06-SANITATION REQUIREMENTS



ANNEXURE -I

STANDARDS FOR SANITATION REQUIREMENTS

(See rule “5 (2) (iv) s.” and “56”) 

Table No.1: Sanitation requirement for shops and commercial offices 
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit / Fittings For Personnel
(a) (b) (c)
1. Water closet One for every 25 persons or part thereof exceeding 15 (including employees and customers).  For female personnel 1 for every 15 persons or part thereof exceeding 10.
2. Drinking Water Fountain One for every 100 person with a minimum of one on each floor.
3. Wash Basin One for every 25 persons or part thereof.
4. Urinals Same as Sl. No. 3 of Table for " Sanitation Requirements for Governmental and Public Business Occupancy and Offices"
5. Cleaners’ Sink One  per  floor  minimum,  preferably  in  or  adjacent  to sanitary rooms.
Note: Number of customers for the purpose of the above calculation shall be the average number of persons in the premises for a time interval of one hour during the peak period. For male- female calculation a ratio of 1: 1 may be assumed.

 

Table No. 2: Sanitation requirement for Hotels
Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For Residential Public staff For non-residential Staff
For male For female
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
1. Water Closet (W.C.) One per 8 Persons omitting occupants of the
attached water
closet minimum of 2 if both sexes are lodged
1 for 1-15 persons
2 for 16-35 persons
3 for 36-65 persons
4 for 66-100 persons
2 for 1-12 persons
4 for 13-25 persons
6 for 26-40 persons
8 for 41-57 persons
10for 58-77 persons 12for78-100 persons Add 1 for every 6
persons or part thereof.
2. Ablution Taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C.
3. Urinals Nil Nil upto 6 persons 1 for 7-20 persons
2 for 21-45 persons
3 for 40-70 persons
4 for 71-100 persons
Nil
4. Wash Basins One per 10 persons omitting each basin 1 for 15 persons
2 for 16-35 persons
3 for 36-65 persons
1 for 1-12
2 for 13-25
3 for 26-40
    installed in the room / suite 4 for 66-100 persons 4 for 41-57
5. Baths One per 10 persons, less occupants of room with bath in suite Nil Nil
6. Cleaner’s Sinks One per 30 Bed rooms (one per floor minimum) Nil Nil
7. Kitchen Sink One in each Kitchen One in each Kitchen One in each Kitchen

 

Table No. 3: Sanitary requirements for Public Rest Room
Sl. No Sanitary Unit For Male For Female
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1. Water Closet One per 100 persons upto 400 persons; for over 400 add at the rate of one per 250 persons or part thereof. Two  for  100  persons  upto  200 persons; over 200 add at the rate of one per 100 persons or part thereof.
2. Ablution Taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C.
3. Urinals One    for    50    persons    or    part thereof. Nil, upto 6 persons 1 for 7-20 persons
2 for 21-45 persons
3 for 46-70 persons
4 for 71-100 persons
4. Washbasins One per WC/Urinal One per WC
5. Kitchen Sink One in each Kitchen One in each Kitchen
6. Baths (showers) One per 10 persons
7. Cleaner’s Sinks One per 30 Bed rooms (one per floor minimum)
Note:
i) It may be assumed that the two-thirds of the number are males and one- third females.
ii) One water tap with drainage arrangements shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity of water closet and urinals.

 

Table No.4: Sanitation requirement for Education Occupancy
Sl. No Sanitary Unit Boarding Institution Other Educational Institution
For Boys For Girls For Boys For Girls
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
1. Water Closet (W.C.) One  for  8 boys
or part thereof
One  for  6  girls or
part thereof
One  for  40 boys
or part thereof
One for 25 girls or part thereof
2. Ablution Taps One    in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C.
3. Urinals One   per every
25 pupils or part thereof
-- One per every 20 pupils or part thereof --
4. Wash Basins One  for  every 8 pupils      or part
thereof
One  for every 6 pupils or part thereof One  for  every 60 pupils or part thereof One  for every  40 pupils or part thereof
5. Baths One  for  every 8 pupils    or part thereof One  for every 6 pupils or part thereof -- --
6. Drinking Water Fountains One for every 50 pupils    or part thereof One  for  every 50 pupils or part thereof One  for  every 50 pupils or part thereof One  for every  50 pupils or part thereof
7. Cleaner’s Sink One per Floor minimum One per Floor minimum One per Floor minimum One per Floor minimum

 

Table No. 5: Sanitation requirements for Educational Occupancy (Nursery School)
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit Requirement
(a) (b) (c)
1. Water Closet One for 15 boys, one for 6 girls
2. Ablution Taps One in each W.C.
3. Urinals One for 12 boys
4. Wash Basins One for every 15 pupils or part thereof
5. Baths One bath per 40 pupils
6. Drinking Water Fountains One for every 50 pupils or part thereof
7. Cleaner’s Sink One per Floor minimum
Note:
i) One water tap with draining arrangements shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof, in the vicinity of water closets and urinal.
ii) For teaching staff, the schedule of sanitary units to be provided shall be the same as in case of office buildings

 

Table No. 6: Sanitation requirements for Institutional (Medical) Occupancy- Hospital
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit Hospitals With indoor Patient Ward  For Males  and females Hospitals With outdoor Patient Wards
For Males For Females
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
1. Toilet Suite (1WC+ 1Washbasin+ 1 shower) Private room upto 4 persons For upto 4 patients
2. Water Closet (W.C.) One for every 8 beds or part thereof One  for  every 100 persons or part thereof One for every 25 persons or part thereof
3. Ablution taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C.
4. Wash Basins Two upto 30 bed; add one for every additional 30 beds; or part thereof One for every 100 persons or part thereof One for every 25 persons or part thereof.
5. Baths with Shower One      bath     with shower for every 8 beds or part thereof. -- --
6. Bed pan washing sink One       for      each ward -- --
7. Cleaner’ Sinks One for each ward One per floor minimum One per floor minimum
8. Kitchen sinks and dish Washers (where Kitchen is provided) One for each ward -- --
9. Urinals One for  30 beds (male wards) One for every 50 persons or part thereof --
10. Drinking water Fountain One for each ward One for 500 persons or part thereof
Note: For teaching staff, the schedule of sanitary units to be provided shall be the same as in case of office buildings

 

Table No. 7: Sanitation requirements for Institutional – Hospital (Administrative Buildings)
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit For Males For Females
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1 Toilet Suite (1WC+ 1Washbasin+1shower) For individual doctor’s/officer’s rooms Toilet Suite (1WC+ 1Washbasin+1shower)
2 Water Closet (W.C.) One for every 25 persons or part thereof Water Closet (W.C.)
3 Ablution Taps One in each W.C. Ablution Taps
4 Wash Basins One for every 25 persons or part thereof Wash Basins
5 Baths with Shower One on each floor Baths with Shower
6 Cleaner’s Sink One per floor minimum Cleaner’s Sink
7 Kitchen sinks and dish Washers (where Kitchen is provided) One for each floor Kitchen sinks and dish Washers (where Kitchen is provided)
8   Nil upto 6 persons 1 for 7-20 persons
2 for 21-45 persons
3 for 46-70 persons
4 for 71-100 persons From 101 to 200 persons add at
the rate of 3%; for over 200
persons add at the rate of 2.5%.
 
9 Drinking water fountain One for 100 persons or part thereof

 

Table No. 8: Sanitation requirements for Institutional (Medical) Occupancy- (staff quarters and Hostels)
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit Doctor’s Dormitories Nurses Hostel
For Male Staff For female staff
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
1 Water Closet One for 4 persons One for 2 persons One for 2 persons or part thereof Two for 13-25
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C.
3 Wash Basins One for every 8 persons or part thereof One for every 8 persons or part thereof One for every 8 persons or part thereof
4 Bath (with shower) One for every 4 persons or part thereof One for every 4 persons or part thereof One for every 4 persons or part thereof
5 Cleaner’s Sink One per floor minimum One per floor minimum One per floor minimum
6 Drinking water fountain One for 100 persons or part thereof One for 100 persons or part thereof

 

Table No. 9: Sanitation requirements for Governmental and Public Business Occupancy and Offices
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit For Male Personnel For female Personnel
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1. Water Closet (W.C.) One for 25 persons or part thereof Two for 15 persons or part thereof
2. Ablution taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C.
3 Urinals Nil upto 6 persons  
1 for 7-20 persons
2 for 21-45 persons
3 for 46-70 persons
4 for 71-100 persons
From 101 to 200 add @ 3%;
For over 200 persons add @ 2.5%.
4 Wash Basins One  for  every  25  persons  or  part thereof One for every 25 persons or part thereof
5 Drinking water fountains One  for  every  100  persons  with a minimum of one on each floor One for every 100 persons with a minimum of 1 on each floor
6 Cleaner’s Sinks One per floor minimum; preferably in or adjacent to sanitary rooms. --
7 Executive Room
/Conference Halls
Toilet Suite (1 WC, 1 washbasin, optional shower for 24 hr usages) Unit could be common for Male/Female or separate depending on the number of user of each facility
Note: One water tap with drainage arrangements shall be provided / 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity.

 

Table  No.10:  Sanitation  Requirements  for  Assembly  Occupancy  Buildings  (Cinema,  Theaters, Auditoria. Etc.)
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit For Public For Staff
Male Female Male Female
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
1 Water Closet One for 100
persons upto 400 persons.
Four for 100
persons upto 200 persons.
One for 15 persons. Two for 1-12 persons.
For over 400 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 250 persons or part thereof For over 200 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 50 persons or part thereof Two for 16-35
persons.
Four for 13-25 persons add at the rate of 1 per 6 persons or part thereof
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C One in each W.C
3 Urinals One for 50 persons or part thereof --- Nil upto 6 persons ---
One for 7-
20 persons
Two for 21-45
persons
4 Wash Basins One    for    every 200 persons or part thereof One   for every 200 persons  or part thereof One for 1-15
persons
One for 1-12 persons
Two for 16-35
persons
Two for 13-25 persons
5 Drinking Water fountain One per 100 persons or part thereof
6 Cleaner’s sink One per floor
7 Shower/bathing As per trade requirements
Note:
i) One water tap with draining arrangements shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity of water closets and urinals.
ii) It may be assumed that two thirds of the number is males and one third females.

 

Table No.11: Sanitation Requirements for Assembly Buildings (Art, Galleries, Libraries and Museums)
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit For Public For Staff
Male Female Male Female
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
1 Water Closet (W.C.) One for 200 persons up to 400 persons.
For over 400 persons, add  at  the rate  of  1 per  250 persons  or part thereof
Four for 100 persons up to  200 persons.
For over 200 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 50 persons or part thereof
One for  1 - 15 persons.
Two  for 16-
35 persons.
Two for 1-12 persons.
Four for 13-25 persons, add at the r a t e  o f  1 per 6 persons.
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C One in each W.C
3 Urinals One for 50 persons or part thereof -- Nil upto 6 persons
One for 7-20 persons
Two  for 21-
45 persons
--
4 Wash Basins One for every 200 persons or part thereof.
For over 400 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 250 persons or part thereof.
One for every 200 persons or part hereof.
For  over 200 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 150 persons or part thereof
One for 1-
15 persons
Two for 16-
35
One for 1-12 persons
Two  for 13-25 persons
5 Cleaner’s Sink One per floor, minimum
6 Drinking water fountain One per 100 persons or part thereof
7 Shower/Bath As per trade requirements
Note: It may be assumed that two thirds of the numbers are males and one third females.

 

Table No.12: Sanitation Requirements for Restaurants
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit For Public For Staff
Male Female Male Female
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
1 Water Closet One per 50 seats upto 200 seats. One per 25 seats upto 200 seats. 1 for 15 persons. 2 for 1-12 persons.
For over 200 seats, add at the rate of 1 per 100 seats or part thereof For over 200  seats, add at the rate of 1 per 50 seats or part thereof 2 for 16-35 persons. 4 for 13-
25 persons
3 for 36-65 persons 6 for 26-
40 persons
4 for 66-
100 persons
8 for 41-
57 persons
  10 for 58-
77 persons
12 for 78-
100 persons
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C One in each W.C
3 Urinals One for 50 persons   or part thereof --- Nil upto 6 persons ---
1 for 7-20 persons
2 for 21-45 persons
3 for  46-
70 persons.
4 for 71-
100
persons.
4 Wash Basins One for every water closet
5 Kitchen Sinks and Dish Washer One per each Kitchen
6 Service Sink One in the restaurant
Note:
i) It may be assumed that two thirds of the numbers are males and one-third females.
ii) One water tap with draining arrangements shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity of water closets and urinal.

 

Table No.13: Requirements for Factories
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit For Male Personnel For female Personnel
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1 Water Closet 1 for 15 persons 2 for 1-12 persons
2 for 16-35 persons 4 for 13-25 persons.
3 for 36-65 persons. 6 for 26-40 persons.
4 for 66-100 persons. 8 for 41-57 persons.
  10 for 58-77 persons.
  12 for 78-100 persons.
For 101 to 200 persons add at rate of 3%.   From over 200 persons, add at the rate of 2.5%. For 101 to 200 persons, add at the rate of 3%.  From over 200 persons add at the rate of 2%.
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C One in each W.C.
3 Urinals Nil upto 6 persons  
1 for 7-20 persons
2 for 21-45 persons
3 for 46-70 persons
4 for 71-100 persons
From 101 to 200 persons add at the rate of 3%; for over 200
persons add at the rate of 2.5%.
4 Washing Taps with draining arrangement One for every 25 persons or part thereof
5 Drinking Water Fountains One for every 100 persons with a minimum of one on each floor
6 Baths Preferably Showers As required for particular trade or occupation
7 Emergency shower and eye wash fountain 1 per every shop floor per 500 person
Note:
i) For many trades of a dirty or dangerous character, more extensive provisions are required.
ii) One water tap with draining arrangement shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity of water closet and urinal.
iii) Creche where provided shall be fitted with water closets (One for 10 persons or part thereof), wash basins (1 for 15 persons or part thereof) and drinking water tap with drinking arrangement for every 50 persons or part thereof.

 

Table No.14: Sanitary Requirements for Large Stations and Airports
Sl.
No.
Place W.C. for Males W.C. for Females Urinals for Males only
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
1 Junction Stations, Intermediate Stations and Substations 3 for first 1000 persons, add 1 for subsequent 1000 persons or part thereof. 8 for first 1000 persons, add 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof. 4 for every 1000 person, add 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof.
2 Terminal Stations and
Bus Terminals
4    for   first   1000 persons and 1 for
every additional 1000 persons or part thereof.
10 for every 1000 person and 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof. 6 for every 1000 person and 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof.
3 Domestic Airports     1 per 40 persons or part thereof.
Minimum 2* 4*
200 persons 5 16
400 persons 9 30
600 persons 12 40
800 persons 16 52
1000 persons 18 58
4 International Airports     1 per 40 persons or part thereof.
200 persons 6 20
600 persons 12 40
1000 persons 18 58
Note:—
(i) Provision for wash basins, baths including shower stalls, shall be in accordance with Drainage and Sanitation section of National Building Code of India.
(ii) At least one Indian style water closet shall be provided in each toilet. Assume 60 % males and 40 % females in any area.
(iii) At least 50 % of female WCs may be Indian pan and 50% EWC.

ANNEXURE -II

STANDARDS FOR SEGREGATED SANITATION FACILITY FOR VISITORS

(See rule “5 (2) (iv) t.”, “50” and “56”) 

(1) Public sanitation facilities:

(i) Public toilets are meant for floating population, usually located near railway stations, bus stands, market places, Government hospitals, religious centers etc. These toilets have a greater demand for urinals than community toilets.

(ii) The site shall be earmarked on Site Plan or a Layout plan and the Authority shall clearly state advantages and disadvantages of the location for the owner/ engaged Competent Professional for building plan design to make an informed decision on the siting.

(iii) It must be accessible to visitors and general public during the operational hours of the building. However, fiscal generation for maintenance may be planned with respect to user charges from visitors and general public.

(iv) In order to ensure that public toilets/ wash rooms are built in various parts of the city, all the buildings constructed for the purpose of being public buildings (Government offices, hospitals, educational institutions, commercial buildings, etc.) and the plot owners of the plots having an area of 1 acre or more shall compulsorily construct public washroom complexes with segregated facilitates for men and women separately within their plots. This is in addition to the prescribed mandatory sanitary requirements. The site shall be earmarked on site plan or a layout plan at the time of seeking building approval. 

(2) Factors to be considered:

(i) All such complexes (public toilets/wash rooms, ATM, Guard Room) should be constructed mainly within the setback area within plots, provided they do not obstruct the firefighting path.

(ii) All such complexes shall be single storey only, with floor to ceiling height not exceeding 2.8 meter and water tanks concealed with a parapet wall / jali not exceeding 1 meter in height.

(iii) All such complexes shall have a minimum of 1 wash basin, 2 urinals and 1 WC each, for men and women separately, with adequate electricity, drainage, water and sewerage facilities and connected to the prevalent infrastructure network. The entire complex shall be well ventilated with adequate provisions for water storage and lighting for late evening time use, both inside and surroundings. Provision of Solar power shall be made for utilization of lighting of the complex.

(iv) In such complexes, an ATM (Automated Teller Machine) room (including guard room) with a maximum floor area of not exceeding 9 square meters, is also permitted to be constructed along with the toilet complex.

(v) Both the Public Washroom Complex as well as the ATM shall have direct access from outside the plot i.e. direct access from the road, so as to permit usage by the general public.

(vi) Such complexes will be totally free of FAR and Ground Coverage shall be 'deemed approved' by the municipal/local body.

(vii) Such complexes shall have provisions for signage, advertisements as well as public art (which may constitute outdoor sculptures, outdoor installations, murals, frescos, and bas-relief, folk or tribal art, artisan craft, indoor sculpture, wall paintings, and  other art forms relevant to local habitat), with permission from the concerned agencies/local authorities. 

(viii) Such complexes shall be either constructed and maintained by the plot owner or constructed by the plot owner and maintained by a service provider or constructed as well as maintained by a service provider and can be chargeable by the owner and/or the service provider.

(ix) Such complexes should not be misused for any other purpose and if found being misused, a penalty will be imposed.

(x) In case of addition of such complexes in the existing premises, shall require fire clearances and incorporation of the same in the approved layout plan by the concerned local authorities. 

(3) Wastewater conveyance/treatment and prevention of contamination:-

Since sewers may not be available in many cities, in most cases the toilet blocks will have on-site sanitation, which would require periodic cleaning of tanks / pits. Location on site should allow easy and hygienic emptying of the pits / tanks and ensure that ground water table is not contaminated by wastewater percolation.

(4) Adequacy in provision:-

The size of the block (i.e. on number of seats) must meet visitors' need. Inadequacy results in long queues and encourages open urination. Care is to be taken for balancing problems and other special needs of children and the elderly. 

(5) Design considerations:

(i) Adequate Ventilation.

(ii) Door Design / Direction of swing of the door (preferred outwards),

(iii) Adequate Waiting area and

(iv) Adequate volumes of water storage.

(6) The facilities should include:

(i) Separate toilet blocks for men and women with separate entries.

(ii) Seats for children to be provided in both sections for men and women.

(iii) Waiting / Holding area.

(iv) Space for Facility caretaker and maintenance staff - from where they can monitor and maintain both facilities for men and women.

(v) Urinal facilities for men

(vi) Waste water disposal system (vii) Janitor / Store room for cleaning material / equipment.

(7) Norms for differently-abled within segregated toilets,

 (i) One special W.C. in a set of toilet shall be provided for the use of differently abled persons, with essential provision of wash basin near the entrance.

(ii) Minimum clear opening of the door shall be 900 mm. and the door shall swing out.

(iii) Suitable arrangement of vertical/horizontal handrails with 50 mm. clearance from wall shall be made in the toilet.

(iv) The W.C. seat shall be 500 mm. from the floor. 

Table No 1: Segregated sanitation facilities for Visitors in Public Buildings
Sl. No Sanitary Unit For Male Personnel For Female Personnel
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1 Public toilet near Railway Stations (24x7)    
a) Water Closet (W.C) a) One for 100 users a) One for 50 users
b) Urinals b) One unit per 300-500 users  
c) Ablution taps c) One in each W.C. c) One in each W.C.
2 Public Toilet near market   place/offices (for working hours)    
a) Water Closet (W.C) a) One for 100 users a) One for 50 users
b) Urinals b) One unit per 200-300 users c) ---
c) Ablution taps c) One in each W.C. c) One in each W.C.
3 Public toilets near Public Buildings    
a) Water Closet (W.C) a) One for 100 users a) One for 50 users
b) Urinals b) One unit per 200-300 users  
c) Ablution taps c) One in each W.C. c) One in each W.C.

Per Capita Volume of Water required to be referred from Annexure VI 

Table No.2: The recommended enclosure-sizes for different facilities at visitors’ toilets.
Sl. No Description Optimum (mm) Minimum (mm)*
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1. Water Closet enclosures 900x1200 750x900
2. Urinals (divided by partition walls) 575x675 500x600
*In case of space constraint, the minimum sizes may be adopted.

 

Table No.3: The recommended areas for different facilities at visitors’ toilets
Sl.
No.
Sanitary Unit Dwelling with individual conveniences Dwelling without individual conveniences
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1. Bath Room One provided with water tap One for every two tenement
2. Water Closet (W.C.) One One for every two tenement
3. Sink in the floor One --
4. Water Tap One One with drainage arrangement in each tenement
      One in common bath rooms and common water closet.
Note: Where only one water closet is provided in a dwelling, the bath and water closet shall be separately accommodated

 

Table No.4: General Standards/Guidelines for Public Toilets in Public Area
Sl.
No.
Particulars General Standards/Guidelines
(a) (b) (c)
1 Public Toilet On  roads  and  for  open  areas:  At  every  1  km,  including  in  parks, plaza,  open  air  theatre, swimming area, car parks, fuel stations. Toilets shall be disabled-friendly and in 50-50 ratio (Male: Female).
2 Signage Signboards   on   main   streets   shall   give   directions   and   mention   the distance  to  reach  the  nearest  public  convenience.  Toilets  shall  have multi-lingual  signage  for  the  convenience  of  visitors. Helpline number shall be pasted on all toilets for complaints/queries.
3 Modes Pay and use or free. In pay and use toilets entry is allowed on payment to the attendant or by inserting coin and user gets 15 minutes.
4 Maintenance/ Cleaning The  toilet  should  have  both  men  and  women  attendants.  Alternatively automatic  cleaning cycle  covering  flush,  toilet  bowl,  seat,  hand  wash basin,  disinfecting  of  floor  and  complete drying after each use can be adopted, which takes 40 seconds. Public toilet shall be open 24 hours.

(8) Construction Site:

(i) At construction job sites, one toilet must be provided per 20 employees. In a work zone with between 21 and 199 employees, a toilet seat and one urinal must be provided for every 40 employees. For 200 or more workers, regulations call for a toilet seat and a urinal per 50 workers. The toilet must be located within 200 meter or 5 minute walk.

(ii) Job sites that are not equipped with a sanitary sewer must, unless prohibited by local codes, provide privies, in locations where their use will not contaminate either ground or surface water. Other alternatives to a privy could be chemical toilets, re-circulating toilets, or combustion toilets.

(iii) Toilets should be cleaned regularly and maintained in good order, running water, must be provided along with soap and individual hand towels. 

(9) Temporary Camp Toilets:-

Toilet facilities shall be provided within 60 meter of the, site, which shall not be closer than 15 meter of dining area or kitchen. Make sure that toilet area is cleaned at least once per day, it is sanitary, adequately lighted and is employee safe. 

(10) Special / Contingency Toilets:-

(i) For Special events like open air theater, religious or political gatherings, mela, etc. for which there are no permanent toilet facilities, contingency toilets or Portable Sanitation Units (PSU) shall be provided.

(ii) The following considerations shall determine the number of toilets to be provided for particular event, namely:

 a) Duration of the event

(b) Type of crowd

(c) Weather conditions

(d) Whether finishing times are staggered if the event has multi-functions 

Table No. 5: Contingency Toilet facilities for Special Events
Sl. No. Patrons For Males For Females
Toilets Urinals Sinks Toilets Sinks
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)
1. <500 1 2 2 6 2
2. <1000 2 4 4 9 4
3. <2000 4 8 6 12 6
4. <3000 6 15 10 18 10
5. <5000 8 25 17 30 17
Source:
i) Page 39 - "Special Events Contingency Planning" (FEMA)
ii) A.K. Jain, "Spatio Economic Development Record", Clauses 5.16-5.20
iii) "Public Toilets for Women in India", Volume 18 No 5, September-October, 2011

(iii) At least 50 percent of toilet shall be earmarked as female toilets.

(11) Special Purpose Toilets:

Special toilet facilities shall be adequately provided in public projects (transport terminals/ healthcare and other public spaces) in million plus cities for the Third gender with appropriate cleanliness arrangements

ANNEXURE -III

STANDARDS FOR FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

(Extract taken from National Building Code of India – For the complete provision, refer Part-IV of NBCI)

(See clause (iv) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 and rule 56)

Scope: The Part-4 of NBCI covers the requirements for fire prevention, life safety in relation to fire and fire protection of buildings. This Part of NBCI specifies occupancy-wise classification, constructional aspects, egress requirements and protection features that are necessary to minimise danger to life and property from fire. Lifts escalators and revolving doors shall not be considered as exits.

The provisions of this Part are applicable to the followings unless otherwise mentioned specifically in the provisions:—

(i) all high rise buildings; and

(ii) special buildings, those are,

(a) hotel, educational, institutional, business, mercantile, industrial, storage, hazardous and mixed occupancies, where any of these buildings have floor area more than 500 square meters on any one or more floors;

(b) educational buildings having height 9 m. and above;

(c) institutional buildings having height 9 m. and above;

(d) all assembly buildings;

(e) buildings, having area more than 300 square meters of incidental assembly occupancy on any floor; and

(f) buildings with two basements or more, or with one basement of area more than 500 square meter. 

The extract of the provisions related to life-safety of Part-IV of NBCI in relation to general exit requirements, occupant load and egress components, are given in the subsequent part of this annexure:—

4 .LIFE SAFETY

4.1 General

Particularly at the entrance to lift lobby and stair well

Every building shall be so designed, constructed, equipped, maintained and operated as to provide adequate means of egress to avoid undue danger to the life and safety of the occupants from fire, smoke, fumes or panic during the time period necessary for escape.

For high occupancy areas, it may be required to have annunciation, announcements and voice guided/aided system to direct the occupants towards safe egress routes, areas of comparative safety or exits, and to avoid situation of panic during distress.

Every main occupancy may have certain occupancies which may be incidental to the main occupancy. The exit requirements pertaining to such incidental occupancies from the floor of the occupancy to the level of exit discharge shall be calculated to meet the requirement of the actual occupancy of such type, to ensure adequate means of egress of the occupants

See also 13 of Part 3 °Development Control Rules and General Building Requirements' of the Code for accessibility for elderly and persons with disabilities, for various requirements for enabling a smooth and safe egress.

4.2 General Exit Requirements

  • An exit may be a fire exit doorway; an internal staircase, exit passageway, external doorway, external staircase and these having access to the street or to a Veranda or to a refuge area or to the terrace or roof of a building. An exit may also include a horizontal exit leading to an adjoining building/fire compartment having its further access to unlocked/public exit at the same level
  • Unless otherwise specified, lifts, escalators, moving walks and revolving doors shall not be considered as exits and shall not constitute any part of the required exit.
  • Every exit, exit passageway and exit discharge shall be continuously maintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full use in the case of fire or other emergency.
  • Every building having human occupancy shall be provided with exits sufficient to permit safe egress of occupants, in case of fire or other emergency.
  • In every building or structure, exits shall comply with the minimum requirements of this Part, except those not accessible for general public use.
  • No building shall be so altered as to reduce the number, width or protection of exits to less than that required.
  • For non-naturally ventilated areas, fire doors with 120 min fire resistance rating shall be provided and where a funnel or flue effect' may be created, inducing an upward spread of fire, to prevent spread of fire and  Smoke
  • Exits shall be so arranged that they may be reached without passing through another occupied unit passage in others control, if they pose challenge or restriction in means of egress
  •  Doors in exits shall open in the direction of exiting case of assembly buildings (Group D) and institutional buildings (Group C-1), exit door shall not open immediately upon a flight of stair and all such entries to the stair shall be through a landing, so that such doors do not impede movement of people descending from a higher floor when fully opened .While for other occupancies, such doors shall not reduce the pathway in the landing by more than half the width of such staircase. Over-head or sliding doors shall not be installed.
  •  At least half of the required exit stairs from upper floors (rounded to the next higher number) shall discharge directly to the exterior or through exit passageways.
  • Unless otherwise specified, all the exits and exit passageways to exit discharge shall have a clear ceiling height of at least 2.4 m. However, the height of exit door shall be at least 2.0 m
  •  where changes in elevation of more than 300 mm are encountered in the exits, ramps or sloped surfaces shall be used with handrails and floor finish materials that contrast with the adjacent finish materials.
  •  the capacity of the means of egress required from any storey of the building shall not be reduced along the path of egress travel until arrival to the exit discharge.
  •  The lifts, escalators, moving walks, turnstiles and revolving doors shall not be considered in determining the required capacity of means of egress for the individual floor(s) or the building.
  • Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one direction or that are used to restrict unauthorized entry shall not be so placed as to obstruct any required means of egress. Alternative door openings of required exit width shall be available within 3 m of such devices, if installed.
  • Suitable means shall be provided so that all access controlled cxit doors, turnstiles, boom barriers and other such exits shall automatically operate to open mode during emergencies like fire, smoke, acts of terrorism, etc, so that people can safely and quickly egress into safe areas outside. If required, a master controlling device may be installed at a strategic location to achieve this.
  •  Penetrations into and openings through an exit are prohibited except those necessary like for the fire protection piping, ducts for pressurization and similar life safety services. Such openings as well as vertical passage of shaft through floors shall be protected by passive systems.
  • Walking surfaces in exit access shall comply with the following requirements for smooth exit:

a)Walking surfaces shall be nominally level.

b)The slope of walking surface in the direction of travel shall not exceed I in 20 unless the ramp requirements are met (see 4.4.2.4.3.5)

c) Slope perpendicular to the direction of travel shall not exceed I in 48.

d) Walking surfaces shall be slip-resistant along the entire path of travel.

Basement

a) Basement exits shall be sufficient to provide for the capacity of the basement as determined in accordance with 4.4.2.1. In no case shall there be less than two independent basement .exits.

b) Basements having incidental occupancies to main occupancy shall be planned with exit requirements of the basements for the actual Occupancy within the basement.

c) Where basement is used for car parking and also there is direct approach from any occupancy above to the basement, door openings leading to the basement shall necd to be protected with fire doors with 120 min fire rating, except for exit discharge doors from the basements.

4.3Occupant Load

For determining the exits required, the number of persons within any floor area or the occupant load shall be based on the actual number of occupants declared, but in no case less than that specified in Table 3. The occupant load of a mezzanine floor discharging to a floor below shall be added to that floor occupancy and the capacity of the exits shall be designed for the total Occupancy load thus established.

The occupant load of each story considered individually shall be required to be used in computing the number of means of egress at each story, provided that the required number of means of egress is not decreased in the direction of egress travel.

Column1 Column2 Column3
Sl no (1) Group of Occupancy(2) Occupant Load Factor (m2/person)(3)
i) Group A: Residential 12.5
ii) Group B: Educational 4
iii) Group C: Institutional   
  a)Indoor Patients area 15
  b) Outdoor Patients area 10
iv ) Group D:Assembly:  
  a)Concentrated use without fixed seating 0.65
  b)Less concentrated use without fixed  seating 1.4
  c)Fixed seating  see note 4
  d)Dining areas and restaurants with seating and table 1.8
v) Group F :Mercentile:  
  a) Street floor and sales basement 3
  b)Upper sales floor 6
  c)Storage/warehouse,receiving and the like 20
vi) Group E:Bussiness 10
vii) Group G:Industrial 10
viii) Group H: Storage(see Note  5) 30
ix) Group j: Hazardous  10

The assembly occupancies and call centres shall be required to display, limiting occupant load details positioned in a conspicuous place near the entrance of each of such respective occupancy to avoid possible overcrowding and overloading. The display shall preferably be engraved on a metal plate of not less than 300 mm x 200 mm, with letters of height and width not less than 50 mm, with detail of occupancy, area and occupancy load (see figure below).

The capacity of any open mezzanine/balcony shall be added to the capacity of the floor below for the purpose of determining exit capacity.

MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY

______________PERSONS PERMITTED WITHIN THIS SPACE/ROOM

IT IS CONFIRMED THAT THE FIRE EXITS ARE PLANNED FOR EGRESS OF THE OCCUPANCY MORE THAN THE ABOVE IS OCCUPANCY AS MENTIONED ABOVE AND NOT PERMITTED IN THE SPACE/ROOM AS FOLLOWS:

SPACE/ROOM DETAIL: ______________

FLOOR NO.________________

SIGN:__________             DATE:__________

(MANAGERIAUTHORIZED SIGNATORY)

4.4 Egress Components

Egress components to be considered are the number of exits to which access is provided, capacity of exit access, travel distance to an exit, the obviousness of the direction to an exit, and any hindrance including due to security issues involved.

4.4.1 Exit Access

a) A common path of travel is desirable in exit access which leads to two independent directions to separate exits.

b).Capacity of exit access ---The width of corridors, aisles or ramps required for exit access shall be sufficient to ensure a smooth flow of occupants to the exit. Whereas corridor is the only way of access to an exit, the corridor width shall not be less than the calculated exit width.

c) Objects like tables, chairs or any other temporary/permanent structures in exit access corridors shall be avoided as this may result in congestion and also impeding smooth flow of personnel during emergencies.

d) In order to ensure that cach clement of the means of egress can be effectively utilized, they shall all be properly lit and marked. Lighting shall be provided with emergency power back-up in case of power failures. Also, exit signs ofadequate size, marking, location, and lighting shall be provided so that all those unfamiliar with the location of the exits may safely find their way.

e)Exit access to fireman's lift and refuge area on the floor shall be step free and clearly signposted with the international symbol of accessibility.

f)Exit access shall not pass through storage rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purpose.

8)The calculation of capacity of exit access shall be in accordance with 4.4.2.4.

4.4.2 Exits

4.4.2.1 Number of exits

The minimum required number of exits in a building shall be determined based on occupant load (see Table 3) and width required per person (see Table 4) as appropriate to the type of exit for respective occupancies, subject to complying with maximum travel distance requirement (see "Table 5).

4.4.2.2 Arrangement of exits

a)Exits shall be so located that the travel distance on the floor shall not exceed the distance give Table 5.

b) Travel distance shall be measured from the most remote point within a storey or mezzanine floor along the natural and un obstructed path of horizontal or vertical egress  travel to the door to an exit.

c) The dead end corridor length in exit access shall not exceed 6 m for educational, institutional and assembly occupancies. For other occupancies, the same shall be 15 m (see Fig. 6)

d) Exits shall be placed as remote from cach other as possible and shall be arranged to provide direct access in separate directions from any point in the area served.

4.4.2.3 Capacities of means of egress

a)Exit capacity is the number of people that can pass through a stairway, and level components (door and corridor) and ramps. The total capacity of all the respective means of egress serving a floor shall be sufficient to allow egress of the entire population of the floor.

b)The unit of exit width, used to measure the capacity of any exit, shall be 500 mm. A clear width of 250 mm shall be counted as an additional half unit. Clear widths less than 250 mm shall not be counted for exit width.

c) Width per person for stairways, and level components and ramps shall be determined using the capacity factors in accordance with  Table 4

Column1 Column2 Column3
    Table 2  
SL No Occupancy Group Width per person mm
    Stair ways                    Level of Componenets and Ramps
i) Residential  (Group A ) 10                                                 6.5
ii) Educational   (Group B) 15                                                  13
iii) Instututional(Group C)  
iv) Assembly       (Group D)  
v) Business         (Group E)  
vi) Mercentile    (Group F) 10                                                   6.5
vii) Industrial       (Group G)  
viii) Storage           (Group H)  
ix) Hazardous      (Group J) 18                                                    10

For example, if an exit doorway measures 1 000 mm in clear width, it would be defined as providing exit capacity for I 000/6.5  occupants, that is, 153 persons (say 150 persons) and number of such exit doorways can then be calculated depending on the occupant load.

d) When calculating stairways, level components and ramps and other exit means, the capacity of the entire system shall have to be based upon the minimum capacity available from  any part of the system. The corridor, if so provided shall also to be planned with consideration of exit access adequacy for the number of occupants. Further, consider the Situation of doors opening to an exit stairway If the stairway provides an exit capacity of 150 persons, and the doors leading into the stairway provide an exit capacity of 153 persons, the overall exit system would be considered to provide the minimum exit capacity of only 150 persons afforded by the stairway. The exit planning will be limited by the most restrictive exit calculation under the means of egress.

e)In the procedures tor determining required egress capacity, the number of required means of egress 1s based on a floor-by-floor consideration, rather than the accumulation of the occupant loads of all the floors. However, the number of means of egress cannot decrease as an occupant proceeds along the egress path.

.4.4.2.4 Types of exit access and exits

Various types of exit access and exits are doorways, corridors and passageways, horizontal exits, internal staircases, exit passageways, external staircases and ramps.

Requirements for each are as detailed below.

Column1 Column2 Column3
Sl.no(1) Occupancy Group(2)               Maximum Travel Distance 
     Type 1 and 2 (3)                 Type 3 and 4 (4)
i) Residential  (Group A ) 30.00                                             22.50
ii) Educational   (Group B) 30.00                                             22.50
iii) Instututional(Group C) 30.00                                             22.50
iv) Assembly       (Group D) 30.00                                             30.00
v) Business         (Group E) 30.00                                             30.00
vi) Mercentile    (Group F) 30.00                                             30.00
vii) Industrial       (Group G) G-1 ,G-2, G-3 45.00,22.50
viii) Storage           (Group H) 30.00                                                see note 3
ix) Hazardous      (Group J) 22.5
NOTES
requirements at the location of
1 For fully sprinklered building, the travel distance may beinstallation.increased by 50 percent of the values specificd.
2 Ramp shall not be counted as an exit in case of basements
2) Activation of the building automaticbelow the first basement in car parking. sprinkler or fire detection system, if
3 Construction of Type 3 or Type 4 is not permitted.

4.4.2.4.1 Doorways

a) Every exit doorway shall open into an enclosed stairway or a horizontal exit of a corridor or passageway providing continuous and protected means of egress (see Fig. 7 on unaccepted arrangement of doors in a stair).

b)No exit doorway shall be less than 1 000 mmn in width except assembly buildings, where door width shall be not less than 2 000 mm (see Fig. 8). Doorways shall be not less than 2 000 mm in height.

c) Exit doorways shall be operable from the side which they serve, without the use of a key.

d) Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors and in exits to avoid confusion regarding the direction of exit.

e) Revolving doors can be accepted as a component in a means of egress where the following requirements are fully complied with:

  • 1) Doors shall be capable of collapsing to a book fold position with parallel egress paths, of width not less than I 000 mm.
  • 2) Doors shall not be located within 3 m of  the foot or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or escalators and the doors.
  • 3)Each revolving door shall be provided with a hinged door in the same wall within3 m thereot, with same exiting capacity
  • 4)Each revolving door shall be considered as capable of exiting oly 50 persons.

f) All fire rated doors and assembly shall be provided with certificate and labels prominently indicating the manufacturer's identification, door details covering door type, serial/batch number, month and year or manufacture, fire resistance rating, etc. The doors and assembly shall be certified with all prescribed hardware such as hinges, locks, panic bars, door closer, and door viewers.

g) Access controlled doors- Access controlled doors and electromagnetic doors shall fall under this category. These shall meet the following requirements:

  • 1) Doors shall have fire rating as per the requirements at the location of installation.
  • 2) Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors in the direction of egress, and the doors shalll remain unlocked until the automatic sprinkler system or fire-alarm system has been manually reset.
  • 3) Loss of power to the part of the access control system that locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors in the direction of egress.
  • 4) Amanual release device shall be provided in the readily accessible vicinity of the egress door with a signage *PUSH TO EXIT" and when the same is operated, it shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock, independent of the access control system electronics.

h)Turnstiles-Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one direction or are used to collect fares or admission charges shall not be placed so as to obstruct any required means of egress unless door openings of required width are available within 3 m thereof.

Turnstiles or such similar devices shall also be disengaged through automatic or manual intervention to allow egress in the direction of exit.

j) Doors in folding partition shall not be treated as approved means of egress.

4.4.2.4.2 Corridors and passageways of means of egress

a) Corridors and passageways shall be of width not less than the calculated aggregate width of exit doorways leading from them in the direction of travel to the exit (see Table 4 and Table 5).

b)In the case of buildings where there is a central corridor, which is part of exit access, the doors of rooms (except for rooms having assembly occupancy) shall open inwards to permit Smooth flow of tratlic in the corridor.

4.4.2.4.3 Staircases

4.4.2.4.3.1 General

  • The requirements of number of staircases shall supplement the requirement of different occupancies in 6.1 to 6.9.
  • All buildings, as mentioned in 1.2, shall have a minimum of two staircases. The actual number of staircases shall comply with the requirement of 4.4.2.1.
  • All exit staircases shall discharge, at the level of exit discharge, to the exit discharge, either,
  • directly, or
  • through an exit passageway, or
  • through a large lobby.
  • At least 50 percent of the staircases shall discharge as per (a) and/or (b) above.
  • The minimum width of tread without nosing shall be 250 mm for staircase of residential buildings. This shall be minimum 300 mm for assembly, hotels, educational, institutional, business and other buildings. The treads shall be constructed and maintained in a manner toprevent slipping. The maximum height of riser shall be 190 mm tor staircase of residential buildings (A-2) and 150 mm for other buildings. The number of risers shall be limited to 12 per flight.
  • The staircases may be internal staircases or external staircases.

4.4.2.4.3.2 Internal staircases

The internal staircases may be constructed with an external wall, or otherwise, and shall comply with the following

a) Internal stairs shall be constructed of non- combustible materials throughout, and shall have fire resistant rating of minimum 120 min.

b) A staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft.

c) Exits shall not be used as a portion of a supply, return or exhaust air system serving adjoining areas. Any opening(s) shall not be permitted in walls or in doors, separating exits from adjoining areas.

d) No flue chimney, electromechanical equipment, air conditioning units, gas piping or electrical panels shall be allowed in the stairway.

e) Notwithstanding the detailed provision for exits in accordance with 4.2 and 4.3, the following minimum width shall be provided for staircases Tor respective occupancies:

  • 1) Residential (A-2)   : 1.00 m
  • NOTE-For row housing with  2 stores, the minimum width shall be 0.75 m.
  • 2) Residential (A-1, A-3 and A-4):  1.25 m
  • 3) Residential hotel (A-5 and A-6): 1.50 m
  • 4) Assembly     : 2.00 m
  • NOTE- The width of stairs may be accepted to be 1.50 m in case of  assembly occupancy having less than 150 persons.
  • 5) Educational: 1.50 m
  • 6) Institutional: 2.00 m
  • 7) All other occupancies: 1.50 m

f) A handrail shall be provided on one side of the staircase of width less than  1500 mm, and on both sides of the staircase of width  1500 mm and more. The projection of handrail(s) in the staircase width shall not be more than 115 mm. All other requirements O handrail shall be in accordance with Part 3 Development Control Rules and General Building Requirements' of the Code.

g) Handrails may project inside the measured width by not more than 90 mm.

h) The design of staircase shall also take into account the following:

  • 1) The minimum headroom in a passageunder the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2.2 m
  • 2) Access to exit staircase shall be through a fire door of a minimum 120 min fire resistance rating.
  • 3) No living space, store or other fire risk shall open directly into staircases.
  • 4) The exit (including staircases) shall be continuous from refuge floors or terrace level, as applicable, to the level of exit discharge.
  • 5)No electrical shafts/air conditioning ducts or gas pipes, etc, shall pass through or open in the staircases.
  • 6) Lifts shall not open in staircase.
  • 7) No combustible material shall be used for decoration/wall panelling in the staircase.
  • 8)Beams/columns and other building features shall not reduce the head room/ width of the staircase.
  • 9)The floor indication board, indicating the location/designated number of staircase, respective tloor number and direction to exit discharge shall be placed inside the staircase, on the wall nearest to the fire door. It shall be of size not less than300 mm * 200 mm (see Fig. 9).
  • 10) Individual floors shall be prominently indicated on the wall outside the staircase be not less than 1 500 mm in diameter and  facing it.
  • 11) All staircases shall terminate at the level of exit discharge. The access to the basement shall be by a separate staircase.
  • 12) Scissors type staircases shall not be treated as part of exit.

4.4.2.4.33 Curved stairs

Curved stairs shall not be treated as part means of egress. However, these may be used as part of exit access provi1ded the depth of tread is not less than 280 mm at a point 350 mm from the narrower end of the tread and the smallest radius is not less than twice the stair width.

The external staircases are the staircases provided on the external wall/facade, and shall comply with the following:

a) External stairs shall always be kept in sound and usable condition.

b) All external stairs shall be directly connected to the ground.

c) Entrance to the external stairs shall be separate and remote from the internal staircase.

d) Where an external staircase is provided, it shall be ensured that the use of it at the time of fire is not prejudiced by smoke and flame from openings (for example, windows, doors) in the external face of the building. Care shall be taken to ensure that no external wall or window opening opens on to or close to an external stair. If such openings exists within 3 m from an external staircase, they shall be protected with fire rated doors/window assemblies with rating of at least 60 min(see Fig. 10)

e)The external stairs shall be constructed of non- combustible materials, and any doorway leading to it shall have minimum 120 min fire resistance.

f) No external staircase shall be inclined at an angle greater than 45 from the horizontal.

g) External stairs shall have straight flight not less than 1 500 mm wide.

h) Handrails, to be provided on both sides, shall  be of a height not less than I 000 mm and not exceeding 1 200 mm. There shall be provisions of balusters with maximum gap off 150 mm.

j) The use of spiral staircase shall be limited to low occupant load and to a building not exceeding 9 m in height. A spiral staircase shall be not less than 1500 mm in diameter and  shall be designed to give adequate headroom.

4.4.2.4.3.5 Ramps

a) Ramps shall comply with all the applicable requirements for staircases regarding enclosure, capacity (see also Table 4) and limiting dimensions, except where specified in 6.I to 6,9 tor special uses and occupancies.

b) The slope of a ramp shall not exceed I in 12 (8 percent).

c) Ramp(s) shall be surfaced with approved slip resistant materials that are securely attached. No perforations are permissible on ramp floors.

d) Any changes in travel direction in ramp shall be preceded by landings of 1.5 m x 1.5 m size.

e) Ramps and intermediate landings shall continue with no decrease in width along the direction of egress travel.

f) Outside ramps and landings shall be designed to minimise water accumulation on their surfaces.

g) Ramps shall have landings located at the top, at the bottom, and at doors opening onto the ramp.

h)Every landing shall be not less than 1 500 mm long in the direction of travel.

j) Where the ramp is not part of an accessible route, the ramp landings shall not be required to exceed I 250 mm in the direction of travel, provided that the ramp has a straight run

k) Handrails shall be provided on all ramps on both sides (see 4.4.2.4.3.4).

NOTE---Above requirements are not applicable  basement car parking ramps

The ramps shall, in addition, comply with the requirements given in 13 of Part 3 "Development  Control Rules and General Building Requirements' of  the Code.

4.4.2.5 Smoke control of exits

a) In building design, compartmentation plays a vital part in limiting the spread of fire and smoke. The design should ensure avoidance of spread of smoke to adjacent spaces through the various leakage openings in the compartment enclosure, such as cracks openings around pipes ducts, airtlow grills and doors. In the absence of proper sealing of all these openings, smoke and toxic gases will obstruct the free movement of occupants of the building through the exits. Pressurization of staircases is of great importance for the exclusion of smoke and toxic gases from the protected exit.

b) Pressurization is a method adopted for protecting the exits from ingress of smoke, especially in high-rise buildings. In pressurization, air is injected into the staircases,  lobbies, etc, as applicable, to raise their pressure slightly above the pressure in adjacent parts of  the building. As a result, ingress of smoke or toxic gases into the exits will be prevented. The pressurization of staircases and lift lobbies shall be adopted as given in Table 6.

The pressure difference for staircases shall be 50Pa.

Pressure differences for lobbies (or corridors) shall be between 25 Pa and 30 Pa. Further, the pressure differential for enclosed staircase adjacent to such lobby (or corridors) shall be 50 Pa. For enclosed staircases adjacent to non-pressurized lobby (or corridors), the pressure differential shall be 50 Pa.

Column1 Column2 Column3
SL.NO Component Height of the Building
    Less than 15m                                                                                    15m to 30 m                                                                               More than 30 m
i) Internal staircase not with external wall Pressurised except for residential building                    Pressurized                                                                                  Pressurized
ii) Internal staircase  with external wall Pressurised except for residential building               Naturally ventilated or Pressurized                            Cross ventiilated   or   Pressurized
iii) Lift lobby Not required at ground                                                         Naturally ventilated or Pressurized                            Cross ventiilated   or   Pressurized
and above
However lift lobby segregation
pressurization is required                                                          
tor lift commuting from
ground to basement
     

 NOTES 

I The natural ventilation requirement of the staircase shall be, achicved through opening at cach landing, of an arca 0.5 m in the extermal wall. A cro8s ventilated staircase shall have 2 such openings in opposite/adjacent walls or the same shall be cross-

2 Enclosed staircase leading to more than one basement shall be pressurized. Lift lobby with fire doors (120 min) at all levels with pressurization of 25-30 Pa is required. However, if lift lobby cannot be provided 

at any of the levels in air conditioned buildings or in internal spaces where funnel/flue effect may be created, lift hoistway shall be pressurized at 50 Pa. For building greater than 30 m, multiple point injection air inlets to maintain

desircd pressurization level shall be provided. If the lift lobby, lift and staircase are part of firefighting shaft, lift lobby necessarily has to be pressurized in such case, unless naturally ventilated.

c) Equipment and ductwork for staircase pressurization shall be in accordance with one of the following:

  • 1) Directly connected to the stairway by ductwork enclosed in non-combustible construction.
  • 2) If ducts used to pressurize the system are passed through shafts and grills are provided at each level, it shall be ensured that hot gases and smoke from the building cannot ingress into the staircases under any Circumstances

d) The normal air conditioning system and the pressurization system shall be designed and interfaced to meet the requirements of emergency services. When the emergency pressurization is brought into action, the following changes in the normal air conditioning system shall be effected

  • Any re-circulation of air shall be stopped and all exhaust air vented to atmosphere
  • Any air supply to the spaces/areas other than exits shall be stopped.
  • The exhaust system may be continued provided,
  • the positions of the extraction grills permit a general air tlow away from the means of egress,
  • the construction of the ductwork and fans is such that, it will not be rendered inoperable by hot gases and smoke; and
  • there is no danger of spread of smoke to other floors by the path of the extraction system which can be ensured by keeping the extraction fans running.

e) For pressurized stair enclosure systems, the activation of the systems shall be initiated by signalling from fire alarm panel.

f) Pressurization system shall be integrated and supervised with the automatic/manual fire alarm system for actuation.

g)Wherever pressurized staircase is to be connected to unpressurized area, the Two areas shall be segregated by 120 min fire resistant wall.

h) Fresh air intake for pressurization shall be way (at least 4 m) from any of the exhaust outlets/grille.

*****