01.DEFINITIONS



1.DEFINITIONS

  (Govt. OF INDIA-MODEL BUILDING BYE-LAWS:2016)

In these Bye-Laws, unless the context otherwise requires the definition given shall have the meaning indicated against each term.All mandatory Master Plan/Zonal Plan regulations regarding use, land use, coverage, FAR, set- back, open space, height, number of stories, number of dwelling units, parking standards etc. for various categories of buildings including modification therein made from time to time shall be applicable mutatis mutandis in the Building Bye-Laws regulations under this clause. All amendments / modifications made in the aforesaid regulations shall automatically stand deemed to have been included as part of these Bye-laws.

Definitions:

“Access" - A clear approach to a plot or a building.

“Act”- The Act of the Local Body/Authority concerned.

“Addition and/or Alteration”- A change from one occupancy to another, or a structural change including an addition to the area or change in height or the removal of part of building, or any change to the structure, such as the construction or removal or cutting into of any wall or part of a wall, partition, column, beam, joist, floor including a mezzanine floor or other support, or a change to or closing of any required means of access ingress or egress or a change to fixtures or equipment" as provided in these Bye-Laws.

“Advertising Sign”- Any surface or structure with characters, letters or illustrations applied thereto and displayed in any manner whatsoever outdoors for the purpose of advertising or giving information or to attract the public to any place, person, public performance, article, or merchandise, and which surface or structure is attached to, forms part of, or is connected with any building, or is fixed to a tree or to the ground or to any pole, screen, fence or hoarding or displayed in space, or in or over any water body included in the jurisdiction of the Authority.

“Air-conditioning”- The process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, purity, distribution and air movement and pressure to meet the requirements of the conditioned space.

“Amenity”- Includes roads, street, open spaces, parks, recreational grounds, play grounds, gardens, water supply, electric supply, street lighting, sewerage, drainage, public works and other utilities, services and conveniences.

“Application”- An application made in such form as may be prescribed by the Authority from time to time.

“Approved”- As approved/sanctioned by the Authority under applicable Bye-Laws.

“Architect”- A person holding a graduate degree in Bachelor of Architecture from any institute recognized by the Council of Architecture (COA) and has his/her name entered in the register of COA for the time being, with a valid COA Registration number. (Please see Appendix “E”- Qualification and Competence of Technical Personnel for Preparation of Schemes for Building Permit and Supervision).

“Architect/Professional on record”- An architect/Competent professional who is brought on record to represent his/her client for a construction project, to act on their behalf regarding building permits and process of construction (as detailed at Section 6.3.8 and competence given as per Appendix ‘E’). He/She may be registered with the Authority for the cause.

“Area”- In relation to a building means the superficies of a horizontal section thereof made at the plinth level inclusive of the external walls and of such portions of the party walls as belong to the building

“Authority”- The Authority which has been created by a statute and which, for the purpose of administering the Code/Part, may authorize a committee or an official or an agency to act on its behalf; hereinafter called the ‘Authority’. Authority can be any Urban Local Body/Urban Development Authority/Industrial Development Authority or any other authority as notified by the State Government as the case may be.

“Balcony”- A horizontal projection, cantilevered or otherwise including a parapet" handrail, balustrade, to serve as a passage or sit out place.

“Barsati”- A habitable room/rooms on the roof of the building with or without toilet / kitchen.

“Basement or Cellar”- The lower storey of a building, below or partly below the ground level, with one or more than one levels.

“Building”- A structure constructed with any materials whatsoever for any purpose, whether used for human habitation or not, and includes:-Foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed platforms etc. Verandahs, balconies, cornices, projections etc.

Parts of a building or anything affixed thereto;

Any wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space, sign and outdoor display structures; etc.,

Tanks constructed or fixed for storage of chemicals or chemicals in liquid form and for storage of water, effluent, swimming pool, ponds etc.,

All types of buildings as defined in (a) to (q) below, except tents, shamianas and tarpaulin shelters erected temporarily for temporary purposes and ceremonial occasions, shall be considered to be "buildings". 

Types of Buildings based on use of premises or activity:

“Residential Building”- includes a building in which sleeping and living accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes, with cooking facilities and includes one or more family dwellings, apartment houses, flats, and private  garages of such buildings. 

“Educational Building”- Includes a building exclusively used for a school or college, recognized by the appropriate Board or University, or any other Competent Authority involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation incidental to educational use, and including a building for such other uses as research institution. It shall also include quarters for essential staff required to reside in the premises, and building used as a hostel captive to an educational institution whether situated in its campus or outside.

“Institutional Building”- Includes a building constructed by Government, Semi-Government Organizations or Registered Trusts and used for medical or other treatment, or for an auditorium or complex for cultural and allied activities or for an hospice, care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, handicap, disease or infirmity, care of orphans, abandoned women, children and infants, convalescents,destitute or aged persons and for penal or correctional detention with restricted liberty of the inmates ordinarily providing sleeping accommodation and includes dharamshalas, hospitals, sanatoria, custodial and penal institutions such as jails, prisons, mental hospitals, houses of correction, detention and reformatories etc.

“Assembly Building”- A building or part thereof, where groups of people (not < 50) congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes and this includes buildings of drama and cinemas theatres, drive-in-theatres, assembly halls, city halls, town halls, auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, "mangalkaryalayas", skating rinks, gymnasia, restaurants, eating or boarding houses, places of worship, dance halls, clubs, gymkhanas and road, railways, air, sea or other public transportation stations and recreation piers.

“Business Building”- Includes any building or part thereof used principally for transaction of business and/or keeping of accounts and records including offices, banks, professional establishments, court houses etc., if their principal function is transaction of business and/or keeping of books and records.

“Mercantile Building”- Includes a building or part thereof used as shops, stores or markets for display and sale of wholesale and or retail goods or merchandise, including office, storage and service facilities incidental thereto and located in the same building

“Industrial Building”- Includes a building or part thereof wherein products or material are fabricated, assembled or processed, such as assembly plants, laboratories, power plants, refineries, gas plants, mills, dairies and factories etc.,

“Storage Building”- A building or part thereof used primarily for storage or shelter of goods, wares, merchandise and includes a building used as a warehouse, cold storage, freight depot, transit shed, store house, public garage, hanger, truck terminal, grain elevator, barn and stables.

“Hazardous Building”- Includes a building or part thereof used for-Storage, handling, manufacture of processing of radioactive substances or highly combustible or explosive materials or of products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and/or producing poisonous fumes or explosive emanations.Storage, handling, manufacture or processing of which involves highly corrosive, toxic or noxious alkalis, acids, or other liquids, gases or chemicals producing flame, fumes and explosive mixtures etc. or which result in division of matter into fine particles capable of spontaneous ignition

“Mixed Land Use Building”- A building partly used for non-residential activities and partly for residential purpose.

“Wholesale Establishment”- An establishment wholly or partly engaged in wholesale trade and manufacture, wholesale outlets, including related storage facilities, warehouses and establishments engaged in truck transport, including truck transport booking agencies.

Types of buildings based on design and height:

“Detached Building”- Includes a building with walls and roofs independent of any other building and with open spaces on all sides within the same plot.

“Multi-Storeyed Building or High Rise Building”- A building above 4 stories, and/or a building exceeding 15 meters or more in height (without stilt) and 17.5M (including stilt).

“Semi-detached Building”- A building detached on three sides with open space as specified in these regulations.

Types of buildings based on other features:

“Special Building”- Includes all buildings like assembly, industrial, buildings used for wholesale establishments, hotels, hostels, hazardous, mixed occupancies with any of the aforesaid occupancies and centrally air conditioned buildings having total built up area exceeding 500 sq m.

“Multi Level Car parking”- A building partly below ground level having two or more basements or above ground level, primarily to be used for parking of cars, scooters or any other type of light motorized vehicle.

Types of buildings based on safety due to use/ maintenance level:

“Slum” – Buildings that are in poor condition of maintenance or have compromised habitability due to poor ventilation, sanitation or otherwise are termed slums. These are generally declared or notified as slums under relevant legislation by competent authority

“Unsafe Building”- Includes a building which:

Is structurally unsafe, or

Is insanitary, or

Is not provided with adequate means of ingress or egress or

Constitutes a fire hazard or

Is dangerous to human life or

In relation to its existing use, constitutes a hazard to safety or health or public welfare by maintenance, dilapidation or abandonment.

Note:  All unsafe buildings /structure will require to be restored by repairs, demolition or dealt with as directed by the Authority. The relevant provisions of the Act shall apply for procedure to be followed by the Authority in taking action against such buildings.

“Building Height”- The vertical distance measured

In the case of flat roofs from the average level of the front road and continuance to the highest point of the building.

In case of pitched roofs upto the point where the external surface of the outer wall intersects the finished surface of the sloping roof and

In the case of gables facing the road midpoint between the eaves level and the ridge.

Architectural features serving no other function except that of decoration shall be excluded for the purpose of measuring heights. The height of the building shall be taken upto the terrace level for the purpose of fire safety requirement.

“Building Envelope” - The horizontal spatial limits up to which a building may be permitted to be constructed on a plot.

“Building Line”- The line upto which the plinth of building adjoining a street or an extension of a street or on a future street may lawfully extend and includes the lines prescribed, if any, in any scheme and/or development plan. The building line may change from time-to-time as decided by the Authority.

“Cabin”- A non-residential enclosure constructed of non-load bearing partitions.

“Canopy”- shall mean a cantilevered projection from the face of the wall over an entry to the building at the lintel or slab level provided that:

It shall not project beyond the plot line.

It shall not be lower than 2.3 m. or 7’- 6” when measured from the ground.

There shall be no structure on it and the top shall remain open to sky.

“Carpet Area” - The covered area of the usable rooms of a dwelling unit / at any floor (excluding the area of the walls).

“Chajja”- A sloping or horizontal structural overhang provided over openings on external walls for protection from the weather.

“Chimney”- A construction by means of which a flue is formed for the purpose of carrying products of combustion to the open air and includes a chimneystack and flue pipe.

"Construction" - Any erection of a structure or a building, including any addition or extension thereto either vertically or horizontally, but does not include, any reconstruction, repair and renovation of an existing structure or building, or, construction, maintenance and cleansing of drains and drainage works and of public latrines, urinals and similar conveniences, or, the construction and maintenance of works meant for providing supply of water for public, or, the construction or maintenance, extension, management for supply and distribution of electricity to the public; or provision for similar facilities for publicity.

“Conversion”- The change from one occupancy to other occupancy or any change in building structure or part thereof resulting in a change of space and use requiring additional occupancy certificate.

“Cornice”- means a sloping or horizontal structural overhang usually provided over openings or external walls to provide protection from sun and rain.

“Courtyard”- A space permanently open to sky, enclosed fully or partially by buildings and may be at ground level or any other level within or adjacent to a building.

“Covered Area”- The Ground area covered immediately above the plinth level covered by the building but does not include the space covered by:Garden, rockery, well and well structures, plant nursery, water pool, swimming pool (if uncovered), platform round a tree, tank, fountain, bench, chabutra with open top and unenclosed on sides by walls and the like;

Drainage culvert, conduit, catch-pit, gully-pit, chamber, gutter and the like;

Compound wall, gate, slide/ swing door, canopy, and areas covered by chajja or similar projections and staircases which are uncovered and open at least on three sides and also open to sky.

“Damp Proof Course”- A course consisting of some appropriate water proofing material provided to prevent penetration of dampness or moisture.

“Density”- The residential density expressed in terms of the number of dwelling units per hectare.

Note:  Where such densities are expressed exclusive of community facilities and provision of open spaces and major roads (excluding incidental open spaces), these will be net residential densities. Where these densities are expressed taking into consideration the required open space provision and community facilities and major roads, these would be gross residential densities at neighbourhood level, sector level or town level, as the case may be. The provision of open spaces and community facilities will depend on the size of the residential community. Incidental open spaces are mainly open spaces required to be left around and in between two buildings to provide lighting and ventilation.

“Development” - ‘Development’ with grammatical variations means the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operations, in, or over, or under land or water, on the making of any material change, in any building or land, or in the use of any building, land, and includes re-development and layout and subdivision of any land and ‘to develop’ shall be construed accordingly.

“Development Plan”- See “Master Plan”

“Drain”- A conduit or channel for the carriage of storm water, sewage, waste water or other waterborne wastes in a building drainage system.

“Drainage system” - A system or a line of pipes, with their fittings and accessories, such as manholes, inspection chambers, traps, gullies, floor traps used for drainage of building or yards appurtenant to the buildings within the same cartilage; and includes an open channel for conveying surface water or a system for the removal of any waste water.

“Dwelling”- A building or a portion thereof which is designed or used wholly or principally for residential purposes for one family.

“Empanelled Architect”- A person empanelled by the Authority as per rules under the bye-laws as an authorized person to sanction building plans of residential buildings upto 15 m. in height and for plot sizes upto 500 sqm, forming part of any approved lay-out plan.

“Encroachment”- means an act to enter into the possession or rights either of permanent or temporary nature on a land or built up property of local body or state/ central Government.

“Enclosed Staircase”- means a staircase separated by fire resistant walls and doors from the rest of the building.

 “Existing Building”- A building or structure existing authorisedly with the approval of the Authority before the commencement of these Bye-Laws.

“Existing Use”- Use of a building or structure existing authorisedly with the approval of the Authority before the commencement of these Bye-Laws.

“Exit”- A passage channel or means of egress from the building, its storey or floor to a street or, other open space of safety; whether horizontal, outside and vertical exits meaning as under:-

Horizontal exit means an exit, which is a protected opening through or around a fire well or bridge connecting two or more buildings.

Outside exit mean an exit from building to a public way to an open area leading to a public way or to an enclosed fire resistant passage leading to a public way.

Vertical exit means an exit used for ascending or descending between two or more levels including stairway, fire towers, ramps and fire escapes.

“External Wall”- An outer wall of a building not being a party wall even though adjoining to a wall of another building and also means a wall abutting on an interior open space of any building.

“Floor”- The lower surface in a storey on which one normally walks in a building, and does not include a mezzanine floor. The floor at ground level with direct access to a street or open space shall be called the ground floor; the floor above it shall be termed as floor- 1, with the next higher floor being termed as floor- 2, and so on upwards.

“Floor Area Ratio (FAR)”- The quotient obtained by dividing the combined covered area (plinth area) of all floors, excepting areas specifically exempted under these regulations, by the total area of the plot, viz.: -

Floor area ratio(FAR)=Total covered area on all floors / Plot Area

“Fire and/or Emergency Alarm System”- Fire alarm system comprises of components for manually or automatically detecting a fire, initiating an alarm of fire and initiating other actions as appropriate.

“Fire Hazard Industries”-

"Low Fire Hazard Industries"- includes engineering industries using/processing or assembling non-combustible materials i.e. lathe machines, steel works, steel components etc.

"Moderate Fire Hazard Industries" includes industries using / processing combustible materials but not flammable liquid etc., plastic industries, rubber, and PVC industries, textile, paper, furniture, flour mills etc.

"High Fire Hazard Industries"- includes industries using/processing flammable liquids, gases, chemicals petroleum products, plastic or thermo setting group etc.

“Fire Lift”- Means a special lift designed for the use of fire service personnel in the event of fire or other emergency.

“Fire Proof Door”- Means a door or shutter fitted to a wall opening, and constructed and erected with the requirement to check the transmission of heat and fire for a period.

“Fire Pump”- Means a machine, driven by external power for transmitting energy to fluids by coupling the pump to a suitable engine or motor, which may have varying outputs/capacity but shall be capable of having a pressure of 3.2 kg/cm2 at the topmost level of multi-storey or high rise building.

“Fire Pump-Booster Fire Pump”- Means a mechanical/electrical device that boots up the water pressure at the top level of a multi-storeyed / high-rise building and which is capable of a pressure of 3.2 kg/cm2 at the nearest point.

“Fire Resistance”- Fire resistance is a property of an element of building construction and is the measure of its ability to satisfy for a stated period some or all of thefollowing criteria:

  •  resistance to collapse,
  •  resistance to penetration of flame and hot gases, and
  • resistance to temperature rise on the unexposed face up to a maximum of 180°C and/or average temperature of 150°C.

Fire Resistance Rating - The time that a material or construction will withstand the standard fire exposure as determined by fire test done in accordance with the standard methods of fire tests of materials/structures.

“Fire Separation”- Means the distance in meters measured from any other building on the site or from another site, or from the opposite side of a street or other public space to the building.

“Fire Service Inlet”- Means a connection provided at the base of a building for pumping up water through in built fire-fighting arrangements by fire service pumps in accordance; with the recommendation of the Chief Fire Officer.

“Fire Tower”- Means an enclosed staircase that can only be approached from the various floors through landings or lobbies separated from both the floor area and the staircase by fire resistant doors and open to the outer air.

“Fire Resisting Building”- means a building in which material, which has, appropriate degree of fire resistance is used.

“Footing”- A foundation unit constructed in brickwork, stone masonry or concrete under the base of a wall or column for the purpose of distributing the load over a larger area.

“Foundation”- A substructure supporting an arrangement of columns or walls in a row or rows transmitting the loads to the soil

“Front Air Plane”- The plane contained between the ground in front of the building and the straight lines drawn downwards and outwards from the line of intersection of the outer surface of any front wall of the building with the roof perpendicular to that line, and at an angle of 63-1/2 degrees to the horizontal;

Note:  The 63-1/2 degrees angle has a tangent of 2:1 so that if the ground is the level, the air plane reaches the ground at a distance from the exterior wall equal to half the height of the above level of that ground.

 “Gal1ery"- An intermediate floor or platform projecting from a wall of an auditorium or a hall providing extra floor area, and/additional seating accommodation and includes the structures provided for seating in stadia.

“Garage-Private”- A building or a portion thereof designed and used for the parking of vehicle.

“Garage-Public” - A building or portion thereof, designed other than as a private garage, operated for gain, designed and/or used for repairing, servicing, using, selling or storing or parking motor driven or other vehicles.

“Ground Floor”- shall mean storey, which has its floor surface nearest to the ground around the building.

 “Group Housing”- means a building unit constructed or to be constructed with one or more floors having more than two dwelling units having common service facilities where land is owned jointly (as in the case of co-operative societies or the public agencies, such as local authorities or housing boards, etc) and the construction is undertaken by one Agency..

“Habitable Room”- A room occupied or designed for occupancy by one or more persons for study, living, sleeping, eating, kitchen if it is used as a living room, but not including bathrooms, water-closet compartments, laundries, serving and store pantries, corridors, cellars, attics, and spaces that are not used frequently or during extended periods.

 “Illuminated Exit Signs”- A device for indicating the means of escape during normal circumstances and power failure.

 “Jhamp”-A downward, vertical or sloping projection hanging below any horizontal projection like balcony, canopy, verandah, passage etc, to provide protection from direct sun and rain.

 “Jhot” -A strip of land permanently left open for drainage purposes. It is not to be used as an access way or a street and is not to be included as a part of setbacks.

 “Katra or Chawl”-A building so constructed as to be suitable for living in separate tenements each consisting a single room, or of two, but not of more than two rooms and with common sanitary arrangements.

 “Layout Plan” – means a Plan indicating configuration and sizes of all Use Premises. Each Use Zone may have one or more than one Layout Plan depending upon the extensiveness of the area under the specific Use Zones and vice versa. A layout planshall have at least two use premises (apart from Recreational, utilities and transportation) and a minimum area of 1 hectare.

“Ledge or Tand”- A shelf-like projection, supported in any manner whatsoever, except by means of vertical supports within a room itself but not having projection wider than 1 m.

“Licensed Architect / Town Planner / Engineer / Supervisor / Plumber”- Qualified professionals who have been registered with the Authority as per the Qualification and competence given in Appendix ‘E’ / by the body governing such profession and therefore possess the license to provide professional services in Building construction.

“Lift”- An appliance designed to transport persons or materials between two or more levels in a vertical or substantially vertical direction by means of a guided car or platform. The word ‘elevator’ is also synonymously used for ‘lift’.

“Lobby”- means a covered space in which all the adjoining rooms open.

“Loft”- An intermediate floor between two floors or a residual space in a pitched roof above normal level constructed for storage with maximum clear height of 1.5 meters.

“Light Plane”- The plane lying between the line of intersection of the floor of any room in a building with the outer surface or an exterior wall of the building and the straight lines drawn upwards and outwards from those lines drawn upward and outwards from lines perpendicular thereto an at an angle of 63 1/2º to the horizontal.

Note:  For the purpose of the definition of light plane, the outer surface of any verandah abutting on an interior or side open space shall be considered to be the exterior wall of the building.

“Masonry” - An assemblage of masonry units properly bound together by mortar.

“Masonry Unit” - A unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the bearing surface is 75% or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane. It may be either of clay, brick, stone, concrete, sand lime brick or any other construction material.

“Master Plan”- A Master Plan formulated under any relevant Act (Town and Country Planning or Development Act or Municipal Act) for any town, approved and notified by the State Government.

“Means of Escape”- An escape route provided in a building for safe evacuation of occupants.

“Mezzanine Floor”- An intermediate floor between two floors of any storey forming an integral part of floor below.

“Mumty or Stair Cover”- A structure with a covering roof over a staircase and its landing built to enclose only the stairs for the purpose of providing protection from weather and not used for human habitation.

“MCB/ELCB”- Devices for tripping of electrical circuits in event of any fault in the circuit/installation.

“Non Combustible Material”- A material which is not liable to burn or add heat to a fire when tested for combustibility in accordance with the latest code of Bureau of Indian Standards Method of Test for combustibility of Building Materials.

“Occupancy or use”- The principal occupancy/ use for which a building or a part of a building is intended to be used. For the purposes of classification of a building according to occupancy, an occupancy shall be deemed to include the subsidiary occupancies which are contingent upon it.

“Mixed occupancy”- buildings being those in which more than one occupancy is present in different portions of the buildings.

“Open space”- An area forming an integral part of a site left open to the sky.

“Owner”- Person or body having a legal interest in land and/or building thereon. This includes free holders, leaseholders or those holding a sub-lease which both bestows a legal right to occupation and gives rise to liabilities in respect of safety or building condition.

In case of lease or sub-lease holders, as far as ownership with respect to the structure is concerned, the structure of a flat or structure on a plot belongs to the allottee/ lessee till the allotment/lease subsists.

“Parapet”- A low wall or railing built along the edge of a roof or a floor.

“Parking space”- An enclosed or unenclosed covered or open area sufficient in size to park vehicles. Parking spaces shall be served by a driveway connecting them with a street or alley and permitting ingress and egress of vehicles.

“Partition”- An interior non-load bearing barrier, one storey or part-storey in height.

“Partition Wall” includes- A wall forming part of a building and being used or constructed to be used in any part of the height or length of such wall for separation of adjoining buildings belonging to different owners or constructed or adopted to be occupied by different persons;   or

A wall forming part of a building and standing in any part of the length of such wall, to a greater extent than the projection of the footing on one side or ground of different owners.

“Permanent Open Air Space”- Air space permanently open:

If it is a street.

If its freedom from encroachment is protected by any law or contract ensuring that the ground below it is either a street or is permanently and irrevocably appropriated as an open space.

“Permission or Permit”- A valid permission or authorization in writing by the competent Authority to carryout development or a work regulated by the Bye-Laws.

“Plinth”- The portion of a structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor immediately above the ground.

“Plinth Area”- The built up covered area measured at the floor level of the basement or of any storey.

“Plot/ Site”- A parcel or piece of land enclosed by definite boundaries.

“Plotted Development” – Type of development layout wherein a stretch of developed land is divided into regular sized plots for uniform controlled building volumes.

“Porch”- A covered surface supported on pillars or otherwise for the purpose of a pedestrian or vehicular approach to a building.

"Prohibited area"- means any area specified or declared to be a prohibited area under section 20A of the AMASR Act, 2010.

“Protected monument”- means an ancient monument which is declared to be of national importance by or under the AMASR Act, 2010.

"Regulated area" - means any area specified or declared under section 20B under the AMASR Act, 2010.

“Retention Activity”- An activity or use which is allowed to continue, notwithstanding its non-conforming nature in relation to the use permitted in the adjoining or surrounding area.

“Road/Street”- Any highway, street, lane, pathway, alley, stairway, passageway carriageway, footway, square, place or bridge whether a thorough-fare or over which the public have a right of passage or access or have passed and have access uninterruptedly for specified period, whether existing or proposed in any scheme and includes all bends, channels, ditches, storm water drains, culverts sidewalks, traffic islands, roadside trees and hedges, retaining walls fences, barriers and railing within the street lines .

“Road/Street Level or Grade”- The officially established elevation or grade of the centerline of street upon which a plot fronts, and if there is no officially established grade, the existing grade of street at its mid-point.

“Road/Street Line” -The line defining the side limits of a road/street.

“Road Width or Width of Road/Street” - The whole extent of space within the boundaries of a road when applied to a new road/street as laid down in the city survey or development plan or prescribed road lines by any act of law and measured at right angles to the course or intended course of direction of such road.

“Row Housing” - A row of houses with only front, rear and interior open spaces.

“Rear Air Plane” - The plane contained between the ground behind the building and the straight line drawn downwards and outwards from the line of intersection of the outer surface of any rear wall of the building with the roof perpendicular to that line and at an angle 63-1/2 degree to the horizontal.

“Room Height”- The vertical distance measured from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface. Where a finished ceiling is not provided, the underside of the joists or beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of measurement for determining the head room.

“Service Road”- A road/lane provided at the front, rear or side of a plot for service purpose.

“Set-back Line”- A line usually parallel to the plot boundaries or center line of a road and laid down in each case by the Authority or as per recommendations of Master/Zonal Plan, beyond which nothing can be constructed towards the plot boundaries excepting with the permission of the Authority.

“Settlement”- A human settlement, whether urban or rural in character. It includes habited villages, towns, townships, cities and the areas notified under the control of the Authority.

“Site”- See “Plot”

“Site Corner”- A site at the junction of and fronting on two or more intersecting roads or streets.

“Site Depth”- The mean horizontal distance between the front and rear site boundaries.

“Site Plan” – A detailed Plan showing the proposed placement of structures, parking areas, open space, landscaping, and other development features, on a parcel of land, as required by specific sections of the development code.

“Site with Double Frontage”- A site having frontage on two streets other than corner plot.

“Site, Interior or Tandem”- A site, access to which is by a passage from a street whether such passage forms part of the site or not.

“Spiral Staircase”- A staircase forming continuous winding curve round a central point or axis provided in a open space having tread without risers.

“Storey”- The portion of a building included between the surface of any floor and the surface of the floor next above it, or if there be no floor above it, then the space between any floor and the ceiling next above it.

“To abut”- To be positioned juxtaposed to a road, lane, open space, park, building etc.

“To Erect”- in relation to a building means:

To erect a new building on any site whether previously built upon or not;

To re-erect any building of which portions above the plinth level have been pulled down, burnt or destroyed.

“Un-authorised Construction”- means the erection or re-erection, addition or alternations which is not approved or sanctioned by the Authority.

“Underground/Overhead Tank”- An installation constructed or placed for storage of water.

“Ventilation”- Supply of outside air into, or the removal of inside air from an enclosed space.

Natural Ventilation - Supply of outside air into a building through window or other openings due to wind outside and convection effects arising from temperature or vapour pressure differences (or both) between inside and outside of the building.

Positive Ventilation - the supply of outside air by means of a mechanical device, such as a fan.

Mechanical Ventilation - Supply of outside air either by positive ventilation or by infiltration by reduction of pressure inside due to exhaust of air, or by a combination of positive ventilation and exhaust of air.

“Verandah” — A covered area with at least one side open to the outside with the exception of 1m high parapet on the upper floors to be provided on the open side.

“Water Closet (W.C)”- A water flushed plumbing fixture designed to receive human excrement directly from the user of the fixture. The term is used sometimes to designate the room or compartment in which the fixture is placed.

“Window”- An opening to the outside other than a door, which provides all or part of the required natural light or ventilation or both to an interior space and not used as a means of egress/ingress.

“Zonal Plan”- A plan detailing out the proposals of Master Plan and acting as a link between Master Plan and the Layout Plan. It may contain a site plan and land use plan with approximate location and extent of land uses such as public & semipublic buildings/works, utilities, roads, housing, recreation, industry, business, markets, schools, hospitals open spaces etc. It may also specify standards of population density and various components of development of the zone.

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