AIR CONDITIONING



AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION

1. SCOPE

This Section covers the design, construction and installation of air conditioning and heating systems and equipment installed in buildings for the purpose of providing and maintaining conditions of air temperature, humidity, purity and distribution suitable for the use and occupancy of the space.

2. TERMINOLOGIES

2.0. For the purpose of this Section the following definitions shall apply.

2.1. Air ConditioningThe process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, purity, distribution and air movement and pressure to meet the requirements of the conditioned space.

2.2. Atmospheric PressureThe weight of air column on unit surface area of earth by atmospheric column. At sea level, the standard atmospheric or barometric pressure is 76 mm of mercury (1 033mm of water column/101.325 kpa).

Generally atmospheric pressure is used as a datum for indicating the system pressures in air conditioning and accordingly, pursuers are mentioned above the atmospheric pressures or below the atmospheric pressure considering the atmospheric pressure to be zero. A’U’ tube manometer will indicate zero pressure when pressure measured is equal to atmospheric pressure.

2.3. Buildings Related Illnesses (BRI) – The illness attributed directly to the specific air-borne building contaminants like the outbreak of the Legionnaire’s disease after a convention and sensitivity nomination of the building.

Some of the other symptoms relating to BRI are sensory irritation of eyes, ears and throat, shin irritation, headache, nausea, drowsiness, asthma like symptoms in non-asthmatics persons. The economic consequence of BRI is decreased productivity, absenteeism and the legal implications if occupants IAQ complaints are left unresolved.

2.4. Dew point Temperature— The temperature at which condensation of moisture begins when the air is cooled at same pressure.

2.5. Dry-Bulb Temperature – The temperature of the air, read on a thermometer, taken in such a way as to avoid errors due to radiation.

2.6. Duct system – A continuous passageway for the transmission of air which, in addition to the ducts, may include duct fittings, dampers, plenums, and grilles and diffusers.

2.7. EnthalpyA thermal property indicating the quantity of heat in the air above an arbitrary datum, in kilo Joules per Kg of dry air (or in Btu per pound of dry air).

2.8. Evaporative Air Cooling – The evaporative air cooling application is the simultaneous removal of sensible heat and the addition of moisture to the air. The water temperature remains essentially constant at the wer-bulb temperature of the air.

2.9. Fire Damper – A closure which consists of a normally held open damper installed in an air distribution system or in a wall or floor assembly and designed to close automatically in the event of a fire in order to maintain the integrity of the fire separation.

2.10. Fire Separation wall – The wall providing complete separation of one building from another or part of the same building to prevent any communication of fire or heat transmission to wall itself which may cause or assist in the combustion of materials of the side opposite to that portion which may be on fire.

2.11. Global Warning potential GWP – The potential of a refrigerant to contribute to global warming.

Global warming can make our planet and its climate less hospitable and more hostile to human life, thus necessitating reduction in emission of green house gases such as CO2, SOx, NOx, and refrigerants. Long atmospheric life time of refrigerants results in global warming unless the emissions are controlled.

GWP values of some of the refrigerants are given below:

Sl No.

Refrigerant

GWP values

(1)

(2)

(3)

i)

R-12

10 600

ii)

R-22

1 900

iii)

R-134a

1 600

iv)

R-123

  120

v)

R-407c

1 980

vi)

R-407a

2 340

vii)

R-410a

2 340

The values indicated above are for an integration period of 100 years.

2.12. Hydronic System – The water systems that convey heat to or from a conditioned space or process with hot or chilled water. The water flows through piping that connects a chiller or the water heater to suitable terminal heat transfer units located at the space or process.

2.13. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)—Air quality that refers to the nature  of conditioned air that circulates throughout the space/area where one works or lives, that is, the air one breathes when indoors.

It not only refers to comfort which is affected by temperature, humidity, air movement and odors but also to harmful biological contaminants and chemicals present in the conditioned space. Poor IAQ may be serious health hazard. Carbon dioxide has been recognized as the surrogated ventilation index.

2.14. Infiltration/Exfiltration—the phenomenon of outside air leaking into/out of an air conditioned space.

2.15. Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) —μ the potential of refrigerant or gases to deplete the ozone in the atmosphere.

The ODP values for various refrigerants are as given below.

R-11

1.000

R-12

0.820

R-22

0.050

R-123

0.012

R-134a

0.000

R-407a

0.000

R-407c

0.000

R-410a

0.000

Due to high ODP of R-11, R-12 and R-22 their use in the air conditioning and refrigeration is being phased-out. R-123 is also in the phase-out category of refrigerants.

2.16. plenum –- An air compartment or chamber to which one or more ducts are connected and which forms part of an air distribution system.

The pressure drop and air velocities in the plenum should be low. Generally, the velocity in plenum should not exceed 1.5 m/s to 2.5 m/s.

2.17. Positive ventilation – The supply of outside air by means of a mechanical device, such as a fan.

2.18. Psychometric – The science involving thermodynamic properties of moist air and the effect of atmospheric moisture on materials and human comfort, It also includes methods of controlling thermal properties of moist air.

2.19. Psychometric chart –   A chart graphically representing the thermodynamic properties of moist air.

2.20. Reticulated Air –   The return air that has been passed through the conditioning apparatus before being re-supplied to the space.

2.21. Refrigerant –   The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system, which absorbs heat at a low temperature and low pressure of the fluid and rejects heat at a higher temperature and higher pressure of the fluid, usually involving changes of state of the fluid

2.22. Relative Humidity –   Ratio of the partial pressure of actual water vapour in the air compared to the partial pressure of maximum amount of water that may be contained at its dry bulb temperature.

2.23. Return Air - The air that is collected from the conditioned space and returned to the conditioning equipment.

2.24. Shade Factor –   The ratio of instantaneous heat gain through the fenestration with shading device to that through the fenestration.

2.25. Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) – A term, which is used to describe the presence of acute non-specific symptoms in the majority of people caused by working in buildings with an adverse indoor environment. It could be cluster of complex irrigative symptoms like irritation of the eyes, block ended nose and throat, headaches, dizziness, lethargy, fatigue irritation, wheezing, sinusitis, congestion, skin rash, sensory discomfort from odours, nausea, etc. These symptoms are usually short-lived and experienced immediately after exposure; and may disappear when one leaves the building.

SBS is suspected when significant number of people spending extended time in a building report or experience acute an-site discomfort. The economic consequences of SBS, like BRI, are decreased productivity absenteeism and the legal implications if occupants IQO complaints are left unresolved.

2.26. Smoke Damper – A damper similar to fire damper, however, having provisions to close automatically on sensing presence of smoke in air distribution system or in conditioned space.

2.27. Static Pressure – The pressure that is required to be created by the fan over the atmospheric pressure to overcome the system resistances such as resistances in ducts, elbows, filters, dampers, heating/cooling coils, etc.

Static pressure is measured by a U tube manometer relative to the atmospheric pressure, which is considered as zero pressure. In exhaust systems, fan produces negative static pressure, which is again used to overcome the system resistances.

2.28. Supply Air – The air that has been passed through the conditioning apparatus and taken through the duct system and distributed in the conditioned space.

2.29. Supply and Return Air Grilles and Diffusers – Grilles and diffusers are the devices fixed in the air conditioned space for distribution of conditioned supply air and return of air collected from the conditioned space for re-circulation.

2.30. Thermal Transmittance – Thermal transmission per unit time through unit area of the given building unit divided by temperature difference between the air or some other fluid on either side of the building unit in ‘steady state’ conditions.

2.31. Thermal Energy Storage – Storage of thermal energy, sensible, latent or combination there of for use in central system for air conditioning or refrigeration. It uses a primary source of refrigeration for cooling and storing thermal energy for reuse at peak demand or for backup as planned.

2.32. Water Conditioning – The treatment of water circulating in a hydraulic system, to make it suitable for air conditioning system due to its effect on the economics of air conditioning plant.

Untreated water used in air conditioning system may create problems such as scale formation, corrosion and organic growth. Appraisal of the water supply source including chemical analysis and determination of composition of dissolved solids is necessary to devise a proper water-conditioning programmer.

2.33. Water Hardness – Hardness in water represented by the sum of calcium and magnesium salts in water, which may also include aluminium, iron, manganese, zinc, etc. A chemical analysis of water sample should provide number of total dissolved solids (TDS) in a water sample in parts per million (ppm) as also composition of each of the salts in parts per million.

Temporary hardness is attributed to carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and/or magnesium expressed in parts per million (ppm) as CaCO3. The remainder of the hardness is known as permanent hardness, which is due to subparts, chloride, nitrites of calcium and/or magnesium expressed in ppm as CaCO3.

Temporary hardness is primarily responsible for scale formation, which results in poor heat transfer resulting in increased cost of energy for refrigeration and air conditioning. Permanent hardness (non-carbonate) is not as serious a factor in water conditioning because it has a solubility which is approximately 70 times greater than the carbonate hardness. In many cases, water may contain as much as 1 200 ppm of non-carbonate hardness and not deposit a calcium sulfate scale.

The treated water where hardness as ppm of CaCO3 is reduced to 50 ppm or below is recommenced for air conditioning applications.

pH is a measure of acidity, pH is a negative logarithm base10, of the concentration of hydrogen ion in grams per liter. Water having a pH of 7.0 is neutral, a pH value less than 7 is acidic and pH value greater than 7 is alkaline. Water with pH less than 5 is quite acidic and corrosive to ordinary metals and needs to be treated.

2.34. Wet - Bulb Temperature – The temperature registered by a thermometer whose bulb is covered by a wetted wick and exposed to a current of rapidly moving air of velocity not less than 4.5 m/s.

Wet-bulb temperature is indicated by a wet bulb psychomotor constructed and used according to specifications.

3. PLANNING DESIGN CRITERIA

3.1. Fundamental Requirements

3.1.1. The object of installing ventilation and air conditioning facilities in buildings shall be to provide conditions under which people can live in comfort, work safely and efficiently.

3.1.2. Ventilation and air conditioning installation shall aim at controlling and optimizing following factors in the building.

  1. Air purity and filtration,
  2. Air movement,
  3. Dry-bulb temperature,
  4. Relative humidity,
  5. Noise and vibration,
  6. Energy efficiency and
  7. Fire safety.

3.1.3. All plans, specifications and data for air conditioning, heating and mechanical   ventilation systems of all buildings and serving all occupancies within the scope of the Code shall be supplied to the Authority, where called for see Part 2 ‘Administration’.

3.1.4. The plans for air conditioning, heating and mechanical   ventilation system shall include all details and data necessary for review installation such as:

  1. Building : name, type and location;
  2. Owner:  name;
  3. Orientation: north direction on plans;
  4. General plans: dimensions and height of all room;
  5. Intended use of all rooms;
  6. Detail or description of wall construction, including insulation and finish;
  7. Detail or description of roof, ceiling and floor construction, including insulation and finish;
  8. Detail or description of windows and outside doors, including sizes, weather stripping, storm sash, sills, storm doors, etc;
  9. Internal equipment load, such as number of people, motor, heaters and lighting load;
  10. Layout showing the location, size and construction of the cooling tower (apparatus), ducts, distribution system;
  11. Information regarding location, size and capacity of air distribution system, refrigeration and heating plant, air handling equipment;
  12. Information on air and water flow rates;
  13. Information regarding location and accessibility of shafts;
  14. Information regarding type and location of dampers used in air conditioning system;
  15. Chimney or gas vent size, shape and height;
  16. Location and grade of the required fire separations;
  17. Water softening arrangement; and
  18. Information on presence of any chemical fumes or gases.

3.2. Pre-planning

3.2.1. Design considerations

3.2.1.1. Cooling load estimate shall be carried out prior to installing air conditioning equipment. Calculation of cooling load shall take into account the following factors:

  1. Recommended indoor temperature and relative humidity;
  2. Outside design conditions as specified in 4.4;
  3. Details of construction and orientation of exposures like roof, floor, walls, partition and ceiling;
  4. Fenestration area and shading factors;
  5. Occupancy – Number of people and their activity;
  6. Ventilation – Requirement for fresh air;
  7. Internal load – Lighting and other heat generating sources like computers, equipment and machinery; and
  8. Hours of use.

3.2.1.2. The design of system and its associated controls shall also take into account the following:

  1. Nature of application,
  2. Type of construction of building,
  3. Permissible control limits,
  4. Control methods for minimizing use of primary energy,
  5. Opportunities for heat recovery,
  6. Energy efficiency,
  7. Filtration standard,
  8. Hours of use,
  9. Diversity factor and
  10. Outdoor air quality.

3.2.1.3. The operation of system in the following condition should be considered when assessing the complete design:

  1. Summer,
  2. Monsoon,
  3. Winter,
  4. Intermediate seasons,
  5. Night, and
  6. Weekends and holidays.

3.2.1.4. Consideration should be given to changes in building load and the system designed so that maximum operational efficiency is maintained.

3.2.1.5. Special applications like hospitals/operating theatres, computer rooms, clean rooms, laboratories, libraries, museums/art galleries, sound recording studios, shopping malls, etc shall be handled differently.

3.2.2.1. Planning of Equipment Room for Central Air Conditioning Plant.

3.2.2.1. In selecting the location for plant room, the aspects of efficiency, economy and good practice should be considered and wherever possible it shall be made contiguous with the building. This room shall be located as centrally as possible with respect to the area to be air conditioned and shall be free from obstructing columns.

In the case of large installations (500 TR and above), it is advisable to have a separate isolated equipment room where possible. The clear headroom below sophist of beam should be minimum 4.5m for centrifugal plants, and minimum 3.6m for reciprocating and screw type plants.

3.2.2.2. The floors of the equipment rooms should be light coloured and finished smooth. For floor loading the air conditioning engineer should be consulted (see the part 6 ‘Structural Design, Section 1 Loads, Forces and Effects’).

3.2.2.3. Supporting of pipe within plant room spaces should be normally from the floor. However, outside plant room areas, structural provisions shall be made for supporting the water pipes from the floor/ceiling slabs. All floor and ceiling supports shall be isolated from the structure to prevent transmission of vibrations.

3.2.2.4. Equipment rooms, wherever necessary, shall have provision for mechanical ventilation. In hot climate, evaporative air – cooling may also be considered

3.2.2.5. Plant machinery in the plant room shall be placed on plain/reinforced cement concrete foundation and provided with anti- vibratory supports. All foundations should be protected from damage by providing epoxy coated angle nosing. Seismic restraints requirement may also be considered. 

3.2.2.6. Equipment room should preferably by located adjacent to external wall to facilitate equipment movement and ventilation.

3.2.2.7. Wherever necessary, acoustic treatment should be provided in plant room space to prevent noise transmission to adjacent occupied areas.

3.2.2.8. Air conditioning plant room should preferably be located close to main electrical panel of the building in order to avoid large cable lengths.

3.2.2.9. In case air conditioning plant room is located in basement, equipment movement route shall be planned to facilitate future replacement and maintenance. Service ramps or hatch in ground floor slab should be provided in such cases.

3.2.2.10. Floor drain channels or dedicated drain pipes in slope shall be provided within plant room space for effective disposal of waste water. Fresh water connection may also be provided in the air conditioning plant room.

3.2.2.11. Thermal energy storage

In case of central plants, designed with thermal energy storage its location shall be decided in consultation with the air conditioning engineer. The system may be located in plant room, on rooftop, in open space near plant room or buried in open space near plant room.

For roof top Installations, structural provision shall take into account load coming due to the same.

For open area surface installation horizontal or vertical system options shall be considered and approach ladders for manholes provided.

Buried installation shall take into account loads due to movement above, of vehicles, ect.

Provision for adequate expansion tank and its connection to thermal storage tanks shall be made.

3.2.3. Planning Equipment Room for Air Handling Units and Package Units.

3.2.3.1. This shall be located as centrally as possible to the conditioned area and contiguous it the corridors or other spaces for carrying air ducts. For floor loading, air conditioning

engineer shall be consulted (see also part 6’ Structural Design, Section Loads, Forces and Effects’).

3.2.3.2. In the case of large and multistoried buildings, independent air handling unit should be provided for each floor. The area to be served by the air- handling unit should be decided depending upon the provision of fire protection measures adopted. Air handling unit rooms should preferably be located vertically one above the other.

3.2.3.3. Provision should be made for the entry of fresh air. The fresh air intake shall have louvers having rain protection profile, with volume control damper and bird screen.

3.2.3.4. In all cases air intakes shall be so located as to avoid contamination from exhaust outlets or to the sources in concentrations greater than normal in the bird screen.

3.2.3.5. Exterior openings for outdoor air intakes and exhaust outlets shall preferably be shielded from weather and insects.

3.2.3.6. No air from any dwelling unit shall be circulated directly or indirectly to any other dwelling unit, public corridor or public stairway.

3.2.3.7. All air handling rooms should preferably have floor drains and water supply. The trap in floor drain shall provide a water seal between the airs conditioned space and the drain line.

3.2.3.8. Supply/return air duct shall not be taken through emergency fire staircase. However, exception can be considered if fire isolation of ducts at wall crossings is carried out.

3.2.3.9. Waterproofing of air handling unit rooms shall be carried out to prevent damage to floor below.

3.2.3.10. The floor should be light colored, smooth finished with terrazzo tiles or the equivalent. Suitable floor loading should also be provided after consulting with the air conditioning engineer.

3.2.3.11. Where necessary, structural design should avoid beam obstruction to the passage of supply and return air ducts. Adequate ceiling space should be made available outside the air handling unit room to permit installation of supply and return air ducts and fire dampers at air handling unit room wall crossing.

3.2.3.12. The air handling unit rooms may be acoustically treated, if located in close proximity to occupied areas.

3.2.3.13. Access door to air handling unit room shall be single/double leaf type, air tight, opening outwards and should have a sill to prevent flooding of adjacent occupied areas. It is desired that access doors in air conditioned spaces should be provided with tight sealing, gasket and self closing devices for air conditioning to be effective.

3.2.3.14. It should be possible to isolate the air handling unit room in case of fire. The door shall be fire resistant and fire/smoke dampers shall be provided in supply/return air duct at air handling unit room wall crossings and the annular space between the duct and the wall should be fire-sealed using appropriate fire resistance rated material.

3.2.3.15. For buildings with large structural glazing areas, care should be taken for providing fresh air intakes in air handling unit rooms. Fire isolation shall be provided for vertical fresh air duct, connecting several air handling units.

3.2.4. Planning of Pipe Shafts

3.2.4.1. The shafts carrying chilled water pipes should be located adjacent to air handling unit room or within the room.

3.2.4.2. Shaft carrying condensing water pipes to cooling towers located on terrace should be vertically aligned.

3.2.4.3. All shafts shall be provided with fire barrier at floor crossings (see Part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’).  

3.2.4.4. Access to shaft shall be provided at every floor.

3.2.4.5. Planning for Supply Air Ducts and Return Air

3.2.5.1. Duct supports, preferably in the from of angles of mild steel supported using stud anchors shall be provided on the ceiling slab from the drilled hole.  Alternately, duct supports may be fixed with internally threaded anchor fasters and threaded roads without damaging the slabs or structural members.

3.2.5.2. If false ceiling is provided, the supports for the duct and the false ceiling shall be independent. Collars for grilles and diffusers shall be taken out only after false ceiling/boxing framework is done and frames for fixing grilles and diffusers have been installed.

3.2.5.3. Where a duct penetrates the masonry wall it shall either be suitably covered on the outside to isolate it from masonry or an air gap shall be left around it to prevent vibration transmission. Further, where a duct passes through a fire resisting compartment/barrier, the annular space shall be sealed with fire sealant to prevent smoke transmission (see also Part 4. ‘Fire and Life Safety’).

3.2.6. Cooling Tower

3.2.6.1. Cooling towers are used to dissipate heat from water cooled refrigeration, air conditioning and industrial process systems. Cooling is achieved by evaporating a small proportion of recirculation water into outdoor air stream. Cooling towers are installed at a place where free flow of atmospheric air is available.

3.2.6.2. Range of a cooling tower is defined as temperature difference between the entering an leaving water. Approach of the cooling tower is the difference between leaving water temperature and the entering air wet bulb temperature.

3.2.6.3. Types of cooling tower

3.2.6.3.1. Natural draft

This type of tower is larger than mechanical draft tower as it relies on natural convention to obtain the air circulation. A natural draft tower needs to be tall to obtain the maximum chimney effect or rely on the natural wind currents.

3.2.6.3.2. Mechanical draft

The fans on mechanical draft towers may be on the inlet sir side (induced draft). Typically, these have centrifugal or propeller type fans, depending on pressure drop in tower, permissible sound levels and energy usage requirement, On the basis of direction of air and water flow, mechanical draft cooling towers can be counter flow or cross flow type.

3.2.6.4. Factors to be considered for cooling tower selection are:

  1. Design wet-bulb temperature and approach of cooling tower.
  2. Height limitation and aesthetic requirement.
  3. Location of cooling tower considering possibility of easy drain back from the system.
  4. Placement with regard to adjacent walls and windows, other buildings and effects of any water carried over by the air stream.
  5. Noise levels, particularly during silent hours and vibration control.
  6. Material of construction for the tower.
  7. Direction and flow of wind.
  8. Quality of water used for make-up.
  9. Maintenance and service space.
  10. Ambient air quality.

3.2.6.5. The recommended floor area requirement for various types of cooling tower is as given below:

  1. Natural draft cooling tower         0.15 to 0.20 m2/t of refrigeration
  2. Induced draft cooling tower       0.10 to 0.13 m2/t of refrigeration
  3. Fibre- reinforced plastic             0.07 to 0.08 m2/t of refrigeration

3.2.6.6. Any obstruction to free flow of air to the cooling tower shall be avoided.

3.2.6.7. Structural provision for the cooling tower shall be taken into account while designing the building. Vibration isolation shall be an important consideration in structural design.

3.2.6.8. Special design requirements are necessary where noise to the adjoining building is to be avoided.

3.2.6.9. As given below, certain amount of water is lost from circulating water in the cooling tower.

  1. Evaporation loss – In a cooling tower, the water is cooled by evaporating a part of the circulating water into the air stream. The amount of circulating water so evaporated is called ‘evaporation loss’. Usually it is about 1 percent of the rate of water circulation.
  2. Drift loss – A small part of circulating water is lost from the cooling tower as liquid droplets entrained in the exhaust air stream. Usually the drift loss is 0.1 percent to 0.2 percent of rate of water circulation.
  3. Blow-down/bleed-off – To avoid concentration of impurities contained in the water beyond a certain limit, a small percentage of water in the cooling water system is often purposely drained off or discarded. Such a treatment is called ‘blow-down’ or ‘bleed-off’. The amount of blow-down is usually 0.8 percent to 1 percent of the total water circulation.

If simple blow-down is inadequate to control scale formation, chemicals may be added to inhibit corrosion and limit microbiological growth.

Provision shall be made to make-up for the loss of circulation water.

3.2.6.10. Provision for make-up water tank to the cooling tower shall be made. Make-up water tank to the cooling tower shall be separate from the tank serving drinking water.

3.2.6.11. Make-up water having contaminants or hardness, which can adversely affect the refrigeration plant life, shall be treated.

3.2.6.12. Cooling tower should be so located as to eliminate nuisance form drift to adjoining structures.

3.2.7. Glazing

3.2.7.1. Glazing contributes significantly to heat addition in air conditioned space; measures shall therefore, be adopted to minimize the gain.

3.2.7.2. While considering orientation of the building, (See part 8 ‘Building Services, Section 1Lighting and Ventilation’) glazing in walls subjected to heavy sun exposure shall be avoided. In case it is not possible to do so, double glazing or heat resistant glass should be used. Glazing tilted inward at about 120 also helps curtail transmission of direct solar radiation through the glazing.

3.2.7.3. Where sun breakers are sued, the following aspects shall be kept in view:

  1. The sun breaker shall shade the maximum glazed area possible, specially from the altitude and azimuth angle of the sun, which is likely to govern the heat load.
  2. The sun breaker shall preferably be light and bright in colour so as to reflect back as much of the sunlight as possible.
  3. The sun breakers shall preferably be 1m away from the wall face, with free ventilation, particularly from top to bottom and are meant for carrying away the heat which is likely to get boxed between the sun breakers and the main building face.
  4. The sun breakers shall be installed as to have minimum conduction of heat form sun breakers to the main building.

3.2.7.4. Where resort is taken to provide reflecting surfaces for keeping out the heat load, care should be taken regarding the hazards to the traffic and people on the road from the reflected light from the surface.

3.2.7.5. Day light transmittance for various type of glass is given in Table1.

Table 1 Day Light Transmittance for Various Types of Glass

Sl No.

 

Type of Glass

 

Visible Transmittance

w/ (m2 oc)

i

3 mm regular sheet or plate glass

0.86 to 0.91

ii

3 mm grey sheet glass

0.31 to 0.71

iii

5 mm grey sheet glass

0.61

iv

5.5 mm grey sheet glass

0.14 to 0.56

 

6 mm grey sheet glass

0.52

v

6 mm grey/float glass

0.75

vi

6 mm grey plate glass

0.44

vii

6 mm bronze plate glass

0.49

viii

13 mm grey plate glass

0.21

ix

13 mm bronze plate glass

0.25

x

Coated glasses (single, laminated, insulating)

0.07 to 0.50

3.2.8. Roof insulation

3.2.8.1. Under-deck or over-deck insulation shall be provided for exposed roof surface using suitable insulating materials. Over-deck insulation should be properly waterproofed to prevent loss of insulating properties.

3.2.8.2. The overall thermal transmittance from the exposed roof should be kept as minimum as possible and under normal conditions, the desirable value should be not exceed 0.58 W/ (m2 oc).

3.2.8.3. The ceiling surface of floors which are not to be air conditioned may be suitably insulated to give an overall thermal transmittance not exceeding 1.16 W/ (m2 oc).

4. DESIGN OF AIR CONDITIONING

4.1. General

A ventilation and air conditioning system installed in a building should clean, freshen and condition the air within the space to be air conditioned. This can be achieved by providing the required amount of fresh air either to remove totally or to dilute odours, fumes, ect (for example, from smoking). Local extract systems may be necessary to remove polluted air from kitchens, toilets, ect. Special air filters may be required to remove contaminants or small when air is recalculated.

It is desirable that access doors to air conditioned space are provided with tight sealing gaskets and self closing devices for air conditioning to be effective.

Positions of air inlets and extracts to the system are most important and care should be taken in their location. Consideration should be given to relatively nearby buildings and any contaminated discharges from those buildings. Inlets should not be positioned near any flue outlets, dry cleaning or washing machine extraction outlets, kitchen, water-closets, ect. When possible, air inlets should be at high level so as to induce air from as clean an area as possible. If low level intakes are used, care should be taken to position them well away from roadways and car parks.

4.2. Design Considerations

4.2.1. Type of system

Systems for air conditioning need to control temperature and humidity within predetermined limits throughout the year. Various types of refrigerating systems are available to accomplish the tasks of cooling and dehumidifying, which are an essential feature of air conditioning. Systems for air conditioning may be grouped as all-air type, air and type, all water type or unitary type.

4.2.1.1. All-air system

This type of air conditioning system provides complete sensible and latent cooling, preheating and humidification in the air supplied by the system. Most plants operate on the recirculation principle, where a percentage of the air is extracted and the remainder mixed with incoming fresh air.

Low velocity system may be used, High velocity systems although require smaller ducts, are high on fan energy, require careful acoustic treatment and higher standards of duct construction.

4.2.1.1.1. Constant volume system

Accurate temperature control is possible, according to the system adopted.  Low velocity system variations include dehumidification with return air by pass, and multi-zone (hot deck/cold deck mixing). High velocity system may be single or dual duct type.

4.2.1.1.2. Variable volume system

Most Indian air conditioning system operate at partial load for most of the year and the variable air volume (VAV) system is able to reduce energy consumption by reducing the supply air volume to the space under low load conditions. The VAV system can be applied to interior or perimeter zones, with common or separate fans, with common or separate air temperature control. The greatest energy saving associated with VAV occurs at the perimeter zones, where variation in solar and outside temperature allow the supply air quantity to be reduced. Good temperature control is possible but care should be taken at partial load to ensure adequate fresh air supply and satisfactory control of air distribution and space humidity.

4.2.1.2. Air and water system

Control of conditions within the space is achieved by initial control of the supply air from a central l plant but with main and final control at a terminal unit within the conditioned space. The supply air provides the necessary ventilation air and the small part of the total conditioning. The major part of room load is balanced by water through a coil in the terminal unit, which can be either a fan coil or an induction unit.

Depending on the degree of control required, the water circulating system can be either of two, three or four pipe arrangement. With two pipe circulation a single flow and a single return circulate chilled or hot water as required. Such a system can only provide heating or cooling to the system on a changeover basis, so it is ineffective where wide modulations of conditions over short periods are required. The installed cost however is naturally the lowest of all the circulation systems. The three pipe system is a way of overcoming the disadvantages of the two pipe system without raising the installed cost too high. In this system a separate hot water flow is taken to the terminal units but a common return is taken from these units to the plant room. The best system from a control point of view is the four pipe system, where separate hot water and chilled water supply and returns are taken the most expensive method of circulating the water it is the only satisfactory one, if reasonable control is required throughout the year.

4.2.1.3. All water system.

In the simple layout, the fan coil units may be located against an outside wall with a direct, fresh air connection. A superior arrangement utilizes a ducted, conditioned, fresh air supply combined with mechanical extract ventilation.

Control of unit out put may be achieved by fan speed and water flow/temperature control. Electric power is required at each terminal unit.

Provision of variable volume water flow system for chilled water circulation is recommended for varying load conditions. This may be incorporated with the help of constant volume primary chilled water circuit and variable flow secondary chilled water circuit having pumps with variable speed drives and pressure sensor on control the speed. This system allows better control on energy consumption under partial load conditions due to diversity or seasonal load variations.

4.2.1.4. Unitary systems

Such systems are usually those incorporating one or more units or packaged air conditioners having direct expansion vapour compression refrigeration system. Similar units using chilled water from a central plant would be designated fan coil systems. Most units are only suitable for comfort applications but specially designed units are also available for process and industrial applications.

4.2.2. Vapour compression Water chiller

These normally contain the complete refrigerating system, comprising the compressor, condenser, expansion device and evaporator together with the automatic control panel. The unite can be set down on to a solid foundation on resilient mountings. Pipe connections require flexible couplings; these should be considered in conjunction with the design of the pump mountings and the pipe supports.

Capacity control is normally arranged to maintain an approximately constant temperature of the chilled water leaving the evaporator. This may be adequate for one or two package, but a more elaborate central control system may be necessary for a large number. The design of the refrigeration control system should be integrated, or be compatible, with the control system for the heat transfer medium circulated to the air cooler.

It is normal for installation to have several water chilling packages, both to provide for stand-by and enable the cooling load to be matched with the minimum consumption of power. Although most packages can reduce capacity to match the cooling demand, the consumption of the power per unit of cooling increases; the resulting drop in efficiency is most serious below on-third capacity.

Power consumption can be reduced by taking advantage of a fall in the ambient temperature, which permits a corresponding fall in the condensing temperature and consequent reduction in the operation, that the optimum equipment selection and design of the control system is achieved.

The classification of the water chilling packages is by the type of compressor.

4.2.2.1. Centrifugal compressor

These compressors have an impeller that imparts to the refrigerant vapour a high kinetic energy, which is then transformed into pressure energy. For water chilling applications, compressors with one or two stage of compression are used. Two stage units often incorporate an interstate economizer for improving efficiency.

The compressor can be modulated down to approaching 10 percent of full load capacity, with some control of the condensing pressure. Because of the nature of compression process, the flow through the compressor can become unstable if the compressor is called upon to produce a pressure rise in excess of its design limits. This phenomenon, known as surging, is a serious problem but occurs only under a fault condition. Typical faults are excessive fouling of the condenser, a partial failure of the condenser coolant flow or an accumulation of a non-condensable gas (air) in the condenser. Unchecked surging can lead to damage to the compressor or its drive and does increase the noise level.

The use of low pressure refrigeration to suit the characteristics of the compressor in the smaller size range, means that the evaporator o0perates at below atmospheric pressure, that a leak can draw in air and atmospheric moisture. These should be prevented from accumulating, since these interfere with the operation of the plant and cause corrosion.

The compressors may be driven either directly by electric motor or via a speed-increasing gear train. Units are available in ‘open’ from, that is, compressor and motor are separate items, or in semi-hermetic form where the motor and compressor are contained in a common pressure-tight casing that is bolted together. The latter type eliminates the drive shaft gland seal (a potential point of leakage), which is necessary on the former.

Certain types of open centrifugal compressors could conveniently be directly be a steam or gas turbine. This arrangement could be advantageous when the refrigeration plant part of total energy system.

The centrifugal compressor type water chilling packages normally include a shell-and-tube water cooled condenser and a flooded shell-and-tube evaporator, but unit are also available incorporating an air cooled condenser the expansion device is commonly an electronic expansion valve or high pressure float regulating value.

4.2.2.2. Screw compressors

Two types of screw compressors are available, that is, single and twin screw, and both are positive displacement machines. Compression of the refrigerant vapour is achieved by the progressive reduction of the volume contained with in helical flutes of the cylindrical rotor(s) as they rotate.

Oil is injected into the rotor chamber for sealing and lubrication purposes and is removed from the refrigerant discharge gas in an oil separator before the refrigerant passes on to the condenser. No oil separator is 100 percent efficient and so a small quantity of oil always passes through with the refrigerant. On systems using a direct expansion evaporator the oil is trapped in the evaporator and an oil recovery system is necessary.

With some systems oil cooler is required in the oil circulation system, to remove the heat gathered by the oil during compression cycle. On other systems liquid refrigerants is injected into the compressor to remove the heat of compressions instead of using the conventional oil cooler. Such an arrangement can impose a small penalty on the plant capacity.

The condenser most commonly used on packaged unit is the water cooled shell-and tube type, but equipment with air cooled condensers is also available. The expansion device used will depend on the evaporator type but it is often a electronic expansion valve (single or in multiple) of conventional or modified from.

Screw compressors are available in open and semi hermetic from (see 4.2.2.1) and are generally coupled direct to two-pole motors. The capacity of the compressor can be modulated down to 10 percent of full load capacity.

 4.2.2.3. Reciprocating compressor

These are available in a wide range of size and designs. They are almost invariably used in packages up to 120 TR cooling capacity.

Because the cylinders have automatic valves, a single compressor may be used over wide range of operating conditions with near optimum efficiency, whereas, other types of compressor require detailed modification to give optimum efficiency at different conditions. These conditioning duties.

Capacity control is achieved by making cylinders in operative, usually by propping open the suction valves, thus, capacity reduction is in a series of steps rather than by modulation. Typically, a four-cylinder compressor would be unloaded in four steps. It is therefore necessary to allow for this stepwise operation in designing the chilled water temperature control system.

The evaporator is normally of the dry expansion type, to permit oil form the compressor to circulate round the system with the refrigerant. Shell-and-tube water cooled condensers are common, but any type of condenser can be used. With air cooled condenser it is normal practice to build the machine package so that it may be located on the roof in a package including the condenser.

It is common for the electric drive motors to be built into the compressor assembly; this is known as a ‘semi-hermetic’ drive to distinguish it from the ‘hermetic’, in which the compressor and motor are enclosed within a pressure vessel and cannot therefore be serviced.

The semi-hermetic compressor is more compact and is quieter in operation than the ‘open’ drive compressor, but involves a more difficult service operation in the event of a motor failure. It gains in reliability, however, by avoiding the shaft seal of the ‘open’ compressor.

It is recommended that multiple hermetic or semi-hermetic compressor unit should not be connected to a common refrigerant system, as failure of one motor can precipitate failure of the others. Separate refrigerant circuits of each compressor should be used.

4.2.3. Absorption system

The absorption cycle uses a solution that by absorbing the refrigerant replaces the function of the compressor. The absorbent/refrigerant mixture is then pumped to a higher pressure where the refrigerant is boiled off by the application of heat, to be condensed in the condenser.

Absorption machines are mostly used in liquid-chilling applications. These are most suitable for hotels and hospitals where steam is readily available from the boilers.

4.2.3.1. Indirect firing

The lithium bromide/water absorption system can be powered by medium or high temperature hot water and low or medium pressure steam. Water is the refrigerant and the lithium bromide the absorbent. The four compartments enclosing the heat exchanger tube bundles for the condenser, evaporator, generator and absorber can be in a single or multiple pressure vessel arrangement. The whole assembly has to be maintained under a high vacuum, which is essential for the correct functioning of the unit. Water and absorbent solutions are circulated within the unit by electrically driven pumps.

Capacity control down to 10 percent of full load capacity is achieved by modulating the flow of the heating medium in relation to the cooling demand. There is some loss in performance at part load, which can be compensated by refinements in the system design and control.

4.2.3.2. Direct firing

Direct fired lithium bromide/water absorption plants have become common, by incorporating precise control of generator temperature necessary to avoid crystallization.

Ammonia/water systems can be and are direct fired, but are rarely used for water chilling duties except for small sized units, which are installed outside the building. There are two reasons or this, firstly capital costs are higher and secondly the danger to personnel in the event of leakage of the refrigerant.

Direct firing has the advantage that the losses in an indirect heating system are avoided, but in an air conditioning installation where a boiler system is installed to provide heating, the advantage is minimal.

4.3. System Design

4.3.1. Ductwork and Air distribution

4.3.1.1. Materials

Ductwork is normally fabricated, erected and finished to the requirements in accordance with accepted standard [8-3(1)]. Designers should specify and requirement as appropriate for the velocity and pressure, and materials to be employed. Ductwork is generally manufactured from galvanized steel sheet. Ductwork may also be manufactured from aluminum sheet for applications like operation theatres and intensive care units where stringent cleanliness standards are a functional requirement. Galvanized steel sheets shall be accordance with the accepted standard [8-3(2)] whereas aluminium sheet shall be in accordance with the accepted standard [8-3(3)]. Where building materials, such as concrete or brick, are used in the formation of airways, the interior surface should be fire resistant, smooth, airtight and not liable to erosion.

4.3.1.2. Ductwork design

Design calculation made to determine the size and configuration of ductwork in respect of pressure drop and noise generation should conform to standard methods.

Ductwork design should also take into account the recommendations for fire protection (see part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’) relating to the design of air handling system to fire and smoke control in buildings.

4.3.1.3. Layout consideration

When designing ductwork, consideration should be given to:

  1. Co-ordination with building, architectural and structural requirements;
  2. Co-ordination with other services;
  3. Simplifying installation work;
  4. Providing facilities and access for commissioning and testing;
  5. Providing facilities and access for operating and maintenance;
  6. Meeting fire and smoke control requirement; and
  7. Prevention of vibration and noise transmission to the building/space.

4.3.2. Piping and Water Distribution System

4.3.2.1. Materials

Steel piping with welded or flanged joints is commonly used. Flanges for flanged joint are welded to pipes. The choice of materials or any installation will be governed by economic considerations, but care should be taken to minimize the possibility of corrosion when choosing material combinations.

4.3.2.2. Design principles

The system design should achieve the following two main objectives:

  1. A good distribution of water to the various heat exchangers/cooling coils at all conditions of load. This will be influenced by the method chosen to control the heat transfer capacity of air handling units. Failure to achieve good hydraulic design may lead to difficulties with system balancing. Adequate provision should be made for measuring flow rates and pressure differentials.
  2. An economic balance between pipe size and piping cost.

Excessive water velocities should be avoided, as they may lead to noise at pipe junctions and bends.

When multiple water-chilling package have to be used in a large system, the control of the machines and the arrangement of the water circulation should be considered as an integrated whole. It is not possible to obtain satisfactory result by considering control and system design separately.

Temperature changes in the system lead to changes in the volume of water, which has to be allowed to expand into a suitable expansion tank. It is essential that the point at which the expansion tank is connected into the system be such that it is never shutoff. It is normal practice to locate the expansion tank above the highest point in the system, so that a positive pressure is maintained when all the pumps are stopped; if this is not possible, a closed tank can be installed at a lower level and pressurized by an inert gas. Closed expansion tank with air separator in the chilled water system helps in improving the life and efficiency of chilled water piping and heat exchange equipment.

For central chilled water air conditioning systems, water is the usual heat transfer medium use to convey the heat from the air-handling units to the primary refrigerant in the evaporator. In certain special cases, when temperatures lower than 50C are required, an anti-freeze such as ethylene glycol may be added to depress the freezing point.

4.3.2.3. Piping design

The arrangement of the water piping will depend upon the cooling or heating systems chosen as being the most suitable for the building.

The water velocities normally used are dependent on pipe size but are usually in the range 1m/s to 3m/s.

Main headers in the plant room are designed for very low velocity around 1m/s. Noise can be caused by velocities in excess of 4 m/s but this is more likely to be caused by air left in the pipes by inadequate venting. Where materials other than steel are used, erosion can occur at the higher velocities particularly if the water is allowed to become acidic.

Friction factor in piping should not exceed 5 m of water for 100 m of pipe length. The power consumed in circulating the water around the system is proportional to the pressure loss (due to friction) and the flow. It is therefore an advantage to design system with a water temperature rise say 50C-70C which results in minimizing the flow rate.

Air-conditioning system operate for a large part of the time at less than the design load, and this means that operating costs can be minimized if the water quantity circulated can be reduced at partial load. This should be done with variable speed pumping systems.

4.3.2.4. Layout consideration

The layout of the main pipe runs should be considered in relation to the building structure, which will have to support their weight and carry the imposed axial loads. The positioning of expansion joints should be considered in relation to the branches, which may only accommodate small movements. The pumps should not be subjected to excessive loads from the piping.

Provision should be made for venting air and any gas formed by corrosion processes from the high points in the system: failure to do this can lead to restricted water flows and poor performance.

New system invariably contain debris of one sort or another left during construction, and this can cause trouble by blocking pipes, control valves and pumps if it is not removed during testing and commissioning piping system should be designed to permit proper cleaning and flushing and should include suitable strainers at appropriate locations.

4.3.3. Thermal insulation

4.3.3.1. Air conditioning and water distribution system carry chilled or heated fluids. Thermal insulation is required to prevent undue heat gain or loss and also to prevent undue heat gain or loss and also to prevent internal and external condensation; a vapour seal is essential if there is a possibility of condensation within the insulating materials.

4.3.3.2. The selection of suitable thermal insulating materials requires that consideration be given to physical characteristics as follows:

  1. Fire properties – Certain insulating materials are combustible or may, in a fire, produce appreciable quantities of smoke and noxious and toxic fumes.
  2. Materials and their finishes should inherently be proof against rotting, mould and fungal growth, and attack by vermin, and should be no-hygroscopic.
  3. Material should not give rise to objectionable odors at the temperature at which they are to be used.
  4. The material should not cause a known hazard to health during application, while in use, or on removal, either from particulate matter or from toxic fumes.
  5. It should have a low thermal conductivity throughout the entire working temperature range.
  6. It should be non-flammable and should not support nor spread fire.
  7. It should have good mechanical strength and rigidity otherwise it would have to be cladode for protection.

4.4. Design conditions

4.3.1.1. General consideration

Certain minimum temperatures may be required depending on type of application and by local regulations. Maximum permitted cooling temperatures may be stipulated by relating to energy conservation.

From the comfort aspect, it is important to take into account the effect of radiant temperature in fixing the desired air temperatures to maintain comfortable conditions.

When large window/curtain walls are used, it may be necessary to provide shading/north orientation to protect the occupants from solar radiation and to reduce the cooling load on the system. It is not practical to fully compensate for solar heating, owing to its intermittent nature, simply by lowering air temperature.

A person’s loss, and hence his feeling of comfort, depends not only on the air temperature but also on the radiant heat gain, the air movement and the humidity of the air. Many attempts have been made to devise a single index that combines the effect of two or more of these separate variables. In practice the difference between these indices is small provided the various parameters do not vary beyond certain limits.

4.3.1.2. Design temperatures

I should be noted that, although comfort conditions are established in terms of resultant temperature, the design air temperature for air conditioning should be as specified in this Section in terms of dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity or wet-bulb temperature   

4.4.2. Humidity

4.4.2.1. Comfort considerations

The controlled temperature levels should also be considered in relation to the humidity of the air. A high humidity reduces evaporative cooling from the body and hence creates the sensation of a higher temperature. Beyond certain limits, however, humidity produces disagreeable sensations.

For normal comfort conditions, relative humidity (RH) values between 40 percent and 70 percent are acceptable.

4.4.3. Inside Design Conditions

The inside design conditions for some of the applications are indicated in Table 2.

4.4.4. Outside Design Conditions

The outside design condition (dry-bulb and mean coincidental wet-bulb) taken shall be in accordance with the summary of the conditions given in the Table 3.

Values of ambient dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures against the various annual percentiles represent the value that is exceeded on average by the indicated percentage of the total number of hours. The 0.4 percent, 1.0 percent, 2.0 percent values are exceeded on average 35,88 and 175 h in a year. The 99.0 percent and 99.6 percent values are defined in the same way but are usually reckoned as the values for which the corresponding weather elements are less than the design conditions for 88 h and 35h, respectively.

Mean coincidental values are the average of the indicated weather element occurring concurrently with the corresponding design value.

After the calculation of design dry-bulb temperatures, the programmer located the values of corresponding wet-bulb temperatures from the database for that particular station, the average of these values were computed, which were then called mean of coincidental wet-bulb temperature.

In the same way design wet-bulb temperatures and coincidental dry-bulb temperatures were evaluated.

Selection: The design values of 0.4 percent, 1.0 percent and 2.0 percent annual cumulative frequency of occurrence may be selected depending upon application of air conditioning system.

For normal comfort jobs values under 1percent column could be used for cooling loads and 99 percent column

Table 2 inside Design Conditions for Some Applications   (Clause 4.4.3)

Sl

No.

Category

Inside Design Conditions

Summer

 

Winter

i)

Restaurants

DB 23 to 260C

RH 55 to 60%

DB 23 to 260C

RH 50 to 60%

DB 23 to 260C

RH 45 to 60%

DB 23 to 260C

RH 50 to 60%

DB 23 to 260C

RH 50 to 60%

DB 23 to 260C

RH 50 to 60%

DB 21 to 230C

RH not less than40%

DB 21 to 230C

RH not less than40%

DB 21 to 230C

RH 40 to 50%

DB 21 to 230C

RH not less than40%

DB 23 to 240C

RH not less than40%

DB 23 to 240C

RH not less than40%

ii)

Office buildings

iii)

Radio and television studios

iv)

Departmental stores

v)

Hotel guest rooms

vi)

Class rooms

vii)

Auditoriums

viii)

Recovery rooms

 

DB 24 to 260C

RH 45 to 55%

DB 24 to 260C

RH 45 to 55%

DB 17 to 270C

RH 45 to 55%

DB 20 to 220C

RH 40 to 55%

DB 22 to 260C

RH 40 to 50%

 

ix)

Patient rooms

x)

Operation theatres

xi)

Museums and libraries

xii)

Telephone terminal rooms

Table 3—Concluded

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

Gwalior

43.9

23.0

42.5

22.9

41.3

23.5

27.9

32.9

27.6

32.4

27.3

32.7

4.9

3.8

6.4

5.3

Hissar

44.7

26.5

43.3

25.8

41.7

27.9

30.1

40.2

29.9

39.0

29.4

36.8

5.0

4.2

6.1

5.2

Hyderabad

40.4

22.5

39.2

22.5

38.2

22.4

25.6

33.7

25.2

32.4

24.8

32.0

14.4

12.4

15.5

12.9

Imphal

31.1

23.3

30.2

23.5

29.6

22.9

25.0

29.5

24.6

28.6

24.3

28.3

3.9

3.6

0.5

4.6

Indore

41.1

20.7

40.4

20.6

38.9

21.0

25.7

31.0

25.2

30.0

24.8

29.8

8.2

5.0

9.7

6.5

Jabalpur

42.6

22.7

41.2

23.2

39.8

22.5

26.8

31.8

26.4

32.0

26.0

31.2

7.8

6.7

9.3

7.6

Jagdelpur

39.4

22.3

38.6

22.5

37.4

22.4

26.4

32.4

25.9

31.8

25.4

30.7

8.9

7.9

10.1

8.7

Jaipur

42.8

22.5

41.4

22.6

39.4

22.6

27.4

33.1

27.0

32.1

26.6

31.7

6.4

4.5

8.0

5.8

Jaisalmer

43.7

23.7

42.5

23.1

41.4

23.5

27.7

34.8

27.3

34.5

26.9

34.4

5.0

2.5

6.5

3.7

Jamnagar

37.1

24.4

36.1

25.6

35.3

25.1

29.2

33.0

28.4

32.5

27.9

32.0

10.0

8.6

11.7

10.5

Jodhpur

42.0

23.2

40.8

23.0

39.6

22.7

28.0

35.4

27.4

33.7

26.9

33.8

7.5

4.3

8.7

5.4

Jorhat

34.4

28.2

33.6

27.7

32.9

27.3

28.7

32.7

28.3

32.1

28.0

31.8

9.6

9.0

10.6

10.1

Kolkata

37.2

25.4

36.2

26.1

35.2

26.5

29.5

34.3

29.0

33.4

28.6

32.7

12.0

10.9

13.1

12.9

Kota

43.5

23.0

42.4

22.6

41.2

22.6

27.3

35.2

26.8

33.0

26.5

31.8

9.9

6.7

10.8

7.6

Kurnool

41.6

23.2

40.3

24.6

38.9

24.4

29.3

34.8

28.8

34.8

28.4

33.4

2.7

2.3

4.0

3.5

Lucknow

42.0

24.2

40.8

24.8

39.3

24.5

28.8

33.3

28.4

32.4

28.0

32.2

7.5

6.8

8.4

7.7

Manglore

33.9

24.4

33.9

24.0

33.4

24.2

27.1

31.0

26.7

31.0

26.4

30.7

19.7

17.0

20.5

18.1

Mumbai

35.3

22.8

34.3

23.3

33.5

24.0

27.9

31.8

27.5

31.3

27.2

31.1

16.5

13.9

17.8

14.8

Nagpur

43.8

23.6

42.6

23.9

41.4

23.6

27.3

31.2

26.6

33.2

26.2

31.9

11.5

9.4

12.8

10.2

Nellore

40.4

27.8

39.0

28.1

37.8

27.2

30.0

37.1

29.4

35.4

28.8

34.0

19.4

18.3

20.2

19.3

New Delhi

41.8

23.6

40.6

23.8

39.4

23.5

28.4

33.3

28.0

33.3

27.6

32.7

6.0

5.2

7.1

6.3

Panjim

34.0

24.8

33.5

25.2

33.0

25.2

27.7

32.3

27.4

31.5

27.0

30.9

19.6

17.8

20.3

18.7

Patna

40.7

23.4

39.5

23.7

38.0

24.7

29.0

33.9

28.6

33.1

28.3

32.6

8.0

7.6

9.2

8.6

Pune

38.4

20.5

37.4

20.4

36.3

20.6

24.8

30.9

24.4

30.6

24.0

29.6

9.2

8.0

10.3

9.2

Raipur

43.6

23.3

42.2

23.3

40.8

23.0

27.1

31.8

26.8

32.0

26.5

31.2

11.3

9.9

12.6

10.4

Rajkot

40.8

23.1

39.9

23.8

38.9

23.4

28.1

33.9

27.6

33.3

27.1

32.3

10.9

6.5

12.2

7.7

Ramagundam

43.4

25.6

42.2

25.1

40.7

25.8

28.3

37.3

27.9

35.6

27.4

34.4

12.5

11.2

13.7

12.5

Ranchi

38.9

22.1

37.7

21.8

36.4

21.5

26.2

31.7

25.6

30.4

25.2

29.2

9.1

7.2

10.4

8.3

Ratnagiri

34.1

22.4

33.4

23.2

32.8

23.6

27.6

31.1

27.3

30.8

27.0

30.2

18.3

14.9

19.2

16.5

Raxaul

38.6

23.1

36.9

24.5

35.5

24.6

28.9

33.0

28.4

32.0

28.1

31.8

7.5

7.3

8.5

8.2

Sahranpur

41.3

23.8

39.6

24.6

38.1

24.0

28.5

33.6

28.1

32.9

27.8

32.5

1.7

1.5

3.0

2.7

Shillong

24.2

19.7

23.5

19.4

22.8

18.9

20.7

23.3

20.3

22.7

19.9

22.2

-1.0

-1.1

0.1

-0.5

Sholapur

41.1

21.6

40.1

21.6

39.1

21.2

26.6

32.6

25.8

32.1

25.1

31.5

16.3

12.4

17.2

12.5

Sundernagar

36.1

19.1

34.6

19.9

33.1

19.4

25.2

30.1

24.8

29.2

24.4

28

1.8

1.3

2.8

2.2

Surat

38.4

22.7

36.9

23.9

35.7

23.4

28.3

32.4

27.9

31.7

27.6

31.4

14.8

12.6

16.2

12.5

Tezpur

34.2

27.4

33.3

26.5

32.5

27.1

28.9

32.8

28.4

31.8

28.0

31.4

10.5

10.0

12.4

10.9

Tiruchirapalli

39.6

24.6

38.7

25.1

37.8

24.9

27.7

34.5

27.2

33.7

26.9

33.3

19.3

18.2

20.1

18.7

Thiruvanantha-

Puram

33.9

26.0

33.4

26.1

32.9

25.9

27.7

32.4

27.4

31.9

27.0

31.0

21.6

20.1

22.2

20.8

Verval

35.2

23.9

33.8

23.5

32.8

26.6

29.1

32.3

28.7

31.6

28.4

31.1

14.3

10.1

15.6

12.3

Visakapatnam

36.4

26.5

35.6

27.3

35.0

27.1

29.2

33.8

28.8

33.0

28.4

32.5

15.4

14.9

16.8

16.2

NOTE- Abbreviations used

DBT  -- Dry-bulb temperature

WBT -- Wet-bulb temperature

MCDB -- Mean coincidental dry-bulb temperature

MCWB-- Mean coincidental wet-bulb temperature

For heating loads. For critical applications values under 0.4 percent column could be used for cooling loads and 99.6 percent column for heating loads.

For critical jobs and high energy consumption application, hourly load analysis should be evaluated using computer programmers.

For industrial and others specific applications, the design conditions shall be as per user’s requirement.

Adequate movement of air shall always be provided in an air conditioned enclosure, but velocities in excess of 0.5 m/s in the zone between floor level and 1.5 m level shall generally be avoided; in the case of comfort air conditioning, recommended air velocity is 0.13 m/s to 0.23 m/s in this zone, except in the vicinity of a supply or return air grille.

4.4.5. Minimum Out side Fresh Air

The fresh air supply is required to maintain an acceptably non-odorous atmosphere (by diluting body odorous and tobacco smoke and to dilute the carbon dioxide exhaled. This quantity may be quoted per person and is related to the occupant density and activity within the space. Table 4 gives minimum fresh air supply rates for mechanically ventilated or air conditioned space. The quantity and distribution of introduced fresh air should take into account the natural infiltration of the building.

Table 4 specifies requirements for ventilation air quantities for 100 percent outdoor air when the outdoor air quality meets the specifications for acceptable outdoor air quality. While these Quantities are for 100 percent outdoor air, they also set the amount of air required to dilute contaminants to acceptable levels. Therefore, it is necessary that at least this amount of air be delivered to the conditioned space at all times the building is in use.

The proportion of fresh air introduced into a building may be varied to achieve economical operation. When the fresh air can provide a useful cooling effect the quantity shall be controlled to balance the cooling demand. However, when the air is too warm or humid the quantity may be reduced to a minimum to reduce the cooling load.

For transfer of heat/moisture, air circulation is required to transfer the heat and humidity generated within the building. In simple systems the heat generated by the occupants, lighting, solar heat and heat from electrical and mechanical equipment may be removed by the introduction and extraction of large quantities of fresh air. In more elaborate systems air may be re-circulated through conditioning equipment to maintain the desired temperature and humidity. The air circulation rates are decided in relation to the thermal of moisture loads and the practical cooling and hearing range of the air.

4.4.6. Air Movement

  1. In air conditioned spaces – Air movement is desirable, as it contributes a feeling of freshness, although excessive movement should be avoided as this leads to complaints of draughts. The speed of an air current becomes more noticeable as the air temperature falls, owing to its increased cooling effect. The design of the air distribution system therefore has a controlling effect of the quantity and temperature of the air that may be introduced into a space. The quantity of fresh air should not be increased solely to create air movement; this should be affected by air re-circulation within the space or by inducing air movement with the ventilation air system.
  2. In buildings – Air flow within a building should be controlled to minimize transfer of fumes and smells, for example from kitchens to restaurants and the like. This is achieved by creating air pressure gradients within the building, by varying the balance the fans introducing fresh air and those extracting the stale air. For example, the pressure should be reduced in a kitchen below that of the adjacent restaurant.

Care should be taken, however, to avoid excessive pressure differences that may cause difficulty in opening door or cause them to slam. In other cases, such as computer room, the area may be pressurized to minimize the introduction of dust from adjacent areas.

4.4.6.1. Fire and smoke control

Air circulation system may be designed to extract smoke in event of a fire, to assist in the fire fighting operation and to introduce fresh air to pressurize escape routes.

4.4.6.2. Removal of particulate matter from air

Efficient air filtration prevents fouling of the system and is of special importance in urban areas, where damage is likely to be caused to decorations and fittings by discoloration owing to airborne dust particles. In order to obtain maximum filtration efficiently within the minimum capital and maintenance expenditure, the utmost care should be given to the location of the air intake in relation to the prevailing wind, the position of chimneys and the relative atmospheric dust concentration in the environs of the building; the recommendation for sitting of air inlets given in 4.1 

Table 4 Outdoor Air requirement for Ventilation 1) of Air Conditioned Areas and Commercial Facilities

(Clause 4.4.5)

Sl

No.

Application

Estimated Maximum2)

Occupancy

Outdoor Air 

Requirement

Remarks

 

 

Persons/100m2

1/sPerson(1/s)m2

 

i)

Commercial dry cleaner

30

15

 

 

ii)

Food and Beverage Service

 

 

 

 

 

Dining rooms

70

10

 

 

 

Cafeteria, fast food

100

10

 

 

 

Bars, cocktail lounges

100

15

 

Supplementary smoke removal equipment may be required.

 

Kitchen (cooking)

20

8

 

Make up air for food exhaust may require more ventilating air. The sum of the outdoor air and transfer air of acceptable quality  from adjacent spaces shall be sufficient to provide an exhaust rate of not less than 27.5 m3/h.m2(7.51/s.m2).

iii)

Hotels, Motels, Resorts, Dormitories

 

 

 

Independent of room size.

 

Bedrooms

 

15

 

 

 

Living rooms

 

 

15

Installed capacity for intermittent use.

 

Baths

 

 

18

 

 

Lobbies

30

8

 

 

 

Conference rooms

50

10

 

 

 

Assemble rooms

120

8

 

 

 

Dormitory sleeping areas

20

8

 

See also food and beverage services, merchandising, barber and beauty shops, garages, offices.

 

Office space

7

10

 

Some office equipment may require local exhaust.

 

Reception areas

60

8

 

 

 

Telecommunication center and data entry areas

60

10

 

 

 

Conference room

50

10

 

 

iv)

Public Spaces

 

 

 

 

 

Corridors and utilities

 

 

0.25

 

 

Public restrooms,1/s/wc or urinal

 

25

 

Normally supplied transfer air.

 

Locker and dressing rooms

 

 

2.5

Local mechanical exhaust with

 no re-circulation Recommended.

 

Elevators

 

 

5.0

Normally supplied by transfer air.

 

Retail stores, sales floors and show room floors.

 

 

 

 

 

Basement and street

30

 

1.50

 

 

Upper floors

20

 

1.00

 

 

Storage rooms

15

 

0.75

 

 

Dressing rooms

 

 

1.00

 

 

Malls and arcades

20

 

1.00

 

 

Shipping and receiving

10

 

0.75

 

 

Warehouses

5

 

0.25

 

 

Smoking lounge

70

30

 

Normally supplied by transfer air, local mechanical exhaust with no re-circulation recommended.

v)

Specialty Shop

 

 

 

 

 

Barber shop

25

8

 

 

 

Beauty parlor

25

13

 

 

 

Florists

8

8

 

Ventilation to optimize growth may dictate requirements.

 

Clothiers, furniture

 

 

1.50

 

 

Hardware, drugs, fabric

8

8

 

 

 

Supermarkets

8

8

 

 

 

Pet shop

 

 

5.00

 

vi)

Sports and Amusement

 

 

 

 

 

Spectator areas 

150

8

 

When internal combustion engines are operated for maintenance of playing surfaces, increased ventilation rates may be required.

 

Game rooms

70

13

2.50

 

Ice arenas (playing areas

 

 

 

 

Table 4-- Concluded

 

Swimming pools(pool and deck area)

 

 

2.50

Higher values may be required for humidity control.

 

Playing floors (gymnasium)

30

10

 

 

 

Ballrooms and discos

100

13

 

 

 

Bowling alleys (Seating area)

70

13

 

 

vii)

Theatre

 

 

 

 

 

Ticket booths

60

10

 

Special ventilation will be needed to eliminate special stage effects (for example, dry ice vapours mists, etc).

 

Lobbies

150

10

 

 

Auditorium

150

8

 

 

Stages, studios

70

8

 

vii)

Transportation

 

 

 

 

 

Waiting rooms

100

8

 

Ventilation within vehicles may require special consideration.

 

Platforms

100

8

 

 

Vehicles

150

8

 

ix)

Workrooms

 

 

 

 

 

Meat processing

10

8

 

Spaces maintained at low temperature at (-100 F to +500 or-230C to +100C) are not covered by these requirement unless the occupancy is continuous. Ventilation from adjoining spaces is permissible. When the occupancy is intermittent, infiltration will normally exceed the ventilation requirement 

 

Photo studios

10

8

 

 

 

Darkrooms

10

 

2.50

 

 

Pharmacy

20

8

 

 

 

Bank vaults

5

8

 

 

 

Duplicating, Printing

 

 

2.50

Installed equipment shall incorporate positive exhaust and control (as required) of undesirable contaminants (toxic and otherwise)

x)

Education

 

 

 

 

 

Classrooms

50

8

 

Special contaminant control systems may be required for processes or functions including laboratory animal occupancy.

 

Laboratories

30

10

 

 

Training shop

30

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Music rooms

50

8

 

 

 

Libraries

20

8

 

 

 

Locker rooms

 

 

2.50

 

 

Corridors

 

 

0.50

 

 

Auditoriums

150

8

 

 

xi)

Hospital, Nurses and Convalescent Homes

 

 

 

 

 

Patient rooms

10

13

 

Special requirements or codes provisions and pressure relationships may determine minimum ventilation rates and filter efficiency.

 

Medical procedure

20

8

 

 

Operating rooms

20

15

 

 

Procedure Recovery and ICU

 

20

8

Generating contaminants may require higher rates.

 

 

 

 

2.50

Air shall not be re-circulated into other spaces.

 

Autopsy

 

 

 

 

 

Physical therapy

20

8

 

 

 

Correctional Cells

20

10

 

 

 

Dining halls

100

8

 

 

 

Guard stations

40

8

 

 

This table prescribes supply rates of acceptable outdoor air required for acceptable indoor air quality. These values have been chosen to dilute human bioeffluent and other contaminants with an adequate margin of safety and to account for heath variations among people and varied activity levels.

Net occipital space.

Should also be taken into account. Air filtration equipment should be regularly serviced.

Air borne dust and dirt may be generated within the building, from the interior finishes such as  partitions, laminations, carpets, upholstery, etc, personnel and their movements as well as by machines such as, printers and fax machines.

The degree of filtration necessary will depend on the use of the building or the conditioned space. Certain specialized equipment, normally associated with computers, will require higher than normal air filter efficiencies for satisfactory operation. It is important to ascertain the necessary standard of air cleanliness required for equipment of this type.

The choice of filtration systems will depend on the degree of contamination of the air and the cleanliness required. A combination of filter types may well give the best service and the minimum operating costs.

The normal standard for intake filters in ventilating and air conditioning applications is an efficiency of 95 percent for a particle size up to 15 μm although there may be a requirement for a higher efficiency to give increased protection against atmospheric staining.

Special applications, such as computer server rooms, clean room, healthcare, pharmaceutical or food processing, and air systems having induction units, require a higher standard that is achieved by two stage filtration. The exact requirements will depend on the equipment or process involved.

4.4.6.3. Removal of fumes and smells from air

Fumes and smells may be removed from air by physical or chemical processes. These may be essential when ambient air is heavily polluted.

The decision to use odour-removing equipment will normally be made on economic grounds, this may become necessary by the currently rising cost of fuel. Once such equipment is installed, it has to be regularly serviced to ensure satisfactory performance. Failure to do this may result in unacceptable conditions within the building.

4.5. Statutory Regulation and Safety Considerations

4.5.1. Authorities and Approval of Schemes

A ventilation or air conditioning system should comply with the requirements laid down in the current statutory legislation or any revisions currently in force and consideration should also be given to any relevant insurance company requirements.

4.5.2. Fire and Safety Considerations 

Fire protection requirement of air conditioning system shall be in accordance with part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’.

4.5.2.1. Design principles

The design of air conditioning system and mechanical ventilation shall take into account the fire risk within the building, both as regards structural protection and means of escape in case of fire.

The extent and detail of statutory control and other specialist interest may very considerable according to the design, use occupation and location of the building, and the type of system of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning proposed. It is therefore particularly important that the appropriate safeguards are fully considered at the concept design stage of the building.

The degree of control and the requirements vary according to the application.

Full details may have to be approved by the Authority in following cases:

a. From the point of view of the means of escape (except dwelling houses) where recirculation of air is involved and/or where pressurized staircases are contemplated as part of the smoke control arrangement.

b. Place of public entertainment; and

c. Large car parks, hotels, parts of building used for trades or processes involving a special risk, and departmental stores and similar shop risks in large buildings.

4.5.2.2. Ductwork and enclosures

All ductwork including connectors’ fittings and plenums should be constructed of steel, aluminum or other approved metal or from non-combustible material. All exhaust ducts, the interior of which is liable in normal use to accumulate dust, grease or other flammable matter, should be provided with adequate means of access to facilitate cleaning and inspection. Also, the concerned provisions of Part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’ shall be complied with.

4.5.2.3. Thermal and acoustic insulation

To reduce the spread of fire or smoke by an air conditioning system, care should be taken for the choice of materials used for such items as air filters, silencers and insulation both internal and external (see part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’ and part 5 ‘Building Materials’).

4.5.2.4. Fire and smoke detection

When the system involves the recirculation of air, consideration should be given to the installation of detection device that would either shut off the plant and close dampers or discharge the smoke-laden air to atmosphere. Detectors may be advisable in certain applications even when the system is not a recirculatory one. Exhausts should not be positioned near the fire escapes, main staircases or where these could be a hindrance to the work of fire authorities. The local fire authorities should be consulted.

A careful study of operating characteristics of each type of sensing device should be made before selection. Smoke detectors are normally withered of the optical or ionization chamber type. These can be used to either sound an alarm system or operate fire dampers. Care should be taken with their location as various factors affect the satisfactory operation.

Ionization type detectors are sensitive to high velocity air streams and if used in ductwork the manufacturer should be consulted. Activation of smoke detector should stop the air handling unit supply air fan, close the fire damper in supply and return air duct and operate a suitable alarm system.

In all the above instances the appropriate controls would require manual re-setting.

4.5.2.5. Smoke control

While it is essential that the spread of smoke through a building to be considered in the design of air conditioning system for all types of applications, it assumes special significance in high rise buildings, because the time necessary for evacuation may be greater than the time for the development of untenable smoke conditions on staircases, in lift shafts and in other parts of the building far away from the fire. Lifts may be filled with smoke or unavailable, and if mass evacuation is attempted, staircase may be filled with people.

One or more escape staircase connecting to outdoors at ground level, should be pressurized, to enable mass evacuation of high rise buildings (see also part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’).

Therefore all air handling systems of a building should be designed with fire protection and smoke control aspects incorporating, where appropriate, facilities to permit their operation for the control of smoke within the building in event of fire.  

The pressurization systems for staircases use large volumes of outside air. The system may be designed to operate continuously at low speed, being increased to high speed in the event of fire, or to operate only in emergency. Noise and droughts are not considered a problem in an emergency situation. Fan motor and starter should be protected from fire and connected to the emergency electrical supply through cables with special fire resistant coating (see also part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’).

4.6. Application Factors

4.6.1. General

This clause gives general guidance, for various applications, for the factors that usually influence the selection of the type, design and layout of the air conditioning or ventilating system to be used.

4.6.1.1. Commercial applications

The primary objective of the application described under this heading is provision of comfort conditions for occupants.

4.6.1.2. Offices

Office building may include both external and internal zones.

The external zone may be considered as extending from approximately 4m to 6 m inwards from the external wall, and is generally subjected to wide load variation owing to daily and annual changes in outside temperature and solar radiation. Ideally, the system(s) selected to serve an external zone should be able to provide summer cooling and winter heating. During intermediate seasons the external zone of one side of the building may require cooling and at some time the external zone on another side of the building may require heating. The main factors affecting load are usually window area and choice of shading devices. The other important factors are the internal gain owing to people, light and office equipment. Choice of system may be affected by requirements to counteract down draughts and chilling effect due to radiation associated with single glazing during winter.  

Internal zone loads are entirely due to heat gain from people, lights and office equipment, which represent a fairly uniform cooling load throughout the year.

Other important considerations in office block applications may include requirements for individual controls, partitioning flexibility serving multiple tenants, and requirement of operating selected areas outside of normal office hours. Areas such as conference rooms, board room, canteens, etc, will often require independent system.

For external building zone with large glass areas, for example, greater than 60 percent of the external façade, the air-water type of system, such as induction or fan coil is generally economical than all air systems and has lower space requirements. For external zones with small glass areas, an all air system, such as variable average glass areas, other factors may determine the choice of system.

For internal zone, a separate all-air system with volume control may be the best choice. Systems employing reheat or air mixing, while technically satisfactory, are generally poor as regards energy conservation.

4.6.1.3. Hotel guest rooms

In ideal circumstances, each guest room in a hotel or motel should have an air conditioning system that enables the occupant to select heating or cooling as required to maintain the room at the desired temperature. The range of temperature adjustment should be reasonable but, from the energy conservation view point, should not permit wasteful overcooling or overheating.

Guest room systems are required to be available for operation on a continuous basis. The room may be unoccupied for most of the day and therefore provision for operating at reduced capacity, or switching off, is essential. Low operating noise level, reliability and ease of maintenance are essential. Treated fresh air introduced through the system is generally balanced with the bathroom extract ventilation to promote air circulation into the bathroom. In tropical climates, where the humidity is high an all-air system with individual room reheat (and/or recolor) may be necessary to avoid condensation problems. Fan coil units are generally found to be most suitable for this kind of application with speed control for fan and motorized/modulating valve for chilled water control for cooling.

4.6.1.4. Restaurants, cafeteria, bars and night-clubs

Such applications have several factors in common; highly variable loads, with high latent gains (low sensible heat factor) from occupants and meals, and high odour concentrations (body, food and tobacco smoke odours) requiring adequate control of fresh air extract volumes and direction of air movement for avoidance of draughts and make up air requirements for associated kitchens to ensure an uncontaminated supply.

This type of application is generally best served by the all-air type of system preferably with some reheat or return air bypass control to limit relative humidity. Either self-contained packaged units or split systems, or air-handling unit served from a central chilled system may be used. Sufficient control flexibility to handle adequately the complete range of anticipated loads is essential.

4.6.1.5. Department stores/shops

For small shops and stores unitary split type air conditioning systems offer many advantages, including low initial cost, minimum space requirement and ease of installation.

For large department stores a very careful analysis of the location and requirement of individual department is essential as these may very widely, for example, for lighting departments, food halls, restaurants, etc. some system flexibility to accommodate future changes may be required.

Generally, internal loads from lighting and people predominate. Important considerations include initial and operating costs, system space requirements, ease of maintenance and type of operating personnel who will operate the system.

The all-air type of system, with variable volume distribution from local air handling units, may be the most economical option. Facilities to take all outside air for ‘free-cooling’ under favorable conditions should be provided.

4.6.1.6. Theatres/Auditoria

Characteristics of this type of application are buildings generally large in size, with high ceiling, low external loads, and high occupancy producing high latent gain and having low sensible heat factor. These give rise to the requirements of large fresh air quantities and low operating noise levels. Theatres and auditoria may be in use only a few hours a day.

4.6.1.7. Special applications

4.6.1.7.1. Hospitals/Operating theatres

In many cases proper air conditioning can be a factor in the therapy of the patient and is some instances part of the major treatment. For special application areas of hospitals such as operation theatres, reference may be made to specialist literature.

The main differences in application compared with other applications are:

a. Restriction of air movement between various departments and control of air movement within certain departments, to reduce the risk of airborne cross infection;

b. Specific need for the ventilation and filtration equipment to dilute and/or remove particulate or gaseous contamination and airborne micro-organisms;

c. Close tolerances in temperatures and humid it’s may be required for various areas; and

d. The design should allow for accurate control of environmental conditions.

For (a) and (b) the air movement patterns should minimize the spread of contaminants as for instance, in operating departments where the air flow should be such as to reduce the risk of periphery or floor-level air returning to the patient owing to secondary air currents whilst the general pressurization pattern should cause air to flow through the department from sterile to less sterile rooms in progression. In operating theatres 100 percent fresh air system is normally provided and air pressures in various rooms are set by use of pressure stabilizers. Many types of air distribution pattern within operation theatres are in use but generally they conform to high-level supply and low-level pressure relief or exhaust. There is also need for a separates scavenging system for exhaled and waste anesthetic gases with in theatre suites where general anesthetic may be administered.

When zoning air distribution system to compensate for building orientation and shape, consideration should be given to ensure that the mixing of air from different departments is reduced to a minimum.

This can be accomplished by the use of 100 percent conditioned fresh air with no re-circulation or, where re-circulation is employed, by providing separate air handling systems for different departments based on the relative sensitivity of each to contamination. A degree of stand-by is provided by this system so that breakdown will affect only a limited section of the hospital.

Lavatories and other areas dealing with infectious diseases or viruses, and sanitary accommodation adjacent to wards, should be at a negative air pressure compared to any other area to prevent exfiltration of any exhaust to atmosphere form these areas has to pass through high efficiency sub-micron particulate air (HEPA) filters.

4.6.1.7.2. Computer rooms

The equipment in computer rooms generates heat and contains components that are sensitive to sudden variations of temperature and humidity. These are sensitive to the deposition of dust. Exposure beyond the prescribed limits may result in improper operation or need for shut-down of the equipment. The temperature and humidity in computer rooms need to be controlled within reasonably close limits, although this depends on the equipment involved. The relative humidity??? may be controlled within ±5 percent in the range 40 percent to 60 percent. Manufacturers normally prescribe specific conditions to be maintained. Typical conditions are air dry-bulb: 21±1.60C; relative humidity 50±5 percent; and filtration 90 percent down to 10 microns.

A low velocity re-circulation system may be used with 5 percent to 10 percent fresh air make-up which is allowed to exfiltrate from the room and ensure a positive pressure to prevent entry of dust and untreated air. The air distribution should be zoned to minimize temperature variations owing to fluctuation in heat load. Overhead air supply through ceiling plenums utilizing linear diffuser or ventilated ceilings is eminently suited to computer room application, permitting high air change rates to be achieved without undue discomfort to personnel.

The air conditioning system should be reliable because failures to maintain conditions for even a short duration can cases substantial monetary loss and possible more serious consequence. As such standby equipment is recommended.

4.6.1.8. Residential buildings

Very few residences are air conditioned. Some individual houses have unitary systems comprising of window/split air conditioners. Some large houses have VRV based splits and some luxury applications with chilled water applications. In the latter case, most of the considerations of 4.6.1.3 apply.

5. NOISE AND VIBRATION CONTROL

5.1. General

Noise is unwanted sound. All ventilating and air conditioning systems will produce noise, and this may cause annoyance or disturbance in:

  1. The spaces being treated;
  2. Other rooms in the building;
  3. The environment external to the building.

In the case of external environment particular care should be taken to avoid a nuisance in the ‘silent’ hours, and local authorities have statutory powers to ensure that noise from plant is limited.

It is important that expert advice be sought in dealing with noise and vibration problems, as for obvious reasons the most economical solutions should be used, without impairing the performance.

5.2. Types of Noise in Building

5.2.1. Externally Created Noise

Reduction of externally created noise is mainly dealt with by choice of building profile and window construction. The air conditioning designer should, however, ensure that noise does not enter via air inlets or exhausts: it may be reduced by suitable attenuators.

5.2.2. Generated Noise

Noise produced by the components of air conditioning and ventilation plant installed within the building can escape via ventilation grilles or door openings and can cause nuisance to neighbor. Equipment mounted outside the building may well need to be selected or installed with the noise problem in mind.

Another type of generated noise is created by the air-circulating system itself and its associated equipment. Fans are an obvious source, but noise can be produced by turbulence, which may cause vibration of the ducts and noise transmission by air diffusers. This problem can be avoided by careful selection of and installation equipment or by the noise absorbing devices.

5.2.3. Transmitted Noise

Noise transmitted through the building structure is particularly acute in modern frame and reinforced concrete buildings. Such noise can be controlled by isolating the machines form the structures, and from pipe work connected to the building, by suitable mountings and pipe couplings.

Another problem is the transmission of sound form one room to another via air ducting, ventilated ceilings to other continuous air space. Such sound includes the noise form machines and equipment and also of conversation as well as annoying. Again, this problem can be tackled by careful design and the inclusion of sound absorbing devices in ducts.

5.2.4. Intermittent Noise

Such noise arises from the sto0pping and starting of equipment, and the opening and closing of valves and dampers. This may or may not cause problems in the air conditioned spaces, but it is often objectionable to plant operators and maintenance engineers. This should be considered by air conditioning designer.

5.3. The source of noise in the air conditioning system could be from the following:

  1. Chillers,
  2. Pumps, pipe supports, ducts, external noise in filtrations though openings,
  3. Fans,
  4. Air noise through ducts, and
  5. Compressors.

5.4. The approach must always be to reduce the source noise rather than controlling them in the path

5.5. Noise Control

5.5.1. From Room Air Conditioners (RAC)

The following measures should be adopted:

  1. Selection of RAC which has the least noise at various fan speeds.
  2. Install it at a serviceable height.
  3. Install preferable in a wall or on a rigid window.
  4. Provide only necessary slope as specified by the manufacturer, to avoid any unusual noise from the compressor because of tilting.
  5. Install it preferable in the middle portion of the wall/window to avoid additional directivity (do not install at the end of a wall).
  6. Ensure all leaks are sealed properly.
  7. Avoid condenser facing any high noisy areas, such as road/factory to avoid any such noise predominantly entering into the room.
  8. Do not provide any props at the back side bottom of the air conditioner unless specified by the manufacturer.
  9. Prepare the opening to suit the chassis with wooden frame of adequate rigidity and thickness.

5.5.2. From Split Air Conditioner/Furred Inn

The following measures should be adopted:

  1. Install the evaporator only on a rigid wall/ceiling or on a pedestal.
  2. Avoid installation over wooden/gypsum board partition. Should a need arise anchor the evaporator rigidly by using mild steel frame work from the roof to avoid vibration.
  3. Provide proper ‘u’ trap in the condensate water line to ensure a good water seal, which will also avoid sound penetration into the room from outside.
  4. If the capillary is in the evaporator, ensure that flow noise is avoided.
  5. Ensure proper return air entry back to the coil, since blowers working at higher static pressure will create higher noise.
  6. Select the condensers with top/side discharge depending upon location to avoid nuisance to neighbors.
  7. Place condensers on rigid platform, properly supported propped and fixed firmly.
  8. Ensure all screws, bolts and nuts are firmly tightened since stiffening is more advantageous in higher frequencies for vibration reduction.

 5.5.3. Air Handing Units (Floor Mounted and Ceiling Suspended)

The following measures should be adopted:

  1. Selected indoor machine for specific air quantity and static pressure.
  2. Suspend the indoor machine and ducts without touching the members of the false ceiling or partitions.
  3. Ensure that ducts/duct supports do not touch the evaporator.

5.5.4. From Plenum Chamber

The following measures should be adopted/considered:

  1. If possible and if pressures allow, expand that air to plenum chamber (of 2.5 m/s for normal office), which is acoustically lined inside.
  2. Stiffening of the plenum body is very critical since it could create a drumming noise.
  3. Plenum chambers with sound absorbing material are frequently used as silencers in air conditioning and ventilating system and in testing facilities to reduce flow velocity and turbulence. The attenuation of these devices may be due to both dissipative and reactive effects.

5.5.5. From Fans

5.5.5.1. Centrifugal fans

There are three basic types of centrifugal fans, backward curved, forward curved, and radial. Noise form centrifugal fans are dominantly a superimposition of discrete tones at the varying frequencies and broadband aerodynamic noise.

5.5.5.2. Axial fans

Axial fans derive their name from the fact that the airflow is along the axis of the fan. To avoid a circular flow pattern and to increase performance, guide vanes are usually installed downstream of the rotor. Axial fans with exit guide vanes are called vane axial and those without guide vanes are called vane axial and those without guide vanes are called tub axial.

Axial fans generally operate at higher pressures than centrifugal fans and are usually considered noisier. Common applications include heating and ventilation systems. Because of

the large number of blades and high rotational speeds, noise form axial fans is generally characterized by strong discrete lade passing tones.

Variable inlet vane system may generate significantly low frequency noise as the vanes shut down. Additional attenuation with a corresponding additional pressure drop is required to attenuate the noise generated by the inlet vanes.

Variable speed motors and drives and variable pitch fan blade systems are actually quieter at reduced air output than at full output. The designer has the option of designing for maximum output as if the system were constant volume, or selecting the sound attenuation for a more normal operating point and allowing fan noise to exceed the design criteria on the rare occasions when the fan operates at full output.

5.5.5.3. To reduce fan noise, the following should be adopted:

  1. Design the air distribution system for minimum resistance, since the sound generated by a fan, regardless of type, increase by the square of the static pressure. Turbulence can increase the flow noise generated by duct fittings and dampers in the air distribution systems especially at low frequencies.
  2. Examine the specific sound power levels of the fan designs for any given job. Different fans generate different levels of sound and produce different octave band spectra. Select a fan that will generate the lowest possible sound level, commensurate with other fan selection parameters.
  1. Fans with relatively few blades (less than 15) tend to generate tones, which may dominate the spectrum. These tones occur at the blade passage frequency and its harmonies. The intensity of these depends on resonance with the duct system, fan design, and inlet flow distortions.
  2. Select a fan to operate as near as possible to its rated peak efficiency when handling the required quantity of air and static pressure. Also, select a fan that generates the lowest possible noise but still meets the required design conditions for which it is selected. Using an oversized or undersized fan, that does not operate at or near rated peak efficiency, may result in substantially higher nose levels.
  3. Design duct connections at both the fan inlet and outlet for uniform and straight airflow. Avoid unstable, gusting, and swirling inlet airflow. Deviation from accepted application can severely degrade both the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any fan and invalidate manufactures ratings or other performance predictions.
  4. Select duct silencers that do not significantly increase the required fan total static pressure.

5.5.6. From Chillers, Pumps and pipes

Sizing and selecting a chiller is an important aspect in noise control. The following guidelines may be considered for noise control:

  1. For roof top installation of chillers, these may be placed on beams connected on the elevated levels of pillars on correctly chosen vibration isolators.
  2. Water cooled chillers have less vibration. However, if air cooled chillers have to be chosen, choose them with fan of less speeds and compressors must be jacketed without compromising their ventilation requirement.
  3. If much more silencing is required, plan a silencer on the exhaust of the fans and also an acoustic enclosure around the chillers. Care must be taken for the additional static demand in the fan.

5.5.7. From Ducting Work

The following measures should be adopted:

  1. A shorter duct with flanges and bracings is very advantageous for noise reduction.
  2. Choose the right thickness of sheets for ducting.
  3. Provide calculated turning vanes in all bends.
  4. Provide take off pieces in all branches and collars.
  5. Minimize the number of terminals since each terminal of equal noise will create a higher overall noise inside the room —two equal noise sources increase the noise by 3 dB.
  6. Velocities of supply and return ducts and also terminals are important for noise control.
  7. For auditoriums, conference halls etc choose the right silencers in the supply. Define a clear opening for return air and fix return air silencers (parallel baffle silencer). The pressure drop expected across these silencers varies from 6mm to 10 mm of water column.
  8. Selecting double skin air handling unit should be done with care. If used without supply and return air silencers it adds to the noise in the duct patch. However, by using double skin air handling unit the noise inside the plant room can be lowered.
  9. Instead of insulating the plant room, increasing the density of the plant room wall and providing return air baffles in the return air patch is more helpful in noise reduction. The doors to the air handling unit room should be either with an attic entry or dense enough to avoid noise transmission.
  10. Avoid terminal dampers and grilles if the noise criteria are of the order of NC 20 (recording studios).
  11. If ducts have to be routed outside the conditioned space, the density of the insulating materials over the duct surface is very critical. Higher the density, lower is its noise transitivity and hence break in noise inside the duct be avoided. The density is to be decided based on the outside noise level.
  12. Selection of a proper terminal device helps in noise reduction.AV shall be planned along with relevant VFD or bypass arrangement. Otherwise the duct is subjected to variable pressures resulting in variable noise pattern.
  13. Minimize flow-generated noise by elbows or duct branch takeoffs, whenever possible, by locating them at least four to five duct diameters from each other. For high velocity systems, it may be necessary to increase this distance to up to ten duct diameters in critical noise areas.
  14. Keep airflow velocity in the duct as low as possible (7.5 m/s or less) near critical noise areas by expanding the duct cross-section area. However, do not exceed and included expansion angle of greater than 150. Flow separation, resulting from expansion angles greater than 150, may produce rumble noise. Expending the duct cross-section area reduces potential flow noise associated with turbulence in these areas.
  15. Use turning vanes in large 90 rectangular elbows and branch takeoffs. This provides a smoother transmission in which the air can change flow direction, thus reducing turbulence.
  16. Place grilles, diffusers and registers into occupied space as far as possible form elbows and branch takeoffs.
  17.  Minimize the use of volume dampers near grilles, diffusers and registers in acoustically critical situations.
  18. Vibration isolates ducts and pipes, using spring and/or neoprene hangers for at least the first 15m from the vibration-isolated equipment.

5.6. Structure Borne Noise

Most obvious paths for solid-borne noise are the attached piping and pump support systems. Oscillatory energy generated near the pump can be conducted as solid-borne noise for substantial distances before it is radiated as acoustic noise. It can be controlled using flexible couplings and mechanical isolation.

5.7. Measurement

Measurement should be taken with a sound level meter either using the ‘A’ weighting scale or to draw up a noise criteria curve (see Part 8 ‘Building Services, Section 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control’). Measurements should be taken in the following locations.

  1. Plant rooms;
  2. Occupied rooms adjacent to plant rooms;
  3. Outside plant rooms facing air intakes and exhausts and condenser discharge, to assess possible nuisance to adjacent occupied areas;
  4. In the space served by the first grill or diffuser after a fan outlet; and
  5. In at least two of the spaces served by fan coil units or high velocity system terminal units (where applicable).

6. MECHANICAL VENTILATION (FOR NON AIR CONDITIONED AREAS) AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING

6.1. Ventilation

Ventilation is the process of changing air in an enclosed space. A proportion of the air in the space should be continuously withdrawn and replaced by fresh air drawn from outside to maintain the required level of air purity. Ventilation is required to control the following:

  1. Oxygen content – Prevent depletion of he oxygen content of the air;
  2. Carbon dioxide and Moisture – To prevent undue accumulation;
  3. Contaminants  -- To prevent undue rise in concentration of body odours and other contaminates such as tobacco smoke;
  4. Bacteria – To oxidize colonies of bacteria and fungus to prevent their proliferation.
  5. Heat To remove body heat and heat dissipated by electrical or mechanical equipment or solar heat gains.

Mechanical ventilation is one of several forms of ventilation options available. It usually consists of fans, filters, ducts, air diffusers and outlets for air distribution within the building. It may include either mechanical exhaust system or exhaust can occur through natural means.

Natural ventilation and natural exhaust are also options (see Part 8 ‘Building Services, Section 1 Lighting and ventilation’). The scope of this section is therefore restricted to mechanical ventilation.

Ventilation controls heat, odours and hazardous chemical contaminants (in a building) that could affect the health and safety of the occupants. For better control, heat and contaminants, air may need to be exhausted at their sources by local exhaust systems. Usually such systems require lower air flows than general (dilution) ventilation.

Following considerations provide details regarding the various parameters that affect the type of ventilations system selected for a particular application, and the sizing of the ventilation plant:

  1. The climatic zone in which the building is located is a major consideration. An important distinction that must be made is between hot-dry and warm-moist conditions. Hot-dry work situations occur around furnaces, forges, metal-extruding and rolling mills, glass-forming machines, and so forth.

Typical warm—moist operations are found in textile mills, laundries, dye houses, and deep mines where water is used extensively for dust control.

Warm-moist conditions are more hazardous than the hot-dry conditions.

  1. Sitting (and orientation) of the building is also an important factor. Solar heat gain and high outside temperature increase the load significantly; how significantly depends, on the magnitude of these gains particularly in relation to other gains for example the internal.
  2. The comfort level required is another consideration. In many cases, comfort levels (as understood in the context of Residential Buildings, Commercial Blocks, Office
  3. Establishments) cannot be achieved at all and therefore, what is often aimed at will be ‘acceptable working condition’ rather than ‘comfort’ Having surveyed the considerations above, there are many options available in mechanical ventilation – spot cooling, local exhaust, changes in work pattern—to choose from, for achieving the desired acceptable working conditions. The options available may need to be extended more acceptable working conditions when conformed with more hostile environmental conditions.

It will be thus seen that there are many considerations involved in the selection and sizing of suitable ventilation and evaporative cooling plants of meet the requirements of any particular building and/or process. It is the interplay of these various factors listed above like climatic conditions, internal load, exposure to heat and hazardous substances and level of working conditions aimed at, that determines the option, which best meets the requirement and also, the capacity and other attributes of the option selected.

Ventilation control measures alone are frequently inadequate for meeting heat stress standards. Optimum solutions may involve additional controls, such as local exhausts, spot cooling, changes in work-rest patterns, and radiation shielding.

As a rule, it is the mechanical system that provides the best results and controls, for the more complex situations and more stringent requirements arising out of harsher environment and need for better working conditions.

6.2. Beneficial Effects of Ventilation

6.2.1. Fresh air supply

Ventilation system provides the fresh air flow that is required to maintain an acceptable non-odorous atmosphere (by diluting body odours and tobacco smoke) and to dilute the carbon dioxide exhaled.

The quantity and distribution of introduced outside air takes into account infiltration, exhaust and dilution requirements of the building. Proportion of fresh air introduced into a building may be varied to achieve economical operation. When fresh air can provide useful cooling effect, the quantity should be controlled to match the cooling demand.

6.2.2. Transfer of Heat/Moisture

Ventilation system helps air circulation that is required to transfer the heat and humidity generated within the building. Heat generated by the occupants, electrical and mechanical equipment, and solar heat gains may be removed by the introduction of adequate quantities of fresh air and by expelling or extracting of stale air.

6.2.3. Air Movement

Ventilation system provides air movement that is necessary to create a feeling of freshness and avoid discomfort, although excessive movement should be avoided as this may lead to complaints of draughts. The quantity of fresh air should not be increased solely to create air movement; this should be effected by air recirculation within the space or by inducing air movement with the ventilation air system.

Air flow should be controlled to minimize transfer of fumes and smells. In addition, air pressure gradients may be created within the building, by varying the balance between the fresh air and extracting the stale air.

Care should be taken, to avoid excessive pressure differences that can cause difficulty in opening doors or cause them to slam.

6.2.4. Air Purity and Filtration

Ventilation system installed in a building should deliver clean, fresh air to the space served. This may be achieved by providing the required amount of fresh air either to remove totally or to dilute odors, fumes, etc. local extract systems may be necessary to remove polluted air from kitchens, toilets, slaughter houses, crematoria, etc. special air filters may be provided to remove contaminants or smells when air is recalculated.

6.2.5. Removal of Particulate Matter from Air

Efficient air filtration to prevent fouling of the system should be considered, where damage is likely to be caused by discoloration owing to airborne dust particles. In order to obtain the best

performance form the filters provided, care should be taken to locate the air intake appropriately in relation to the prevailing wind, position of chimneys and relative atmospheric dust concentration in the environs of the building.

6.2.6. Fire and Smoke Control

Ventilation system can be designed to extract smoke in the event of a fire, to assist in the fire fighting operation and to introduce fresh air to pressurize escape routes.

6.2.7. Removal of Fumes and Smells from Air

Fumes and smell may be removed from air by physical or chemical processes. Their removal may be essential when the ambient air is heavily polluted, although consideration must be given to limit the thermal loads caused by the introduction of large quantities of fresh air.

6.2.8. Industrial Ventilation

Industrial buildings form a major application of mechanical ventilation.

In industrial buildings, ventilation is needed to provide the fresh air normally required for health and hygiene and also, to mitigate thermal working conditions by assisting in removal of surplus heat due to equipment people and building heat gains.

Following are some of the factors that should be considered in the system design.

  1. A supply system would not be satisfactory without a complementary exhaust system. Similarly any exhaust system would require for complementary supply system.
  2. Air should be supplied equitably through grilles, diffusers – and such other devices. Directional grilles, diffusers and nozzles designed specifically to alleviate the thermal condition should be considered. Drafts should be avoided.
  3. Ventilation system may need to be supplemented by exhaust hoods and canopies designed to capture the unwanted fumes or dust right at the source irrespective of other air currents in the vicinity.

Many industrial ventilation systems shall handle simultaneous exposures to heat, toxic and hazardous substances. The number of contaminant sources, their generation rate and effectiveness of exhaust hoods are rarely known; there is no option but to depend on common ventilation/ industrial hygiene practice in such situations.

Reference may also be made to good practice [8-3(4)].

6.4. Types of Ventilation Systems

In the interest of efficient use of energy comfort to the occupants, it is imperative that all modes of ventilation should be considered in relation to the thermal characteristics of the building.

6.4.1. Mechanical Extract/Natural Supply

This is simplest form of extract system comprising one or more fans, usually of the propeller, axial flow or mixed flow type, installed in outside walls or on the roofs. The discharge should terminate in louvers or cowls or a combination of both.

Alternatively, the system may comprise of ductwork arranged for general extraction of the vitiated air or for extraction form localized sources of heat, moisture, odors, fumes and dust. Such duct work may be connected to centrifugal or axial flow fans that discharge through the wall or roof, terminating in louvers or cowls or a combination of both.

It is essential that provision for make-up air is made and that consideration is given to the location and size of inlet. Inlet should not be located in the vicinity of exhaust fan.

6.4.2. Mechanical Supply/Natural Extract

This system is similar in form to the extract system but arranged to deliver fresh air positively into the enclosed space. Such a system necessitates provision for the discharge of vitiated air by natural means. Where there is a requirement for the enclosed space to be at a slightly higher pressure than is surroundings (to exclude dust or smoke, for example), the discharge may be through natural leakage paths or balanced pressure relief dampers, as may be required

6.4.3. Combined Mechanical Supply and Extract

This system is a combination of those described above and may comprise supply and exhaust ductwork systems or may employ a common fan with a fresh air inlet on the low pressure side.

6.5. Ventilation Rate and Design Considerations for Non Air Conditioned Areas

6.5.1. General Ventilation

The care of air circulation recommended for different general areas is as given in Table 5. 

Table 5 Recommended Rate of Air Circulation for Different Areas

(Clause 6.5.1)

Sl No.

Application

Air Change per Hour

1

Assembly rooms

4-8

2

Bakeries

20-30

 3

Banks/building societies

4.8

4

Bathrooms

6-10

5

bedrooms

2-4

6

Billiard rooms

6-8

7

Boiler rooms

15-30

8

Cafes and coffee bars

10-12

9

Canteens

8-12

10

Cellars

3-10

 

Churches

1-3

11

Cinemas and theatres

10-15

12

Club rooms

12, Min

13

Compressor rooms

10-12

14

Conference rooms

8-12

15

Dairies

8-12

16

Dance halls

12, Min

17

Dye works

20-30

18

Electroplating shops

10-12

19

Engine rooms

15-30

20

Entrance halls

3-5

21

Factories and work shops

8-10

22

Foundries

15-30

23

Garages

6-8

24

Glass houses

25-60

25

Gymnasium

6,Min

26

Hair dressing saloon

10-15

27

Hospitals-sterilizing

15-25

28

Hospital-wards

6-8

29

Hospital domestic

15-20

30

Laboratories

6-15

31

Launderettes

10-15

32

Laundries

10-30

33

Lavatories

6-15

34

Lecture theatres

5-8

35

Libraries

3-5

36

Living rooms

3-6

37

Mushroom houses

6-10

38

Offices

6-10

39

Paint shops(not cellulose)

10-20

40

Photo and x-ray darkroom

10-15

41

Public house bars

12,Min

42

Recording control rooms

15-25

43

Recording studios

10-12

44

Restaurants

8-12

45

School rooms

5-7

46

Shops and supermarkets

8-15

47

Shower baths

15-20

48

Stores and warehouses

3-6

49

Squash court

4,Min

50

Swimming bath

10-15

51

Toilets

6-10

52

Utility rooms

15-20

53

Welding shops

15-30

Note-- The ventilation rates may be increased by 50 percent where heavy smoking occurs or if the room is below ground. 

6.5.2. Kitchen (Industrial and Commercial) Ventilation

Desired ventilation rates in the kitchens depend upon the type of equipment in use and the released impurity loads (including surplus heat). Ventilation Standards set up the guide lines for ventilation volumes, whereas surplus heat and impurity loads determine the actual airflows based on thermal consideration. The design for kitchen airflow must allow for sufficient ventilation.

Suggested design standards for exhaust air flows from different kitchen equipment based on their input power are as given in Table 6.

Table 6 design Exhaust Air Flow in1/s per kW of the Kitchen Equipment

(Clause 6.5.2)

Sl No.

Kitchen Equipment

Electricity based Equipment

Gas based Equipment

i)

Cooking pot

8

12

ii)

Pressure cooker cabinet

5

-

iii)

Convection oven

10

-

iv)

Roasting oven(salamander)

33

33

v)

Griddle

32

35

vi)

Frying pan

32

35

vii)

Deep fat fryer

28

-

viii)

Cooker/stove

32

35

ix)

Grill

50

61

x)

Heated table/bath

30

-

xi)

Coffee maker

3

-

xii)

Dish washer

17

-

xiii)

Refrigeration equipment

60

-

xiv)

Ceramic cooker/stove

25

-

xv)

Microwave oven

3

-

xvi)

Pizza oven

15

-

xvii)

Induction cooker/stove

20

-

It is desirable to use compensating exhaust hoods for kitchen equipment installed within air conditioned space. The ventilation rates may be confirmed from the kitchen equipment supplier.

6.5.3. Car Parking Ventilation

Ventilation is essential, in car parking areas to take care of pollution due to emission of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, presence, of oil and petrol fumes and diesel engine smoke. The contaminants cause undesirable effect like. Nausea, headache, fire hazards, if applicable permissible limits for each of the contaminate noted are exceeded. Although four contaminant are listed above, the capacity of a system designed to tackle concentration of carbon monoxide, will be adequate to keep the other three contaminants also within their respective permissible limits.

The recommended ventilation rate will ensure that the CO level will be maintained within 29 mg/m3 with peak level not to exceed 137 mg/m3.

For partially open garages, the requirement is stated in terms of area of wall/slab openings required to provide adequate ventilation. The value applicable is 2.5 percent to 5 percent of the floor area for free opening.

6.5.4. Sizing the Plant

Sizing the ventilation plant is essentially arriving at the air flow rate required. Based on various considerations already reviewed the sizing of the plant will be influenced by the following requirements:

  1. Removal of sensible heat,
  2. Removal of latent heat,
  3. Make-up air – the flow rate required will depend upon local exhaust, and
  4. Removal or dilution of the contaminants down to the permissible level.

The air flow rate calculated for the above requirements.

6.5.4.1. Ventilation plant size is often expressed in terms of number of air changes per hour or cmh/m2 of floor area. These expressions fail to evaluate the actual heat release provided by the plant. The unit, cmh/m2 gives a relationship which is independent of the building height. This is a more rational approach than speaking in terms of air changes per hour. This is because, with the same internal load, the same amount of ventilation air, properly applied to the work zone with adequate velocity, will provide the desired heat relief quite independently of the ceiling height of the space, with few exceptions. Ventilation rates of 30 to 60m3/h perm2 have been found to give good trusts in many plants. Notwithstanding these general observations, detailed design should be based on detailed thorough calculations after all necessary data has been evaluated and relevant considerations have been reviewed.

6.6. Evaporative Cooling

6.6.1. Evaporative cooling is defined as the reduction of air dry-bulb temperature by the evaporation of water.

6.6.2. When water evaporates into the air to be cooled, simultaneously humidifying it, the process is called direct evaporation process, and therefore is not humidified as it is cooled, then the process is called indirect evaporative cooling.

It is good practice to use 100 percent fresh air in the evaporative cooling. Re-circulation is not recommended, as it will lead to continuous increase in wet-bulb temperature of the air. When evaporative cooling is provided for comfort application, it may be supplemented by devices like ceiling fans and fan coolers to enhance air movement for circulation of air in internal areas in order to maximize evaporation of moisture from the skin.

6.6.3. The geographic range for the evaporative cooling is based on cooler’s ability to create or approximate human comfort and is limited by relative humidity in the atmosphere. It is more effective in dry climates (hot-dry climate zone) where wet-bulb depression is comparatively large. Factors to be considered—include those listed in 6.5.4; addition the following also apply:

  1. Saturation efficiency of the cooler – higher the better;
  2. Ambient weather design data;
  3. Permissible temperature rise; and
  4. Type of cooling application – residential, industrial, ect.

6.6.4. The cooling load control, especially for industrial application shall be carried out in the following manner for effective evaporative cooling.

  1. Minimize external heat loads by shading, use of heat reflective paints, roof insulation and sealing of gaps.
  2. Minimize internal heat loads by shading, use of heat reflective paints, roof insulation and installation of exhaust fans over the lot processes and machines.
  3. Make building tight.
  4. Wherever possible, exhaust of used washed air must be directed towards roof to partly cool the surface and trusses thereby reducing heat radiation.

6.6.5. Two types of water distribution systems may be provided:

  1. Once through or pump-less type.
  2. Recalculating or pump type.

The first type is simpler and cheaper but consumes more water, needs constant drainage and has lower efficiency depending upon the temperature of water. The second type has higher cooling efficiency due to recalculate water approaching wet-bulb temperature conserves water and can operate with intermittent drainage. It is recommended to provide periodic bleed-off or blow down to remove accumulated mineral additions. This helps in reducing scaling of pads also.

6.6.6. The air velocity across wetting pad is recommended between 1.0 and 1.5 m/s. the lower face velocity reduces evaporation as damp air film isolates the dry air from the wet surface. Higher face velocity may provide insufficient air-water contact time.

6.6.7. Pad material should be such which provides maximum clean wet surface area with minimum airflow resistance. Materials, which have either good ‘wick’ characteristics or surface that spread water rapidly by capillary action, should be selected.                    

 6.6.8. In the ducted systems, all supply air diffusers, grilles and registers should be preferably adjustable.

6.6.9. General room cooling should be supplemented with spot cooking in the hot workplaces.

6.6.10. Reference may also be made to good practice [8-3(5)].

6.7. Planning

6.7.1. Planning of Equipment Room for Ventilation

6.7.1.1. In selecting the location of equipment room, aspects of efficiency, economy and good practice should be considered and wherever possible, it shall be made contiguous with the building. This room shall be located as centrally as possible with respect to the area served and shall be free from obstructing columns.Proper location helps achieve satisfactory air distribution and also results in a less expensive installation.

6.7.1.2. Equipments room should preferably be located adjacent to external wall to facilitate equipment movement and ventilation. It is should also close to main electrical panel of the building, if possible, in order to avoid large cable lengths.

6.7.1.3. Location and dimensions of shafts, for ducting, cables, pipes, ect (if envisaged), should be planned at the virtual stages itself if planning. They should be located adjacent to the equipment or within the room itself.

Evaporative cooling units (air washers) should be located preferably on summer-windward side. They should be painted white or with reflective coating or thermally insulated, so as to minimize solar heat absorption.

In locating the units, care should be taken to ensure that their noise level will not be objectionable to the neighbors. Appropriate acoustic treatment should be considered, if the noise levels cannot be kept down to permissible limits.

Exhaust air devices, preferably to leeward and overhead side may provided for effective movement of air

In the case of large installations it is advisable to have a separate isolated equipment room if possible.

The equipment room should be adequately dimensioned keeping in view the  need to provide required movement space for personnel, space forestry and exit of ducts, the need to accommodate an intakes and discharge, operation, maintenance and service requirements.

6.7.1.4. The floors of the equipment rooms should be light colored and finished smooth. For floor loading, the air conditioning, heating and ventilation engineer should be consulted (see also Part 6 ‘Structural Design, Section 1 Loads Forces and Effects’).

Arrangements for draining the floors shall be provided. The trap in floor drain shall provide a water seal between the equipment room and the drain line. Water proofing shall be provided for floor slabs of equipment rooms housing, evaporative cooling units.

6.7.1.5. Supporting of pipe within equipment rooms spaces should be normally from the floor. However, outside Equipment room areas, structural provisions shall be made for supporting the water pips form the floor/ceiling slabs. All floor and ceiling supports make-up and drain connections pipes, ducting cables/cable trays etc, shall be isolated form the structure to prevent transmission of vibrations.

6.7.1.6. Plant machinery in the plant room shall be places on plain/reinforced cement concrete foundation and provided with anti-vibratory supports. All foundations should be protected from damage by providing epoxy coated angle nosing. Seismic restraints requirement may also be considered.

6.7.1.7. Wherever necessary, acoustic treatment should be provided in plant room space to prevent noise transmission to adjacent occupied areas.

6.7.1.8 In case the equipment is located in basement, equipment movement route shall be planned to facilitate future replacement and maintenance. Service ramps or hatch in ground floor slab should be provided in such cases. Also arrangements for floor draining should be provided.

The trap in floor drain shall provide a water seal between the equipment room and the drain line.

6.7.1.9. In the case of large and multi-storied buildings, independent Ventilation/Air Washer Units should be providing for each floor. The area to be served by the air-handling unit should be decided depending upon the provision of fire protection measures adopted. The Units should preferably be located vertically one above the other to simplify location of pipe shafts, cable shafts, drainers.

6.7.1.10. Opening of adequate size should be provided for intake of fresh air. Fresh air intake shall have louvers having rain protection profile, with volume control damper and bird screen.

6.7.1.11. Outdoor air intakes and exhaust outlets shall be effectively be shielded from weather and insects.

6.7.1.12. In all cases air intakes shall be so located as to avoid contamination from exhaust outlets or to from sources whose contamination concentration levels are greater than normal in the locality in which the building is located.

6.7.1.13. Supply/Return air duct shall not be taken through emergency fire staircase. However, exception can be considered if fire isolation of ducts at wall crossings is carried out.

6.7.1.14. where necessary, structural design should avoid beam obstruction to the passage of supply and return air ducts. Adequate ceiling space should be made available outside the equipment room air ducts and fire dampers at equipment room wall crossings.

6.7.1.15. Access doors to Equipment rooms should be through single/double leaf type, air tight. Opening outwards and should have a sill to prevent flooding of adjacent occupied areas.

6.7.1.16. It should be possible to isolate the equipment room in case of fire. The door shall be fire resistant. Fire/smoke dampers shall be provided in supply/return air duct at air handling

unit room wall crossings and the annular space between the duct and the wall should be fire sealed using appropriate fire resistance rated material.

In the planning stages itself, provision should be made for the following (if they are envisaged):

  1. Space/routing/supports, etc for ducting; and
  2. Openings in walls, slabs, roof etc, for passage of ducts, pipes, cables, etc, and for air intake, air exhaust, etc.

6.7.3. Bleed-off and chemical water treatment depending on quality of water available for make-up should be planned.

7. UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER

7.1. These are self-contained air conditioning units comprising a compressor and evaporator with fans for evaporator and air-cooled condenser. Unitary air conditioners are generally installed in windows and, therefore, they are also known as window air conditioners. It is designed to provide free delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, room or zone. It includes a prime source of refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification and means for circulation and filtration of air. It may also include provision to exhaust room air as also induce fresh air for ventilation in the room. In addition to basic cooling unit, there are several other optional features available, such as: 

  1. Means for heating during winter months.
  2. Reciprocation or rotary compressor.
  3. Swing louvers for better distribution of air in the room.
  4. In addition to normal, dust filters, indoor air quality filters, such as bactericidal enzyme filters for killing bacteria, low temperature catalyst filter for removal of unpleasant odours, electrostatic filters to trap particles of smoke as well as suspended matters present in the air.
  5. Digital LCD remote control which also indicates room temperature.

7.2. Capacity

Most of the manufacturers supply unitary air conditions in capacities of 3 500 W (1 TR), 5,250 W (1.5 TR) and 7 000 W (2 TR). However, some of them may be able to supply window air conditioners of 1 750 W (0.5 TR) and up to 10 500 W (3TR) along with intermediate range. The capacity of windows air conditioners is rated at outside dry bulb temperature of 350C and wet bulb temperature of 300C and they are suitable for 230 V, single phase 50 Hz power supply. Nominal capacity of all the window air conditioners has to be de-rated due to high ambient temperatures in summer months in most of Indian cities. Also, generally a voltage stabilizer has to be installed to ensure that window air conditioner gets stabilized rated voltage.

7.3. Suitability

Unitary air conditioners are suitable for bedrooms, office cabins, general office area, hotel rooms and similar applications where normal comfort conditions are required up to a distance of 6m from unitary air conditioner.

7.4. Power Consumption

Power consumption of window air conditioners of 1 TR (3 500W) rated capacity should not exceed 1.55 kW/TR. However, in smaller sizes, the power consumption may exceed. Rotary compressors normally consume 7 percent to 8 percent less power compared to the above value for reciprocating compressors.

7.5. Noise level

Noise level of window air conditioner inside the conditioned room should be as low as possible. However it should not exceed 65 dBA for 5 250 W (1.5 TR) or smaller capacity window air conditioners. Air conditioners with rotary compressors will have lower noise level as compared to those provided with reciprocating compressors.

7.6. Location

Unitary air conditioners should be mounted preferably at the window sill level on an external wall where not air from air-cooled condenser may be discharged without causing nuisance. There should not be any obstruction to the inlet and discharge air of the condenser. Also while deciding location of the window air conditioners, care should be taken to ensure that the condensates water dripping does not cause nuisance. The opening for the air conditioner is generally made a part of windows or wall construction at the planning stage.

7.7. Limitations

Room air conditioners are not generally recommended in the following situations:

  1. The width of the area exceeds 6 m.
  2. Area requiring close control of temperature and relative humidity.
  3. Internal zones where no exposed wall is available for the installation of room air conditioners.
  4. Sound recording rooms where criteria for acoustics are stringent.
  5. Special applications like sterile rooms for hospitals and clean room application where high filtration efficiency is desired.
  6. Operation theaters where 100 percent fresh air is needed and fire hazard exists being used.
  7. Where required to comply with the recommended fresh air requirement for ventilation.

7.8. For detailed information regarding constructional and performance requirements and methods for establishing ratings of room air conditioners, reference may be made to accepted standard [8-3(6)].

8. SPLIT AIR CONDITIONER

8.1. Spilt air conditioner has an indoor unit and an outdoor unit interconnected with refrigerant piping and power and control wiring. Indoor unit comprises of a filter, evaporator an evaporator fan for circulation of air in the conditioned space. Outdoor unit has a compressor, air-cooled condenser with condenser fan housed in a suitable cabinet for outdoor installation. Spilt air conditioner includes primary source of refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification and means for circulation and cleaning of air, with or without external air distribution ducting.

Spilt air conditioners may be provided with either reciprocating compressor or scroll compressor. Scroll compressor generally consumes about 10 to 12 percent less power compared to reciprocating compressor.

Various split air conditioners available may be categorized as under:

  1. Exposed indoor unit, which is either a high wall unit or a floor-mounted unit.
  2. Furred-in units (ceiling suspended unit), which is mounted in the ceiling and provided with a duct collar and grille.
  3. Ducted indoor unit, which requires ducting for air distribution.

8.2. Suitability

Spilt air conditioners are suitable for wide range of applications including residences, small offices, clubs, restaurants, showrooms, departmental stores etc.

8.3. Capacity

Split air conditioners are available in following capacities:

  1. Indoor exposed units, 3 500 W (1 TR), 5 250 W (1.5 TR), 7 000 W (2 TR), or two indoor units of 3 500 W (1 TR), or 5 250 W (1.5 TR), connected with one outdoor unit of 7 000 W (2 TR), or 10 500 W (3 TR), capacity. These units are available with corded and cordless remote control.
  2. Furred-in Units are available in capacities of 3 500 W (1 TR), and 5 250 W (1.5 TR), and may be provided with one outdoor unit or two outdoor units with two furred-in indoor units. These units are available with corded and cordless remote control.
  3. Ducted split air conditioners (ceiling suspended ducted units) are available in capacities of 10 500 W (3 TR), 17 500 W (5 TR), 26 250 W (7.5 TR), and 52 500 W.
  4. (15 TR). Ducted spilt air conditioners with scroll compressors are available in capacities of 19 250 W (5,5 TR), and 29 750 W (8.5 TR).

8.4. Location

Spilt air conditioner indoor unit is mounted within the air conditioned space or above the false ceiling from where the air distribution duct is taken to the conditioned space to distribute the air. When the indoor unit is mounted in the false ceiling to attend to the indoor unit including periodic cleaning of air filter. Outdoor unit is mounted at the nearest open area where unobstructed flow of outside air is available for air cooled condenser.

8.5. Installation

Ceiling suspended indoor units are provided with rubber grommet to reduce vibration. Outdoor units are mounted on steel frame in an open area so that the fan of the air cooled condenser can discharge hot air to the atmosphere without any obstruction. Care should be taken to ensure the free intake of air is available to the outdoor air cooled condenser. Also precaution should be taken that hot air from any other outdoor unit does not mix with the intake of the other outdoor air cooled condenser.

8.6. Limitations

Split air conditioners are generally not recommended for:

  1. For areas where fresh air is required for ventilation.
  2. Where distance between indoor exposed unit or furred-in unit exceeds 5 m from the outdoor unit for units up to 7 00 W (2TR) capacity. For larger ducted split air conditioners, the vertical distance between the indoor unit and the outdoor unit should not exceed about 6 m for units with reciprocating compressors. The horizontal distance between the indoor unit and outdoor unit should not exceed about 10 m for reciprocating compressors.
  3. Area requiring close control of temperature and relative humidity.
  4. Sound recording rooms where criteria for acoustics are stringent.
  5. Special applications like sterile rooms for hospitals and clean room applications where high filtration efficiency is desired.
  6. Large multi-storey buildings where multiplicity of the compressors may entail subsequent maintenance problems.
  7. Where the length of air distribution ducting may exceed about 20 m.

8. 7. Reference may be made t accepted standard [8-3(7)].

9. PACKAGED AIR CONDITIONER

9.1. Packaged air conditioner is a self-contained unit primarily for floor mounting, designed to provide conditioned air to the space to be conditioned. It includes prime source of refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification and means for circulation and cleaning of air, with or without external air distribution ducting. It may also include means for heating humidifying and ventilating air.

The unit comprises a compressor, condenser and evaporator, which are interconnected with copper refrigerant piping and refrigerant controls. It also includes fan for circulation of air and filter. The unit is provided with compressor and fan motor starter and factory-wired safety controls.

Compressor is a device, which compresses low-pressure low temperature refrigerant gas to high-pressure high temperature super heated refrigerant gas. Compressors may be reciprocating type or scroll type for packaging unit applications.

Condenser condenses high pressure high temperature refrigerant gas to liquid refrigerant at approximately the same temperature and pressure by removal of sensible heat of refrigerant by external means of water cooling or air cooling.

The packaged units are also available with microprocessor-based controller installed in the unit for digital display of faults as also several other functions. The packaged unit can also be provided with winter heating package or humidification package. The packaged unit may be provided with either water-cooled condenser or remote air cooled condenser with interconnected copper refrigerant piping. The units are available with reciprocating compressor as also scroll compressor, which consume about 10 to 12 percent lesser power. In a water-cooled condenser unit, condenser-cooling water is circulated through the cooling tower with necessary piping and pump sets.

The water cooled condenser package unit gives higher capacity at lower power consumption as compared to an air cooled condenser packaged unit which gets considerably de-rated in capacity and also consumes more power in peak summer months in most of the cities of our country due t high ambient temperature.

Package units are generally available with vertical air discharge or horizontal air discharge.

9.2. Suitability

Packaged units are suitable for wide range of application including offices, clubs and restaurants, showrooms and departmental stores, and computer rooms, etc.

9.3. Capacity

Normally the packaged air conditioners are manufactured in size of 17 500 W (5 TR), 26 250 W (7.5 TR), and 35 000 W (10 TR) and 52 500 W (15 TR). Package units with scroll compressors are also available in capacity up to 58 100 W (16.6 TR).

9.4. Location

The packaged unit can be mounted within the air conditioned space with discharge air plenum or in a separate room from where the air distribution duct is taken to the conditioned space. While deciding location for the packaged unit, provision must be kept for proper servicing of the unit.

9.5. Installation

The packaged units are normally mounted on a resilient pad which prevents vibration of the unit from being transmitted to the building.

9.6. Limitations

Packaged air conditioners are not generally recommended for:

  1. Large multi-storey building where multiplicity of the compressors may entail subsequent maintenance problems.
  2. Where the length of air distribution ducting may exceed approz20 m.
  3. Where the vertical distance of air-cooled condenser from the packaged unit exceeds about 10m. The sum of horizontal and vertical distances should be generally kept within 15 m.
  4. Special applications like sterile rooms for hospitals and clean room applications where high filtration efficiency is desired.
  5. Operation theatres where 100 percent fresh air is needed and fire hazard exists depending on the type of anesthesia being used.

9.7. For detailed information regarding constructional and performance requirements and methods for establishing ratings of packaged  air conditioners, reference may be made to accepted standard [8-3(8)].

10. HEATING

10.1. The installations for air conditioning system may be used advantageously for the central heating system with additions such as hot water or boiler and hot water coils or strip heater banks.

10.2. The heating equipments as described in 10.2.1 and 10.2.2 are generally used.

10.2.1. Hot Water Heated Coils

Central heating systems using hot water usually required not more than one or two rows of tubes in the direction of air flow, in order to produce the desired heating capacity. To achieve high efficiency without excessive water pressure drop through the coil, various circuit arrangements are used.

Generally, the resistance to the hot water flow through the heater should not exceed 4 k Pa in low pressure hot water heating installations. In high pressure hot water installations, the resistance to the water flow will probably be determined by other factors, for example, the need to balance circuits.

The heaters should be served from hot water flow and return mains with sufficient connections to each row or bank of tubes or sections to give uniform distribution of the heating medium.

The flow connections to the heater should generally be arranged at the lowest point of the heater, and the return connections at the highest, to aid venting. The expansion of the tubes when the heater is in operation should be considered and the necessary arrangements made to accommodate expansion and contraction.

Thermometer wells should be fitted in the pipes near the inlets and outlets of all-heating coils so that the temperature drop through the heater can be readily observed.

10.2.2. Electric Air Heater

The air velocity through the heaters should be sufficient to permit the absorption of the rated output of the finned tube heaters within its range of safe temperatures and the exact velocity determined in conjunction with the manufacturers of the heater. Electrical load should be balanced across the three-phase of the electrical supply.

Where automatic temperature control is required the heater should be divided into a number of sections dependent upon the degree of control to be effected.

Each section of heater elements, which may be two rows of elements should have its own bus bars and connection and be capable of withdrawal from the casing, thus enabling the elements to be cleaned or repaired whilst the remainder is in operation. Each section should be capable of being isolated electrically before being withdrawn from the casing.

All heaters should be electrically interlocked with the fan motors, so that the electrical heater will be switched off when the fan is stopped or when the air velocity is reduced to a level below that for which the heater has been designed.

The air velocity over the face of the heater is of particular importance in the design of electric air heaters, and the manufacturers should be given details of the maximum and minimum air velocities likely to occur.

With all electric air heaters, care should be taken to preclude the risk of fire under abnormal conditions of operation, by the use of a suitably positioned temperature sensitive trip of the manual reset type to cut off the electric supply.

11. SYMBOLS, UNIT, COLOUR CODE AND IDENTIFICTION OF SERVICES

11.1. Units and symbols to be used in air conditioning, ventilation and refrigeration system shall be in accordance with good practice [8-3(9)].

11.2. Colour code for identification for various items in air conditioning installations for easy interpretation and identification is advisable. This shall promote greater safety and shall lessen chances of error, confusion or inaction in times of emergency. Co lour shade shall be generally in accordance with good practice [8-3(10)].

 11.3. colour bands shall be 150 mm wide, superimposed on ground colors to distinguish type and condition of fluid. The spacing of band shall not exceed 4.0 m.

11.4. Further identification may also be carried out using lettering and marking direction of flow.

11.5. Service Identification

11.5.1. Pipe work services

11.5.1.1. The scheme of colors code for painting of pipe work services for air conditioning installation shall be as indicated in Table 7.

11.5.1.2. In addition to the closure bands specified above, all pipe work shall be legibly marked with black or white letters to indicate the type of service and the direction of flow, identified as follows:

High Temperature Hot Water

HTHW

Medium Temperature Hot Water

MTHW

Low Temperature Hot Water

LTHW

Chilled Water

CHW

Condenser Water

CDW

Steam

ST

Condensate

CN

11.5.2. Duck work services

11.5.2.1. For duct work services and its insulation, colors triangle may be provided. The size of the triangle will depend on the size of the duct and viewing distance but the minimum size should not be less than 150 mm length per side.

The colure for various duct work services shall be as given below:

Services

Colour

Conditioned Air

Red and Blue

Ward Air

Yellow

Fresh Air

Green

Exhaust/Extract/Recalculated 

Grey

Foul Air

Brown

Dual Duct System Hot Supply Air

Red

Cold Supply Air

Blue

Table 7Scheme of Colour Code of Pipe Work Services for Air Conditioning Installation

(Clause 11.5.1.1)

Sl No.

Description

Ground Colour

Lettering Colorings

First Colour Band

i)

Cooling water

Sea green

Black

French blue

ii)

Chilled water

Sea green

Black

Black

iii)

Central heating below 600C

Sea green

Black

Chary yellow

iv)

Central heating  to 1000C

Sea green

Black

Dark violet

v)

Drain pipe

Black

White

 

vi)

Vents

White

Black

 

vii)

Valves and pipe line fittings

White with Black handles

Black

 

viii)

Belt guard

Black yellow diagonal strips

Black

 

ix)

Machine bases, inertia bases and plinth

Charcoal grey

 

 

11.5.3. Valve Labels and Charts

Each valve shall be provided with a label indicating the service being controlled, together with a reference number corresponding with that shown on the Valve Charts and ‘as fitted’ drawings. The labels shall be made from 3 ply (black/white/black) trifoliate material showing

white letters and figures on a black background. Labels shall be tied to each valve with chromium plated linked chain.

12. ENERGY CONSERVATION, ENERGY MANAGEMENT, AUTOMATIC CONTROLS AND BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

 12.1. In the context of this code, energy conservation signifies the optimum use of energy to operate the air conditioning, hating and ventilation system of a building.

12.2. It is axiomatic that general standards of comfort or specific environmental requirements within the building should not be compromised in an endeavor to achieve lower consumption of energy. Similarly nothing in this Code overrides regulations related to health and safety. 

12.3. Considerations for Energy Conservation and Management

12.3.1. Energy Targets

For the purpose of assessing energy conservation efficiency of one system design against another, or in an existing building comparing one period of energy use against, target consumptions may be established.

12.3.2. Demand Targets

Energy demand is mainly determined by location of the building, its structure and the equipment installed within it. Demand targets are readily applied to designs for new buildings and are quoted as an ‘average rate’ of energy use W/m2).

12.3.3. Consumption Targets

The energy actually consumed in a building is determined by the manner in which the building and its services are used and is measured in units of energy (Wh/m2). Targets may be established according to varying climatic conditions and varying pattern of building use. 

12.3.4. Air Conditioning/Ventilation 

Some of the more important aspects of establishing energy conservation requirements for air conditioning and ventilation system are given below.

12.3.5. The design of the system and its associated controls should take into account the following.

  1. The nature of the application;
  2. The type of construction of building;
  3. External and internal load patterns;
  4. The desired space conditions;
  5. Permissible control limits;
  6. Control methods for minimizing use of primary energy;
  7. Opportunities for heat recovery;
  8. Economic factors (including probable future cost and availability of fuel).
  9. Opportunity for optimizing electrical installation and energy conservation by using thermal energy storage.

12.3.6. The operation of the system for the following conditions has to be considered when assessing the complete design:

  1. In summer;
  2. In winter;
  3. In intermediate seasons;
  4. At night;
  5. At weekends; and
  6. Restoration of power supply after intermittent failure.

12.3.7. Consideration should be given to changes in building load in the system design so that maximum operational efficiency is maintained under part load conditions. Similarly, the total system should be separated into smaller increments having similar load requirements so that each area can be separately controlled to maintain optimum operating conditions.

12.3.8. The temperature of heating or cooling media circulated with in the system should be maintained at the level necessary to achieve the required output to match the prevailing load conditions with the minimum consumption of energy.

12.3.9. Energy recovery has to be maximized

12.3.10. Operation and maintenance procedures have to be properly planned.

12.3.11. Equipment Consideration

12.3.11.1. All equipment and components should be tested in accordance with the relevant Indian Standards; where no application standard exists, greed international or other standard and test procedure may be adopted.

12.3.11.2. The equipment suppliers should furnish upon request the energy input and output of the equipment, which should cover full and partial loads and standby conditions as required in order that the energy consumption can be assessed over the whole range of operating conditions.

12.3.11.3. Where components from more than one supplier are used in combination, for which published performance data do not exist then the system designer should take the responsibility for ensuring that their combination leads to optimum energy use.

12.3.11.4. Equipment preventive maintenance schedule should be furnished along with all other required information.

12.4. Control System

The designer should aim to select the simplest system of control capable of producing the space conditions required. It is uneconomical to provide controls with a degree of accuracy greater than the required by the application. Consideration should be given to the provision of centralized monitoring and control, thus achieving optimum operation.

12.5. Automatic Controls and Building Management System

12.5.1. Types of Equipment

The basic components that are designed, selected to work together to form a complete control system, together with their function, are shown as follows:

The basic components of a control system are:

Element or Component

Function

Sensing and measuring  element of the controller (for example, sensor, transmitters, transducers, meters, detector)

Measuring changes in one or more controlled conditions or variables.

Controller mechanism

Translating the changes into forces or energy of a kind that can be used by the final control element.

Connecting members of the control circuit; wiring for electric linkage for mechanical devices

Transmitting the energy or forces from the point of translation to the point of corrective action.

Controlled devices or actuator such as motor or valve

Using the force or energy to motivate the final control element and effect a corrective change in the controlled condition.

Controller mechanism, connecting means, and actuator or control device.

Terminating the call for corrective change, to prevent over-correction.

12.5.2. Sensing and Measuring Elements

12.5.2.1. Temperature elements;

a) A bimetal element comprises two thin strips of dissimilar metals fused together and arranged as a straight, U-shaped or spiral element. The two metals have different coefficients of thermal expansion, so a change in temperature causes the element to bend and produce a change in position.

b) A rod and tube element is composed of a high expansion metal tube inside which is located a low expansion rod with one end fixed to the rear of the tube so that temperature changes cause the free end of the rod to move.

c) Sealed bellows element is evacuated of air and charged with a liquid, gas or vapour, which changes in pressure or volume as surrounding temperature changes to result in change of force or movement.

d) Remote bulb element consists of a sealed bellows or diaphragm to which a bulb or capsule

is attached by means of capillary tubing, the entire system being filled with liquid, gas or vapour. Temperature changes at the bulb are communicated a s pressure or volume changes through the capillary tube to the bellows or diaphragm.

e) Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are temperature sensors containing either a fence wire or a thin metallic element whose resistance increases with temperature and varies in a known manner. RTDs are characterized by their high degree of linearity, good sensitivity and excellent stability. RTDs are used with electronic controllers.

f) Thermocouple element comprises a junction between two dissimilar metals that generates a small voltage related to the temperature.

12.5.2.2. Humidity devices

a) These devices have a hygroscopic organic polymer deposited on a water permeable substrate. The polymer film absorbs moisture until it is in balance with the ambient air. This causes a change in resistance or capacitance.

b) Resistance elements, as employed in electronic systems, consist usually of two interleaved grids of gold foil, each connected to a terminal and mounted on a thin slab of insulating plastic material with a Coating of hygroscopic salt (lithium chloride) on the lock. A conductive path between adjacent strips of foil is formed, and the high electric resistance of this circuit changes a s the chemical film absorbs and releases moisture with changes in the relative humidity of surrounding air.

12.5.2.3. Pressure elements

a) Low-pressure measuring elements for low positive pressure or for vacuum conditions, for example, static pressure in an air duct, usually comprise a large slack diaphragm, or large flexible bellows. In one type of static pressure regulator two bells are suspended from a lever into a tank of oil, so that positive pressure under one of the bells moves the bell and lever up (or down) to complete an electric circuit. The majority of these elements sense differential pressure, and when combined with pint  tubes, orifice plates, and venture meters may be used to measure velocity, flow rate or liquid level.

b) High-pressure measuring elements, for pressure or vacuum measurements in the kPa range, are usually of bellows, diaphragm or Bourdon tube type. If one side of the element is left open to atmosphere the element will respond to pressure above or below atmospheric.

12.5.2.4. Special elements

a) Special elements for various measuring or detecting purposes are often necessary for complete control in air conditioning or ventilating systems, for example a ‘paddle blade’ type of air flow switch may be interlocked with an electric heater battery to prevent battery from operating and overheating in the event of an air flow failure.

b) Other elements employed from time to time are measuring smoke density, carbon monoxide (for example in road traffic tunnels or underground car parks) and carbon dioxide, and for flame detection.

12.5.2.5. Controller

Controlling elements normally regulate the application of either electrical or pneumatic energy. Controllers are mainly of three types: thermostat, humidistat and pressure controllers.

12.5.2.6. Thermostats

a) The room type responds to room air temperature and is designed for mounting on a wall.

b) The insertion thermostats respond to the temperature of air in a duct and are designed for mounting on the outside of a duct with its measuring element extending into the air stream.

c) The immersion type responds to the temperature of a fluid in a pipe or tank is designed for mounting on the outside of a pipe or tank with a fluid-tight connection to allow the measuring element to extend into a fluid.

d) The remote bulb thermostat is used where the point of temperature measurement is some distance from the desired thermostat location, which may often be in central panel. A differential type employing two remote bulbs may be used to maintain a given temperature difference between two points.

e) The surface type is designed for mounting on a pipe or similar surface and measuring its temperature, or to give an approximate measurement of temperature of the fluid with in the pipe.

f) The day / night room thermostat is arranged to control at a reduce temperature at night, and may be changed from day to night operation at a remote point by hand or time clock, or from a time switch built into the thermostat itself.

g) The heating / cooling (or summer / winter) thermostat can have its action reversed and, where required, its set points raised or lowered by remote control. This type of thermostat is used to actuate controlled devices, such as valves or dampers, that may regulate a heating medium at one time and cooling medium at another.

h) The multi-step thermostat is arranged to operate in two or more successive steps.

i) A master thermostat measures conditions at one point of another (sub-master) thermostat or controller.

12.5.2.7. Humidistat

Humidistat may be of the room or insertion type. For example, a sub master room humidistat may be used with an outdoor master thermostat to reduce humidity in cold weather and prevent condensation on windows. A wet-bulb thermostat is often used for accurate humidity control, working in conjunctions with a dry bulb controller.

12.5.2.8. Pressure controllers

Pressure or static pressure controller4s are made for mounting directly one pipe or duct. The controller may also be mounted remotely on a panel.

12.5.2.9. Controlled devices

12.5.2.9.1. Automatic control valves

An automatic control valve consists of a valve body to control the flow of fluid passing through it by use of a variable orifice that is positioned by an operator in response to signals from the controller. The fluid handled is generally steam or water, and the operator is usually of the electric motor or pneumatic actuator type. As 75 percent or more of all air conditioning and mechanical ventilation systems utilize a valve of some sort as the final control element, proper control valve selection is one of the most important factors in attaining goof systems performance.

Following are the details of various valve types and valve operators:

a) Valve types – The main type and their characteristics are summarized below;

(1) Single seated valves are designed for tight shut-off.

 (2) Double seated valves are designed so that the fluid pressure on the two discs is essential balanced, reducing the power required operating; this type of valve does not provide a tight shut-off.

(3) Pilot operated valves utilize the pressure difference between upstream and downstream sides to act upon a diaphragm or piston to move the valve, and are usually single seated, for two piston applications only, and used where large forces are required for valve operation.

(4)  Low flow valves may be a small as 3mm port size and are used for accurate control of low flow rates.

(5) Three way mixing valves have two inlets and one outlet, and operate to vary the proportion of fluid entering each of the two inlets.

(6) Three way diverting valves have one inlet and two outlets and operate to diver or

proportion the inlet flow to either of the two outlets.

(7) Two way modulating valves have one inlet and one outlet and operate to modulate or proportion the flow through the heat exchange equipment.

(8) Butterfly valves comprise a heavy ring enclosing a disc that rotates on an axis at or near its centre and may be used for shut-off where low differential pressures exist.

(9) Special multi-port valves for various type or modulating / sequences operation are available for control of both hot and chilled water to three and four pipe fan coil and induction unit systems.

b) Valve Operators - Valve operators usually comprise an electric solenoid, electric motor, or pneumatic actuator, brief details of which are given below:

1) A solenoid is a magnetic coil that operates a movable plunger to provide two-piston operation

2) An electric motor is arranged to operate the valve stem through a gear train and linkage. Various types are available for different applications, such as;

i) A unidirectional motor is used for two position operation, the valve opening during one half revolution of the output shaft and closing during the next half revolution

ii) A spring return motor for two position control operation is energized electrically, driven to one position, and held there until the circuit is broken, when the spring returns the valves to its normal position.

iii) A reversible motor is used for floating or proportional operation and can run in either direction and stop in any position.

3) A pneumatic actuator usually comprises a spring opposed flexible diaphragm or bellows connected to the valve stem, so that an increase in air pressure acts on the diaphragm or bellows to move the valve stem compress the spring. When the air pressure is removed the spring will return the operator to its normal position.

12.5.2.9.2. Automatic control dampers

Control dampers are designed to control the flow of air in a ductwork system in much the same as an automatic valve operates in a fluid circuit, that it by varying the resistance to flow. Following are the details of various damper valves and damper operators:

a) Damper valves: (1) The single blade damper is generally restricted to small sizes since it does not provide accurate control. When fitted in circular ductwork it may be referred to a butterfly damper.

(2) A multi-leaf damper is two or more blades linked together, which may be: (i) A parallel action multi-leaf damper, having its blades linked so that when operated they all rotate in the same direction. (ii) An opposed action multi-leaf damper, having adjacent blades linked to rotate in opposite directions when operated.

b) Damper operators- These may be electric motors of the unidirectional, spring return or reversible type fitted with suitable linkage mechanisms, or may be pneumatic actuators of a type designed for damper operation.

12.5.2.9.3. Centralized control/monitoring equipment

 The centralized control system, which is shown diagrammatically in Fig.1, comprises three main parts: the remote location equipment, the transmission links, and the central equipment.

12.5.2.9.4. Remote location equipment

This includes:

  1. Input devices or sensor, which measure the condition of a variable;
  2. Signal condition devices, which convert the sensor signal to a type compatible with the requirements of the remote panel, transmission system, or the central equipment;
  3. Output devices, which provide a means for converting a command instruction, appearing at the remote panel, into a signal suitable for performing an operational function on external equipment; and Remote data collection panels or remote enclosure, which acts as termination point for the remote ends of the transmission links and for connection to the remote input and output device.

12.5.2.9.5. Transmission links

The transmission links provides the means for communication between the central equipments and the remote data collection panel and may be classified according to a number of variables, which includes:

  1. Medium (wires or cables, telephone lines, micro wave);
  2. Transmission mode (one direction only, one direction at a time, etc);
  3. Data sequence (series, for 2-wire, parallel for multi-conductor etc);
  4. Wire or cable types;
  5. Signal types; and
  6. Message format.

Other considerations include the physical arrangement of the transmission system, security and supervisory aspect.

12.5.2.9.6. Central equipment

This may comprise:

  1. An interface, which provides a connection point and the signal conversion between the central processor and transmission links.
  2. The central processor, which is the collection of equipment at the central control room containing the logic for management of the centralized control and monitoring system; the processor has the means to receive, transmit and present information, with the ability to process all data in an orderly fashion, and may or may not include a computer.
  3. Peripheral device such as typewriters, printers, displays (digital type, projectors, r cathode ray tubes, etc).

12.5.3 Selection Factors

12.5.3.1 Common factors

There are a number of factors to be considered in the selections of almost all control system components these common factors include:

  1. Supply and working electricity voltage, phases, frequency and number of wires;
  2. Maximum and/or minimum temperatures, humilities  or pressures to which components may be subjected;
  3. Restrictions or location, mounting positions etc, or possible problems  due to duct, vibration etc;
  4. Dimensions and mass;
  5. Finish and type of enclosure; and
  6. Required accessories or fittings.

Note—these common factors, should only be used as a general guide, and control manufactures should be consulted in establishing exact requirements.

12.5.4. Sensing / Measuring Elements

Sensing and measuring elements frequently form an integral part of a controller and the selection factors to be considered for this arrangement may be a s given in 12.5.3.1. However, a sensor may be designed and arranged for operation with a remote controller and other components, in that case some of the more important selection factors for temperature elements, for example may be as follows:

(a) Control operations, for example reverse or direct-acting

(b) Sensing range, adjustable or non-adjustable

(c) Provision for air filter

(d) Pressure output

(e) Provision for branch pressure indication

(f) Application, for example room, duct immersion in pipeline

(g) Application, for example room, duct immersion in pipeline

(h) Electronic

(j) Function, for example for primary or secondary control

(k) Temperature range

(m) Authority range of throttling range adjustment

(n) Nominal resistance and sensitivity and

(p) Provision for temperature indication

13. INSPECTION, COMMISSIONING AND TESTING

13.1. Inspection, commissioning and testing should be carried out meticulously if a satisfactory installation is to be handed over to the client. It should be ensured that these are carried out thoroughly and all results are properly documented. It is recommended that the whole commissioning procedure should be under the guidance and control of a single authority, to be identified by the client.

13.2. Inspection and Testing

All equipment and components supplied may be subjected to inspection and tests during manufacture, erection / installation and after completion. No tolerances at the time of inspection shall be allowed other than those specified or permitted in the relevant approved standards, unless otherwise stated. Approval at the time of inspection shall not be constructed as acceptance unless the equipment proves satisfactory in service after erection.

High pressure air duct system should also be tested in accordance with the procedures.

13.2.1. Inspection and Testing at Works

The air conditioning system will consist of various items of equipment produced by various manufacturers. Each manufacturer should give facilities for the inspection of his equipment during manufacturing and on completion, as specified.

13.2.2. Inspection and Testing on site

Prior to commissioning, testing adjusting and balancing, preliminary checks and charging of the complete system should be carried out. It is important that all water systems should have been thoroughly flushed through and hydraulically pressure tested to 1.5 times the working pressure for a period of not less than 8 h.

13.3. Commissioning, Testing, Adjusting and Balancing

13.3.1. Basic considerations

13.3.1.1. The basic considerations are:

(a) to test to determine quantitative performance of equipment

(b) to adjust to regulate for specified fluid flow rates and air patterns at terminal; equipment (for example reduce fan speed throttling etc);

(c) to balance to proportion within distribution system (sub mains, branches and terminals) in accordance with design quantities.

13.3.1.2. The objective of testing, adjusting and balancing of air conditioning, hating and mechanical ventilation system shall be to:

(a) Verify design conformity

(b) Establish fluid flow rates, volume and operating pressures

(c) Test all associated electrical panels and electrical installation for earthling continuity and earth resistance

(d) Take electrical power readings for each motor

(e) Establish operating sound and vibration levels

(f) Adjust and balance to design parameters and

(g) Record and report results as per the specified formats

13.3.2. System Testing. Adjusting and Balancing

13.3.2.1. Refrigeration plant.

The refrigeration plant may be tested for the following:

(a) Adjusting water flow rate through chiller and condenser by use of balancing valves

(b) Ascertaining the capacity by measurement of water flow rate and temperature of water at inlet and outlet of chilling machine

(c) Computation of power consumption

(d) Verifying operating noise level as per manufacturer instructions.

13.3.2.2. Air system

13.2.2.2.1. Air handler’s performance

The testing, adjusting and balancing procedure shall establish the right selection and performance of the air handling units with the following results:

(a) Air-in dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature

(b) Air-out dry-bulb and wet –bulb temperature

(c) Leaving air dew point temperature

(d) Fan air volume

(e) Fan air outlet velocity

(f) Fan static pressure

(g) Fan power consumption

(h) Fan speed and

(i) Check for zero water retention in the condensate drain pan.

13.3.2.2.2. Air distribution

Both supply and return air distribution for each air handling unit and for areas served by the air handling unit shall be determined and adjusted as necessary to provide design air quantities. It shall cover balancing of air through main and branch ducts

13.3.2.2.3. Hydronic system

The hydronic system shall involve the checking and balancing of all water pumps, piping network (main and branches), heat exchange equipment like cooling and heating coils, condensers, chillers and cooling towers in order to provide design water flows.

The essential preparation work shall be done by the air conditioning contractor prior to actual testing, adjusting and balancing and shall ensure the following:

(a) Hydronic system is free of leaks, hydrostatically tested and is thoroughly cleaned, flushed and refilled

(b) Hydronic system is vented

(c) Check pumps operation for proper rotation and motor current drawn etc;

(d) Confirm that provisions for tabulation of measurements (temperature, pressure and flow measurements) have been made; and

(e) Open all shut-off valves and automatic control valves to provide full flow through coils. Set all balancing valves in the preset position, if these valves are known. If not, shut all riser balancing valves except the one intended to be balances first.

Balancing work for both chilled water system and condenser water system shall be carried out in a professional manner and test reports in the specified format shall be prepared.

13.4. Controls

Since most of the control equipment used for air conditioning system is factory calibrated, hence physical verification before installation shall be carried out. In addition, manufacturers’ instructions should be followed for site calibration, if any.

13.5. Notes and Sound Control

Measurements should be taken with a sound level meter either using the ‘A’ weighting scale or to draw up a noise criteria curve. Measurements should be taken in the following locations:

(a) Plant rooms

(b) Occupied rooms adjacent to plant rooms

(c) Outside plant rooms facing air intakes and exhausts and condenser discharge, to assess possible nuisance to adjacent occupied areas

(d) In the space served by the first grille or diffuser after a fan outlet

(e) In at-least two of the spaces served by fan coil units or high velocity system terminal units (where applicable);

(f) In any space and 

(g) Air handling unit (AHU) rooms and adjoining areas

13.6. Handover procedure

Handover documentation should contain all information that the user needs to enable the Installation and equipment to be efficiently and economically operated and maintained. It should also provide a record of the outcome of any site testing, balancing and regulation carried out prior to handover.

Handover documentation should include the following;

(a) Description of the installation, including simplified line flow and balance diagrams for the complete installation;

(b) As-built installation drawings;

(c) Operation and maintenance instructions for equipment, manufacturer’s service maintenance manuals, and manufacturer’s spare parts list and spare ordering instructions

(d) Schedules of electrical equipment

(e) Schedules of mechanical equipments

(f) Test results and test certificates as called for under the contract the including any insurance or statutory inspection authority certificate

(g) Copies of guarantee certificates for plant and equipment and

(h) List of keys, tools and spare that is handed over.

LIST OF STANDARDS

The following list records those standards which are ‘accepted standard’ in the fulfillment of the requirements of the Code.  The latest version of the standard at the time of enforcement of the Code may be followed. The standards listed may be used by the Authority as a guide in conformance with the requirements of the referred clauses in the Code.

Sl No. Title
(1) 655-1963 Specification for metal air ducts (revised)
(2) 277-2003 Specification for galvanized steel sheet  (Plain and corrugated) (sixth revision)
(3) 737-1986 Specification for wrought aluminum alloy sheet and strip for general engineering purpose(third revision)
(4) 3103-1975 Code of practice for industrial ventilation (first revision) 
(5) 3315-1994 Specification for evaporative air coolers (desert coolers) (second revised)
(6) 1391 (Part1)  -1992 Specification for room air conditioners: Unitary air conditioners (second revised)
(7) (Part2)  -1992 Spilt air conditioners (second revised)
(8) 8148-2003 Specification for packaged air conditioners (first revised)
(9) 4831-1968 Recommendation on units and symbols for refrigeration
(10) 5-1994 Specification for colures for ready mixed paints and enamels (fourth revision)

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