrete, reinforced concrete, pre-stressed concrete and structural steel shall conform to the provisions of Part 6: Structural D–sign –
Section– 1 Loads, Forces and Effects
Section– 2 Soils and Foundations,
Section– 3 Timber and Bamboo,
Section– 4 Masonry,
Section– 5 Concrete &
Section– 6 Steel
Section– 7 Prefabrication Systems, Building and Mixed /Composite Construction of National Building Code of India (NBC), taking into consideration the Indian Standards as given below.
For General Structural Safety
1) IS: 456:2000 ‘Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete’.
2) IS: 800-2007 ‘Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel’.
3) IS: 801-1975 ‘Code of Practice for Use of Cold Formal Light Gauge Steel Structural Members in General Building Construction’
4) IS 875 (Part 2):1987 Design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures Part2 Imposed Loads.
5) IS 875 (Part 3):1987 Design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures Part 3 Wind Loads.
6) IS 875 (Part 4):1987 Design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures Part 4 Snow Loads.
7) IS 875 (Part 5):1987 Design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures Part 5 special loads and load combination.
8) IS: 883:1994 ‘Code of Practice for Design of Structural Timber in Building.
9) IS: 1904:1986 (R 2005) ‘Code of Practice for Structural Safety of Buildings: Foundation’
10) IS 1905:1987 ‘Code of Practice for Structural Safety of Buildings: Masonry Walls.
11) IS 2911(Part 1): Section 1: 2010 ‘Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Pile Foundation Section 1
Part 1: Section 2 Bored Cast-in-situ Piles
Part 1: Section 3 Driven Precast Concrete Piles
Part 1: Section 4 Bored Precast Concrete Piles
Part 2: Timber Piles
Part 3: Under Reamed Piles
Part 4: Load Test on Piles
For Cyclone/Wind Storm Protection
12) IS 875 (3):1987 ‘Code of Practice for Design Loads (other than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures, Part 3, Wind Loads’
13) Guidelines (Based on IS 875 (3)-1987) for improving the Cyclonic Resistance of Low rise houses and other building.
For Earthquake Protection
14) IS: 1893 (Part 1)-2002 ‘Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures(Fifth Revision)’
15) IS:13920-1993 ‘Ductile Detailing of reinforced Concrete structures subjected to Seismic ForcesCode of Practice
16) IS:4326-2013 ‘Earthquake Resistant Design and construction of buildings code of practice(second revision)’
17) IS:13828-1993 ‘Improving earthquake resistance of low strength masonry buildings-guidelines
18) IS:13827:1993 ‘Improving Earthquake Resistance of Earthen Buildings-Guidelines
19) IS:13935-2009 ‘Seismic Evaluation, Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings -Guidelines’
For Protection of Landslide Hazard
20) IS 14458 (Part 1): 1998 Guidelines for retaining wall for hill area: Part1Selection of type of wall.
21) IS 14458 (Part 2): 1997 Guidelines for retaining wall for hill area: Part 2 Design of retaining/breast walls
22) IS 14458 (Part 3): 1998 Guidelines for retaining wall for hill area: Part 3Construction of dry stone walls
23) IS 14496 (Part 2): 1998 Guidelines for preparation of landslide – Hazardzonation maps in mountainous terrains: Part 2 Macro-zonation.
Note: Whenever an Indian Standard including those referred in the National Building Code or the National Building Code is referred, the latest revision of the same shall be followed except specific criteria, if any, mentioned above against that code.
7.1.2 Structural Design Basis Report (SDBR)
In compliance of the design with the above Indian Standard, the Structural Engineer on Record will submit a structural design basis report in the Proforma attached herewith covering the essential safety requirements specified in the Standard.
The ‘Structural Design Basis Report (SDBR)’consists of four parts
MHA Expert Committee Report)
Part 1: General Information/ Data
Part 2: Load Bearing Masonry Buildings
Part 3: Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Part 4: Steel Buildings
i) Drawings and Documents to be submitted for approval of appropriate authorities shall include SDBR as detailed bow:
Part 1: Completed
Part 2: (if applicable) – completed
Part 3: (if applicable) – undertaking that completed Part 3 will be submitted before commencement of construction.
Part 4: (if applicable) – undertaking that completed Part 4 will be submitted before commencement of construction.
ii) SDBR as detailed below shall be submitted to the appropriate authority as soon as design of foundation is completed, but not later than one month prior to commencement of construction.
Part 1: Completed
Part-2, Part-3 or Part-4: (if applicable) Completed
7.1.3 Seismic strengthening/retrofitting
Prior to seismic strengthening/retrofitting of any existing structure, evaluation of the existing structure as regards structural vulnerability in the specified wind/seismic hazard zone shall be carried out by a RSE/RSDA. If as per the evaluation of the RSE/RSDA the seismic resistance is assessed to be less than the specified minimum seismic resistance as given in the note below, action will be initiated to carry out the upgrading of the seismic resistance of the building as per applicable standard guidelines.
1. For masonry buildings reference shall be made to IS 4326 and IS 13935
2. For concrete buildings and structures reference shall be made to IS15988: 2013 Seismic evaluation and strengthening of existing RCC buildings.
7.1.4 Buildings with Soft Storey
In case buildings with a flexible storeys, such as the ground storey consisting of open spaces for parking that is ‘Stilt buildings’ or any other storey with open halls, special arrangements are to be made to increase the lateral strength and stiffness of the soft/open storey such as Steel bracing / Shear walls / Brick infill’s between columns. Dynamic analysis of building is to be carried out including the strength and stiffness effects of infill’s and inelastic deformations in the members, particularly, those in the soft storey, and the structural members are to be designed accordingly. Alternatively, the following design criteria are to be adopted after carrying out the earthquake analysis, neglecting the effect of infill walls in other storeys:
a. The columns and beams of the soft storey shall be designed for 2.5 times the storey shears and moments, calculated under seismic loads specified in the other relevant clauses; or,
b. Besides the columns designed and detailed for the calculated storey shears and moments, shear walls shall be placed symmetrically in both directions of the building as far away from the Centre of the building as feasible; to be designed exclusively for 1.5 times the lateral storey shear force calculated as before. For details of design and provisions, IS 1893, Part 1 shall be referred.
7.1.5 Review of structural design
i. The Competent Authority shall create a Structural Design Review Panel(SDRP) consisting of senior SER’s and SDAR’s whose task will be to review and certify the design prepared by SER or SDAR whenever referred by the competent authority.
ii. The Reviewing Agency shall submit addendum to the certificate or a new certificate in case of subsequent changes in structural design.
iii. Table-6.1 gives requirements of SDRP for different seismic zones namely III,IV and V and for structures of different complexities.
iv. In seismic Zone II, buildings & structures greater than 40m in height will require proof checking by SDRP as per detail at Sl. no.3 of Table 7.1
Table 7.1 Proof Checking Requirements for Structural Design
|Sl.No||Type of Structure||Submission from SER or SDAR||To be proof checked|
Load Bearing Buildings up to
|SDBR*||Not to be checked|
Buildings up to seven storeys
(R.C.C/Steel framed structure)
|SDBR||To be checked|
|Preliminary design||To be checked|
Building greater than
seven storeys (R.C.C/Steel
|SDBR||To be checked|
|Preliminary design||To be checked|
Detailed structural design and
|To be checked|
|4||Non-Residential Buildings||SDBR||To be checked|
|Preliminary design||To be checked|
Detailed structural design and
|To be checked|
|* SDBR – Structural Design Basis Report|
1. Table 4.1 may be referred for occupant load/live loads for different building types.
2.At the preliminary proposal stage of a project, the objective is to undertake feasibility study/comparison of a number of possible alternatives of structural schemes and determine the most cost effective one, detailed structural calculations are not necessary for each alternative scheme. However, it is necessary to determine the member sizes and reinforcement content in order to determine the cost. By making conservative assumptions it is possible to derive simplified calculations for both analysis and design. This is called ‘Preliminary or approximate analysis, and design’.
After the most cost effective scheme is selected and signed-off by the Client, the detailed calculations are performed on the selected scheme to determine the precise structural members and composition (size, dimension and stress behavior), and this is called the ‘Detailed structural design’. In the aforesaid, the design of structural members is typically assumed to account for all the stress loads identified from section xx to be applicable in the given project.
3.Special structure means large span structures such as stadium, assembly halls, or tall structures such as water tanks, TV tower, chimney, etc. It will be seen from the Table 7.1 above that there is a wide range of structure typology, and the requirement by the Competent Authority for third party verification will depend on the type of structure.
7.1.6 Certification regarding structural safety in design
Structural Engineer on Record (SER) or Structural Design Agency on Record (SDAR) shall give a certificate of structural safety of design as per proforma given in Form-XV (of the MHA Expert Committee Report) at the time of completion (as per Clause 3.17)
7.1.7 Constructional safety
All construction except load bearing buildings up to 3 storeys shall be carried out under supervision of the Construction Engineer on Record (CER) or Construction Management Agency on Record (CMAR) for various seismic zones.
220.127.116.11 Certification of structural safety in construction
CER/ CMAR shall give a certificate of structural safety of construction as per proforma given in Form-XV(of the MHA Expert Committee Report) at the time of completion(as per Clause 3.17).
7.1.8 Quality control and inspection
All material and workmanship shall be of good quality conforming generally to accepted standards of Public Works Department and Indian standard specification and codes as included in Part-V Building Materials and Part-VII Construction practices and safety of National Building Code of India.
All the construction for high-rise buildings higher than seven storeys, public buildings and special structures shall be carried out under quality inspection program prepared and implemented under the Quality Auditor on Record (QAR) or Quality Auditor Agency on Record (QAAR) in seismic zones IV &V (as notified by the Government).
18.104.22.168 Certification of safety in quality of construction
Quality Auditor on Record (QAR) or Quality Auditor Agency on Record (QAAR)shall give a certificate of quality control as per proforma given in Form-XVIII (as notified by the Government). Quality Inspection Program to be carried on the site shall be worked out by QAR/QAAR in consultation with the owner, builder, CER / CMAR.
Note: Clause 7.1.7 and 7.1.8 shall not be applicable for Government buildings that are designed and constructed under the supervision of in-house architects/engineers.
7.1.9 Control of signage & outdoor display structures, cell phone towers and telephone Towers.
Following provisions shall apply for telecommunication infrastructure
a) Location: The Telecommunication Infrastructure shall be either placed on the building roof tops or on the ground or open space within the premises subject to other regulation.
b) Type of structure
i. Steel fabricated tower or antennae on M.S. pole
ii. Pre-fabricated shelters of fiber glass or P.V.C. on the building roof top /terrace for equipment.
iii. Masonry Structure/ Shelter on the ground for equipment.
iv. D.G. set with sound proof cover to reduce the noise level.
i. Every applicant has to obtain/ procure the necessary permission from the ‘Standing Advisory Committee on Radio Frequency Allocation’ (SACFA)issued by Ministry of Telecommunications.
ii. Every applicant will have to produce the structural safety & stability certificate for the tower as well as the building from the Structural Engineer on Record(SER) which shall be the liability of both owner and SER.
iii. Applicant has to produce / submit plans of structure to be erected.
d) Projection: No Pager and/or Telephone Tower shall project beyond the existing building line of the building on which it is erected in any direction.
The general requirement for inspection and certification of the development shall be as prescribed in Clause no.3.15
7.2.1 Maintenance of Buildings
In case of building older than fifty years, it shall be the duty of the owner of a building, to get his building inspected by a Registered Structural Engineer (RSE) within a year from the date of coming into force of these regulations. The Structural Inspection Report (Form No.16, of the MHA Expert Committee Report) shall be produced by the Owner to the Appropriate Authority. If any action, for ensuring the structural safety and stability of the building is to be taken, as recommended by SER, it shall be completed within five years. For other buildings, the owner shall get his building inspected after the age of building has crossed forty years. The procedure shall be followed as per above regulation.
7.2.2 Protective Measures in Natural Hazard Prone areas
In natural hazard, prone areas identified under the land use Zonal Regulations, structures buildings and installations which cannot be avoided, protective measures for such construction/development should be properly safeguarded based on the suggestion given in the Report of the MHA Expert Committee - Volume I.
7.2.3 Registration of Professionals
Presently, the legislation for the profession of architecture is applicable in the country in the form of Architects Act 1972, an Act of the Parliament of India. Accordingly, the qualifications, competence and service conditions followed in the profession of architecture are in accordance with the provisions of the said Act and the rules made there under. For other professions and professionals like engineers, structural engineers, landscape architects, urban designers, building supervisors, electrical engineers, developers/promoters there is no legislative frame available/applicable. Therefore, for appropriate qualifications, competence and responsibilities of professional involved in different types of development proposals shall be applicable as notified by the Government: Qualifications and Competence of Professionals and methods of determination of professional fees are suggested in clause 7.2.4.
7.2.4 Professional fees for SER/SDAR and CER/CMAR
Selection of professionals and determination of professional charges shall be done by the Authority, considering the following:
i. Structural safety of a building is the responsibility of the ‘SER/SDAR’ for proper design and the ‘CER/CMAR’ for proper construction, therefore it is imperative that selection and appointment of these professionals is made after verification of their antecedents.
ii. The fees to be paid to SER/SDAR for structural design may be specified keeping in view the size and complexity of the project.
iii. Similarly, fees for construction management to CER/CMAR may be specified keeping in view the size and complexity of the project and the duration for which construction management services have to be provided on the basis of the total cost of the project.
iv. Proof checking: Fees for Proof checking where carried out may vary based on the cost of the structural items enumerated in (ii) above.
7.2.5 Appointment of Professionals
The Owner/Developer shall appoint Town Planner on Record (TPR), Architect on Record (AR), Engineer on Record (ER), Structural Engineer on Record (SER),Structural Design Agency on Record (SDAR), Geotechnical Engineer on Record(GER), Construction Engineer on Record (CER), (CMAR), and Quality Auditor on Record (QAR) and Quality Audit Agency on Record (QAAR) as required. Details of qualification and requirement of registration shall be as notified by the Government & Appendix-I.
Proper written agreement(s), in standard format(s), shall be entered upon with such professional(s) engaged.
7.3 Alternative Materials, Methods of Design and Construction and Tests
The provision of the Bye-Laws are not intended to prevent the use of any material or method of design or construction not specifically prescribed by the bye-law provided any such alternative has been approved. The building materials approved by B.I.S. or any statutory body will form part of the approved building material and technology as part of the Bye-Laws.
The Authority shall promote and encourage use of Pre-fabricated factory made building components for medium to large scale projects that have significant impact. The use of ready mix concrete (RMC) shall also be encouraged for in-situ concrete constructions.
Clause 11.2.6 may be referred for further aspects of Sustainability and incentivized promotion of alternative materials, methods in construction.
LAND USE ZONES
In order to promote public health, safety and the general social welfare of the community, it is necessary to apply control and reasonable limitation on the development of land and buildings. This is to ensure that most appropriate, economical and healthy development of the Town/City takes place in accordance with the land use plan, and its continued maintenance over the years. For this purpose, the city is divided into number of use zones, such as residential, commercial, industrial, public and semi-public etc. Each zone has its own regulations, as the same set of regulations cannot be applied to the entire Town.
Zonal Regulations protects residential areas from the harmful invasions of commercial and industrial uses and at the same time promotes the orderly development of industrial and commercial areas, by suitable regulations on spacing of buildings to provide adequate light, air, protection from fire, etc. It prevents overcrowding in buildings and on land to ensure adequate facilities and services. Zonal is not retrospective. It does not prohibit the uses of land and buildings that are lawfully established prior to the coming into effect of these Zonal Regulations.
If these uses are contrary to the newly proposed uses, they are termed non-conforming uses and are gradually eliminated over years without inflicting unreasonable hardship upon the property owner. The Zonal Regulations and its enforcement ensure proper land use and development and form an integral part of the Master Plan. It also ensures solutions to problems of development under local conditions.
The Master Plan along with the Zonal Regulations approved under sub section (3)of section 13 of the Karnataka Town and Country Planning Act, 1961 approved by the Government, time to time shall be applicable.