02 SANITATION AND REQUIREMENTS



HEALTH, SANITATION AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS  

22.Means of access-

(a) Every person who erects a detached building shall provide as means of access to such building a clear way not less than 3.5 meters in width for buildings up to 3 storeys and 5 meters in width for buildings beyond three storeys from a street to the entrance door of such buildings; such pathways shall be maintained free from any obstruction and shall not at any time cause or permit any portion of any building below a height of 2.3 metres to overhang or to project over or into such passage.  

(b) He shall indicate upon the site plan, required to be furnished by him under bye-law 5, of the whole area of such means of access by a distinguishing colour and description.  

(c) He shall not any time erect or cause or permit to be erected or re-erected any building which in any way encroaches upon or diminishes the area so set apart for this purpose.  

(d) The space so set apart shall be separately distinguished from any house-gully, lane or open space required to be provided under any other bye-law made under these rules.  

(e) Every such means of access shall be paved, drained and lighted to the satisfaction of the Planning Authority/Local Authority concerned.  Provision of man -hole covers or any other fittings laid in such means of access shall be flushed with the finished surface level so as not to obstruct safe travel over the same.  

(f) A person who undertakes construction works on a building shall not reduce the access to any building previously existing below the minimum width as required under clause (a).  (g) No building shall be erected so as to deprive any other building of the means of access as provided in the bye-law.  

(h) The means of access under these bye-law shall not be deemed to be suitable and sufficient until it has been approved by the Planning Authority/Local Authority shall communicate after consulting the Town and Country Planning Department.  

23. Safeguard against reduction of open space-

No construction work on a building shall be allowed if such work operates to reduce an open space of any other adjoining building belonging to the same owner to an extent less than what is prescribed by any of the bye-laws in force at the time of the proposed work or to reduce further such open space if it is already less than that prescribed.  

24. Projections-

(1) No projections of any sort whatsoever except sunshades extending more than 23 cms. Below the height of 4.3 metres shall project over the road or over any drain or over any portion outside the boundaries of the site provided that the projection arising out of the vertical part of the rain water spouts projecting at the road level or the water pipe may be permitted in accordance with the drainage plan.  

2. Projection of sunshades over windows or ventilators when permitted by the Planning Authority/Local Authority shall fulfill the following conditions namely,-- 

(a) No sunshade shall be permitted over the road or over any drain or over any portion outside the boundaries of the site below a height of 2.8 metres from the road level.       

(b) Sunshades provided above a height of 2.8 metres from the ground level shall be permitted to project upto a maximum width of 60 cms. If the road over which the project exceeds 9 metres in width; and  (c) No sunshade shall be permitted on roads less than 9 metres in width or on roads having no footpaths.  

(3) Every set-back provided either in the side or rear shall be kept free from any erection thereon and shall be open to sky and no cornice roof or sunshade more than 0.75 metre shall overhand or project over the said set-back so as to reduce the width to less than minimum required.  In case of front, setback a clear distance of one metre open to sky shall be left from the boundary line of the plot towards the front of the building and no projection whatsoever should extend beyond the above limit.  

(4) Balconies in the existing developed areas may be permitted to project over the road or over any drain or over any portion outside the boundaries of the site to a maximum of one metre if the road over which they project exceeds 9 metres in width and no balcony shall be permitted on roads less 9 metres in width or on roads having no foot paths.  

(5) The distance between the existing electric lines or telegraph lines and any portion of the structure should be governed by the current rules of the Electricity Department or Telegraphs Department respectively, and its amendments from time to time.  

25. Minimum ceiling height of rooms-

Every habitable room in any building shall be in every part at least 2.80 metres in height from the surface of the floor to the underside of the roof slab or ceiling provided that in the case of slope roof the height shall not be less than 2.2 metres.  

26. Minimum size of habitable rooms-

No habitable room shall have a floor area of less than 9.3 sq.metres except in the case of hostels attached to recognized educational institutions the minimum size of a habitable room for the residence of a single person may be 8 sq.metres. The minimum width of a habitable room shall be 2.5 metres.  

27. Bathrooms and water closets-

(1) Every bathroom or water closet shall--  

(a) be so situated that at least one of its walls open to external air, and in case of bathrooms sit shall have a window or a ventilator open to external air of a superficial area of not less than 10% of the floor area ;  

(b) (I) have a floor area in case of bathrooms inclusive of water closet of not less than 2.8 sq.m. for which the smallest side shall not be less than 1.20 metres;  

(ii) in case of a bathroom exclusive of a water closet the floor area shall not be less than 1.80 sq.m. and the smallest side not less than 1.2 metres;  

c) have a right of not less than 2.5 metres;  

(d) not be directly over or under any other room other than another bathroom or water closet, washing place, terrace unless it has a water tight floor;  

(e) have the platform or seat either plastered with cement or be made of some water tight non-absorbent material ; 

(f) be enclosed by walls or partitions of brick or stone.  The surface of every such wall or partition shall be finished with a smooth impervious surface such as cement plaster 1/2” thick of glazed tiles or polished marble or any other suitable material to a height of one metre above the floor of such room ;  

(g) Have an impermeable floor made of smooth hard material having a suitable fall to a soil pipe with an adequate trap connection and have a floor level of such a height so as to ensure suitable grade towards the sewage drain

(2) No room containing a water closet shall be used for any purpose other than a lavatory and no such room shall open directly into any kitchen or cooking space.  Every room containing a water closet shall have a door completely closing the entrance to such a room.  

(3) A water closet alone shall have--  

(a) a floor area of not less than 1.15 sq.m. of which the smallest side shall not be less than one metre ;  

(b) a window or a ventilator of superficial area of not less than 10% of the floor area ;    (c) an impermeable floor made of smooth hard material having slope of 0.5 per cent towards the back of latrine ;  

(d) an impermeable dado 1 metre high ;  

(e) height not less than 2.5 metres.  

(4) (1) Every building meant for habitation shall be provided with water closet. The Planning Authority/Local Authority shall determine in each case whether the premises shall be served by a water closet connected to a sewer or a septic tank provided that if a sewer is within 30 metres of the site it shall be connected to the sewer, provided further that until the sewer begins to function the water closet shall be connected to a septic tank provided for this purpose, subject to the condition that it shall be connected to the sewer as and when required by the Planning Authority/Local Authority.  

(2) The Planning Authority/Local Authority may refuses to permit the construction of any latrine or urinal at a particular place if in its opinion such latrine or urinal would be a nuisance in the neighbourhood or would be objectionable to the occupants of neighbourhood building.  
Note : For temporary structures including huts meant for habitation the Planning authority/Local Authority shall determine in each case whether the provision of latrine is obligatory or not.  

28. Kitchen-

(1) A kitchen have a floor area of not less than 4 sq. Metres and shall not be less than 1.75 metres in which in case of plots having an area up to 200 sq.metres and shall have a floor area of not less than 7 sq.metres shall not be less than 2 metres in width in case of plots having an area more than 200 sq.metres.  Each kitchen not fully equipped with electricity or gas cooking appliances shall be provided with a flue for the escape of smoke.  

(2) Every room to be used as kitchen shall have --  

(a) a height of not less than 2.8 metres;  

(b) a window of not less than 0.5 sq.m. superficial area; 

(c) an impermeable floor and an impermeable dado or any other water proof material one metre high.  

29. Lofts-

The total area of lofts on each floor shall not be more than 25% of the built up area of that floor.  

30. Mezzanine floor-

The minimum size of mezzanine floor if it is used as a living portion shall not be less than 9.3 the aggregate area of which shall in no case exceed one-third of the plinth area of the building.  

31. Other requirements-

A mezzanine floor may be permitted over a room or a compartment provided that--    (a) it conforms to the standards of living rooms as regards lighting and ventilation in case the size of mezzanine floor is 9.3 sq.m. or more ;  

(b) it is so constructed as not to interfere under any circumstances with the ventilation of the space over and under it ;    (c) such mezzanine floor is not subdivided into smaller compartments ;  

(d) such mezzanine floor or any part of it shall not be used as a kitchen ; and  

(e) in no case a mezzanine floor shall be closed so as to make it liable to be converted into unventilated compartments.  

32. Dimensions for staircase, steps, corridor, passage and balcony for residential building-

(1) In a residential building no staircase shall be less than 0.9 metre in width and no step shall have a raise of more than 20 centimeters and a tread of less than 22.5 centimeters.  In case of a service or spiral staircase, the width shall not be less than 0.75 metres.  

(2) No corridor or passage or balcony in any residential building shall be less than 0.9 metres.  

(3) No rooms other than those at ground floor level shall be more than 18.0 metres away from a staircase.  

(4) Every building of five storeys or more in height shall provide an independent external staircase to serve as a fire escape directly accessible to every habitable room on each floor, the construction of which is to be of approved fire resistant material. 

(5) Provision for lifts shall be made for building more than 15 metres in height.  

33. Lighting and ventilation of rooms:

Every habitable room shall have for the admission of light and air, one or more apertures such as windows, fan, lights, etc., opening directly to the external air or into an open verandah, and of an aggregate area inclusive of frames, of not less than 1/8 of the floor area excluding doors.  

Note:

(a) No portion of room shall be assumed to be lit, if it is more than 7.5 metres away from verandahs, doors or windows through which any lighting is effected, except in case of large halls. 

(b) Cross ventilation by means of windows shall be effected in at least one habitable room of a tenement either by means of windows in opposite walls or if this is not possible or advisable then at least in the adjoining walls. 

(c) Every habitable room abutting on an interior open space or on an open verandah opening on to such interior open space shall have for light and ventilation an open space of width as specified in the table below: 

Where height of the building (above plinth) Adjoining the air space does not exceed Minimum width of open space throughout
Metres Metres
4.9 2.5
7.6 2.8
10.9 3.5
14.2 4.2
17.5 4.9
20.8 5.6
24.1 6.9
27.4 8.5
30.0 10.1
34.0 11.7

DRAINAGE AND SANITATION  

34. Site containing deposited refuse:

No building shall be constructed on any site on any part of which there is deposited refuse excreta or other offensive matter to which the health authority having jurisdiction objects until such refuse has been prepared or left in a manner suitable for building purposes to the satisfaction of the Local Authority/Planning Authority concerned.   Provided that where it is intended to found the building on piles or on reinforced concrete pillars, the Local Authority/ Planning Authority may approve the erection of such a building after the refuse has been appropriately treated by chemical or some other manner to the satisfaction of the Planning Authority/ Local Authority to a depth of no less than 0.6 metres or by a layer of cement concrete not less than 15 centimeters thick.  

35. Site liable to floods:

No building shall be erected on a site liable to flood or an slope forming an angle of more than 45 deg. With the horizontal or soil unsuitable for percolation or in sandy beds, unless it is proved by the owner to the satisfaction of the Planning Authority/ Local Authority that erection of such a building will not be dangerous or injurious to health or will not involve danger from flooding or erosion or cause undue expenditure of public funds in the provision of roads, sewers, sanitation, water supply or other public service.    36. Site containing pits, quarries, etc.--No building shall be erected on a site which comprises or includes a pit, quarry or other excavation or any part thereof unless such site has been prepared or left in a manner and condition suitable for building purposes to the satisfaction of the Planning Authority/Local Authority.  

37. Lowest storage on sites subject to flooding-

In water logged or low lying areas subject to flooding and where a building has been specifically permitted under bye-law 36 the Planning Authority/Local Authority may require the floor of the lowest storey of such building to be raised above the maximum flood level of the adjoining ground or to such other level as the Planning Authority/Local Authority may specify.  

38. Damp sites -

Wherever the dampness of a site or the nature of the soil renders such precautions necessary, the ground surface of the site between the walls of any building erected thereon shall be covered with a layer of sound cement concrete not less than 15 centimetres thick or with asphalt paving on a layer of closed packed broken stone hard cake not less than `15 cm. Thick or be otherwise rendered damp proof to the satisfaction of the Planning Authority/Local Authority

39. Damp proofing of basements-

When any habitable room is located in abasement, the floor and exterior walls of such basement shall be constructed or treated as to render the basement water tight and damp proof.  In addition, when buildings with basements enclosing habitable rooms are located on a site where ground water conditions exist or are likely to occur such as might produce any hydrostatic head against the basement walls or floors, the floors shall be constructed on porous brick fills and all walls shall be backfilled with porous material within 30 cm. (Or 1222”) of ground level and above that with relatively impermeable soil, and an adequate drainage system shall be laid which will collect the water from the bottom of all porous backfills and conduct it away from the building.  

40. Drainage of sub-soil-

Whenever in the opinion of the Planning Authority/Local Authority the site of a building so requires, the sub-soil shall be drained effectively by means of sub-soil drains or by other means to the satisfaction of such authority.  

41.Surface water drains-

(1) Any land, passage or other area within the curtilage of a building shall, if the Planning Authority/Local Authority so requires, be effectively drained by surface water drains or other means to his satisfaction.  

(2) The written approval of the Director of Public Works Department shall be obtained for connecting any sub-soil or surface water drain to a sewer.    

42. Drainage below ground floor level

-In every building, any basement cellar or other space below the ground floor shall be directly drained or drained by a sump provided with a suitable pump.  

43. Drainage of roofs-

(a) The roof of a building shall be so constructed or framed as to permit effectual drainage of the rain water there from by means of a sufficient number of rain water pipes of adequate size so arranged, joined and fixed as to ensure that the rain water is carried away from the building without causing dampness in any part of the walls or foundations of the building or those of an adjacent building ;  

(b) The Planning Authority/Local Authority may require rain water pipes to be connected to a drain or sewer to a covered channel formed beneath the public footpath to connect the rain water pipe to the road gutter or in any other approved manner;  

(c) Rain water pipes shall be affixed to the outside of the external walls of the building or in recess or chases cut or formed in such external walls or in such other manner as may be approved by the Planning Authority/Local Authority. 

43 A.  REGULATIONS FOR CONSERVATION OF RAIN WATER:-  

(1) Effective measures shall be taken within the premises for conservation of rainwater. Workable rooftop Rain Water Harvesting arrangements shall be provided as an integral part of all new building constructions for the following occupancies, namely, residential, offices, public buildings and commercial buildings such as malls, shopping centers and cinema halls, educational and health institutions and industry with terrace area as mentioned in the Table below:-

TABLE 

Occupancy Terrace area / Plot area
Residential Terrace area of 100 Sq. M. or more/ Plot area of 200 Sq. M. or more
Offices    and    Public    buildings,   Commercial    buildings, Educational and Health Institutions and Industrial buildings Terrace  area  200  Sq.M.  or  more/ Plot area of 300 Sq.M. or more

(2) The details of the Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) System shall be shown in the site plan enclosed along with the application in Form I seeking approval for construction and permission to execute the work. Building permission by the Planning Authorities shall not be issued unless adequate RWH systems are provided in the building plan submitted. The Occupancy certificate for new buildings shall be issued by the Planning Authorities only on implementation of the RWH system by the applicant. The Authorities concerned shall not extend power, water supply and Sewer connections to the buildings unless the owner of the building obtains the occupancy certificate from the concerned Planning Authority.                                              

(3) Exemption in respect of implementing the Rain Water Harvesting system may be granted in respect of cases where water logging is common or in areas with impermeable sub-soil conditions to considerable depth. The assessment of the conditions of the sub-soil may be made by the Planning Authority in consultation with the State Ground Water Unit of the Agriculture department, Puducherry.   

(4) The roof top Rain Water Harvesting arrangements shall have the following components, namely:- (i) Roof’s catchment area; 

(ii) Flat roofs sloped towards edges with rainwater outlet pipes and roof gutters for sloping roofs; 

(iii) Down pipe for transporting rainwater from roofs to the ground level; 

(iv) First flush pipe arrangement for diverting debris, dirt and dust on the roofs; and 

(v) A filter unit comprising a container or chamber filled with filter media at the ground level.  

(5) The other components on how the rain water is to be utilized, that is, for ground water recharging or for direct use, shall be as follows:-  

A. For storing and reuse of the rainwater: (a) A storage tank that has provision for drawing water and for spillover of excess water is to be provided; and   

(b) For charging the ground water aquifers, the water from the filter unit shall be diverted to suitable structures like dug wells, bore wells, recharge trenches or recharge pits for charging the groundwater aquifers.  

B. For ground water recharging: (a) Through direct channeling of surface water to abandoned wells or hand-pumps, recharge pits or recharge trenches, or to through recharge shafts. 

(b) Directing of harvested rain water to pumping wells.  

Note: - Additional arrangements for carrying the spillover water from storage tank to recharge well or percolation pit shall be provided.  

(6) The owner(s) / occupier(s) shall maintain the rooftop rainwater harvesting arrangements and artificial ground water recharge arrangements in good working conditions.  

(7) The Planning Authorities and Local Bodies of the Union Territory of Puducherry shall enforce workable artificial ground water recharging arrangements as an integral part of all new building constructions through collection of roof top rainwater.     

43. B. REGULATIONS FOR RE-USE OF WASTE WATER:- 

(1)  Effective measures shall be taken within the premises of various categories of buildings as mentioned in the table below for reuse of waste water:-

TABLE

Occupancy No. of dwelling units / Plot area
Apartments or group housing complexes 20 dwelling units or more
Offices    and    Public    buildings,    Commercial buildings, Educational & Health Institutions and Industrial buildings Plot area of 2000 Sq.M. or more /
Minimum  sullage  discharge  of  10,000  litres and above per day.

(2) The details of the water reuse infrastructure facilities such as plumbing plants, waste water treatment and disposable arrangements shall be shown in the site plan enclosed along with the application in Form I. Building permission by the Planning Authorities shall not be issued unless adequate water reuse arrangements are provided in the building plan submitted. The Occupancy certificate for new buildings shall be issued by the Planning Authorities only after water reuse arrangements are completely implemented. The Authorities concerned shall not extend power, water supply and Sewer connections to the buildings unless the owner of the building obtains the occupancy certificate from the concerned Planning Authority.  

(3) The recycling of waste water arrangements shall have the following components:- 

i. Separate conveyance system for sewage and sullage to facilitate reuse of sullage water for treatment and for reuse; 

ii. Suitable storage and treatment facilities for collection of sullage water. The waste water treatment facilities shall fulfill the standards specified by the Puducherry Pollution Control Committee, Puducherry; and 

iii. Separate overhead tank and pumping facilities for fresh water and reuse water. 

(4) The use of recycled water for flushing, washing and for watering gardens shall be after primary, secondary and tertiary treatments as advised by the Puducherry Pollution Control Committee. The Planning Authorities and Local Bodies of the Union Territory of Puducherry shall enforce workable recycling of waste water arrangements as an integral part of all new building constructions through collection of sullage water.]5  

44. Defective work-

The Planning Authority/Local Authority shall have power to condemn any work, workmanship or materials executed by any person which in its opinion is unsatisfactory or is likely to constitute danger to public safety or health.  Any work, workmanship or materials so condemned shall be remedied, amended or made good or shall be removed in whole or in part and replaced by new work, workmanship or materials as the PlanningAuthority/Local Authority may require.  

45. Water supply and sanitary installations-

The requirements regarding water supply and sanitary installations of the buildings shall conform to those prescribed by the competent authority of the Government.  

46. Latrines with an opening on public roads-

It is prohibited to have latrines opening on to public roads.

47. Disposal of sewage-

Until arrangements are made for the removal of waste by an appropriate water borne system it will be obligatory for every application for a new construction or major additions or alteration to be accompanied by plans for properly designed septic tanks within the curtilage of the plot.  In case of existing buildings in the built up area where water borne system of drainage is available, it shall be obligatory for the owner to provide flush out and connect this sewage to the main underground sewage within such period as may be specified by the competent authority of the Government.  

48. Construction of horse stables, cattle yards and factories of washable corrosive products-

No construction of horse stables, cattle yards and factories of washable corrosive products prejudicial to health can take place in less than 100 metres of any existing drinking well.  

49. Construction of wells-

(1) No drinking water well can be opened without the prior consent of the Planning Authority/Local Authority.  

(2) Wells intended to supply water for human consumption or domestic purposes shall comply with the following requirements--  

(1) the wells shall not be less than 15 m (or 50’) from any ash pit, refuse pit, earth closet or privy and earth closet or privy ;  

(2) not less than 18 m.(60’) from any cesspit soak way or borehole latrine and shall be located on a site upwards from the earth closet or privy ;

(3) the well shall be so situated that contamination by the movement of sub-soil or other water closet is unlikely ;  

(4) the well shall be of a minimum internal diameter of not less than 1 m ;  

(5) the well shall be not under a tree or otherwise it should have a canopy over it, so that leaves and twigs may not fall into the well and rot.  

(3) The wall of the head of the well shall be raised above the level of the adjoining ground to form a parapet or kerb and to prevent surface water from flowing into a well and shall be surrounded with a paving constructed of impervious material which shall extend for a distance of not less than 1.8 m in every direction from the parapet from the kerb forming the well head and the upper surface of such a paving shall be sloped away from the well.    

(4) The interior surface of the lining walls of the well shall be rendered impervious for a depth of not less than 1.8 m measured from the level of the ground immediately adjoining the well head.  

(5) A well from which water is drawn by means of a bucket or other similar apparatus shall be provided with the following:-  

(1) a mosquito-proof type of cover to be approved by the Planning Authority/Local Authority;    (2) a stand for the bucket, raised not less than 15 cms. above the level of the surrounding paving.  

50. Lime kilns-

White washing powder cannot be cooked within a distance of 100 metres from a habitable area or public road. 

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES  

51. Application-

The provision of this bye-law shall apply only to such area or areas as may be determined by the Planning Authority/Local Authority.  

(1) Appearance and disfigurements:

No building shall be erected which in the opinion of the Planning Authority/Local Authority constitutes a disfigurement to or an interference with the aesthetic and other amenities of the area.  No construction or alterations which in the opinion of the Planning Authority/Local Authority will depreciate neighbouring properties or cause annoyance to residents in the neighbourhood shall be permitted.  The appearance of all new buildings shall be subject to the approval of the Planning Authority/Local Authority.  

(2) Advertising signs:

The exhibition of all advertising signs whether they be lighted or not shall be subject to the approval of the Planning Authority/Local Authority.  

(3) Unfinished buildings

 No building shall be left with unfinished portions including projecting reinforcing bars, which in the opinion of the Planning Authority/Local Authority concerned are unsightly after the period prescribed for completion.  

(4) Masts:

All wires, poles, masts, stays, struts, lighting conductors and similar fixtures on new buildings shall be straight and of good appearance.  

(5) Open air dumps:

Permanent dumps of scrap iron, firewood, coal and similar material shall, in all areas, except those classified as factory areas be allowed only in places enclosed with walls of brick or other similar non-combustible materials.  

6) Unsightly materials:

The use of any disfigured or damaged materials which in the opinion of the Planning Authority/Local Authority concerned results in an unsightly appearance of a building shall not be allowed.  

(7) Sheet metal and barbed wire fences

 No sheet metal or barbed wire fence visible externally shall be erected on the frontage line or street line unless the design thereof has been approved by the Planning Authority/Local Authority.  

(8) Parks and gardens:

Owners of parks and gardens visible from the streets shall not plan, replace or maintain trees and plants, which in the opinion of the Planning Authority/Local Authority concerned conflicts with the aesthetic appearance of the neighbourhood.  

(9) Decoration:

Monuments, decorative and monumental foundations, bridges and viaducts, and in general the decorative and ornamental features of public gardens and squares shall be built only after the approval of the Planning Authority/Local Authority has been obtained, which in addition to drawings may demand the submission of photographs, or perspectives of the composition, so that the artistic value of the project will be more efficiently and effectively illustrated.  

(10) Composition:

Where several facades constitute architectural composition painting and other treatment shall only be allowed where no aesthetic disfigurement can result to the composition as a whole.  

52. Huts and sheds:-

Every person who intends to erect huts, sheds or block of huts or a temporary structure whether the same are to be used as dwelling houses or stables or for any other purposes should obtain approval in writing from the Planning Authority/Local Authority for the said purpose and shall submit the site plan in quadruplicate indicating:-- 

1. The location of hut, huts and sheds;  

2. Position, number of baths, privies, latrines and urinals and the method of drainage;  

3. The materials to be used for construction of walls, roof and floors; and  

4. Position of doors, windows and ventilators of each unit.  

Note: No hut shall be permitted within the limits of the Boulevard town to be used as a dwelling house, huts or stable permitted within the municipal limits shall be for such period as specified by the Planning Authority/Local Authority and shall be removed when directed by the Planning Authority/Local Authority.   

53. Building plots to be levelled:

The plot of every building or hut shall be levelled in such manner that rain water may rapidly drain-off into a water course or a municipal drain.

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