A P P E N D I X
PROPOSED STANDARDS FOR DISPOSAL OF EFFLUENT INTO RIVER OR NEARBY CREEKS:
|PARAMETER MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
|Temperature 0o C max.
||5.5 - 9.0
|Total suspended solids max.
|Oil & Grease max.
|Biochemical Oxygen Demand(5 days at 20o C) max
|Chemical Oxygen Demand max.
|Ammonical Nitrogen (as N) max.
|Free Ammonia (as NH3) max.
|Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen(as N) max.
|Total Residual Chlorine max.
|Phenolic Compounds max.
|Total dissolved solids(inorganic)max.
|Cyanides (as CN) max.
|Fluorides (Total as F) max.
|Phosphate (as P) max.
|Sulphides (as S) max.
|Boron (as B)max.
|Arsenic (as Aso) max.
|Mercury (as Hg) max.
|Lead (as PB) max.
|Cadmium (as CD) max.
|Hexavalent Chromium (as Cr+6) max.
|Total Chromium (as Cr)max.
|Copper (as Cu) max.
|Zinc (as Zn) max.
|Selenium (as Se) max.
|Nickel (as Ni) max.
25 APPLICABILITY OF REGULATIONS
25.1These Regulations except Regulation No.26 apply to all new constructions to be carried out and shall also apply to any additions or alterations that may be made in any existing constructions and also in case of change of use in existing building. The Regulation No.26 shall apply to existing buildings.
25.2A person shall be deemed to do or omit or fail to do any act or thing who does or omits or fails to do such act or thing either in the capacity of an owner, agent of an owner, contractor, agent of a contractor, builder, agent of a builder, structural-designer, architect or engineer, , Clerk of Works or person-in-charge of any building operation.
25.3 Addition or extension to a buildingNo addition or extension to a building shall be allowed unless the addition or extension is such as would be permissible if the whole building were reconstructed from the plinth with the open spaces required under the Regulations applicable to the site of the building at the time of the proposed addition or extension and no addition or extension to a building shall be allowed which would diminish the extent of air space below the minimum which is required by the Regulations applicable to the site of the building at the time of the proposed addition or extension.
Safe guard against Reduction of open spaces :
No construction work on a building shall be allowed if such work operates to reduce an open air space of any other adjoining building belonging to the same owner to an extent less than what is prescribed by any of the Regulation in force at the time of the proposed work or to further reduce such open space if it is already less than what is prescribed.
25.4 Open space to be open to Sky :
Every open space, whether exterior or interior or a set-back provided in pursuance of any Regulation, or under an agreement lodged with the Authority shall be paved and be always kept free from any erection thereon and open to the sky, except 23 cms. cornice or 30 cms. eave or grill with opening not less than 8 X 8 cms. and no weather shade or other protection shall overhang or project over the said open space or over a side set-back so as to reduce the width to less than the minimum provided under these Regulations. No open drain except for rain-water shall be free structure in any open space required by these Regulations.
26 MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS
26.1 1)For the purpose of these Regulation, the building shall be divided into the following classes:
Class-1: All types of framed structures, factory buildings, cinema, auditorium and other public buildings, schools and college buildings, hostels.
Class-2: Masonary walled residential buildings constructed with more than ground + two floors.
2)It shall be the duty of the owner of a building to get his building examined by a registered structural designer at the interval of time prescribed hereunder and to submit a structural inspection report to the Authority in the Form No.11.
3)The interval at which such buildings are to be examined and a report submitted to Authority shall be as under:
a)Within three years from the coming into force of these Regulation and thereafter at the interval of every fifteen years from the date of submission of the first report for Class-I buildings which are erected fifteen years earlier from the date on which these Regulations has come into force or which becomes five years old thereafter.
b)Within five years from the coming into force of these Regulation and thereafter at the interval of every fifteen years from the date of submission of the first report for Class-II buildings which are erected fifteen years earlier from the date on which these Regulation has come into force or which become fifteen years old thereafter.
26.2 It shall be the duty of every owner to maintain and keep in working order the arrangement of internal fire hydrants, fire-lifts and fire-stair provided in his building. At intervals of not more than twelve months he shall submit a certificate from the Fire Department or Fire Consultant registered with appropriate authority certifying that the system of internal fire hydrant, fire lifts & fire stairs and other protections required are properly maintained and is in good working conditions.
27.1In the case of plot owned by : i) Competent Authority, ii)Government, iii)Housing Board, and iv)any corporate body constituted under a statute, the competent authority may for reasons to be recorded in writing relax or waive any of the regulations in the public interest. Provided that no relaxation or waive of any of the development regulations concerning maximum built-up-area on any floor, common plot, COP,marginal open space, provisions of high rise buildings, F.S.I. and parking shall be made, unless specifically provided in these Regulations.
27.2 Notwithstanding anything contained in foregoing Regulations of the Development Plan in case where these regulations cause hardships to the owners because of their application to the alterations not involving addition to the existing structures erected prior to the coming into force of these regulations, the Competent Authority after considering the merits of each individual case may relax or waive, for reasons to be recorded in writing and regulation of the Development Plan.Provided that this relaxation shall not be made in any regulations for high rise building.
27.3In the case of existing building units in respect of which the layout and sub-division may have been approved by a competent Authority or building units affected by road widening and by the Development Plan proposals made in the Development Plan, if the Competent Authority is of the opinion that such building units have become incapable of reasonable development unless all or any of the requirements of Regulations Nos.11 & 12 are suitably relaxed or waived the Competent Authority may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, relax the requirement of the above mentioned regulations.
Provided that no relaxation shall be made in any of the regulations for high rise buildings. Irrespective of provisions made in sub clause 27.1, 27.2 & 27.3, in case of development for religious building, e.g. temple, church, Mosque, Agiari etc. up to 0.6 or less F.S.I. only. Competent Authority may waive special provisions for high rise building with reasons to be recorded. Provided that no relaxation or waiver in anyof the regulations concern in margin, parking, open space, common plot and maximum built-up area shall be made.
28 TO PROVIDE FACILITIES FOR PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED PERSONS
28.1 SHORT TITLE, EXTENT & COMMENCEMENT
28.1.1These regulations shall apply to the buildings of Physically handicapped persons.
28.1.2They shall extend to the whole of Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority Area.
28.2.1 Non - ambulatory Disabilities Impairments that regardless of cause or manifestation, for all practical purposes confine individuals to wheel- chairs.
28.2.2 Semi-ambulatory DisabilitiesImpairments that cause individuals to walk with difficulty or insecurity. Individuals using braces or crutches, amputees arthritics, spastics, and those with pulmonary and cardiac ills may be semi- ambulatory.
28.2.3 Hearing Disabilities Deafness or hearing handicaps that might make an individual insecure in, public areas because he is unable to communicate or hear warning signals.
28.2.4 Sight Disabilities Total blindness or impairments affecting sight to the extent that the individual functioning in public areas is insecure or exposed to danger.
28.2.5 Wheel Chair Chair used by Disabled people for mobility. The standard size of wheel chair shall be taken as 1050x750 mm.
These regulations are applicable to all buildings and facilities used by the public. It does not apply to private & public residences.
Level of the roads, access paths and parking areas shall be described in the plan along with specification of the materials.
28.4.1Access Path / Walk Way:
Access path from the entry and surface parking to Building entrance shall be minimum of 1800mm. wide having even surface without any steps. Slope if any, shall not have gradient greater than 5%. Selection of floor material shall be made suitably to attract or to guide visually impaired persons (limited to coloured floor material whose colour and brightness is conspicuously different from that of the surrounding floor material or the material that emit different sound to guide visually impaired persons here in after referred to as "guiding floor material"(regulation no.28.6)”.Finishes shall have a non slip surface with a texture traversable by a wheel chair. Curbs wherever provided should blend to a common level.
For parking of vehicles of handicapped people the following provisions shall be made:
a) Surface parking for two car Spaces shall be provided near entrance for the physically handicapped persons with maximum travel distance of 30 Mts. from building .
b) The width of parking bay shall be minimum 3.60 metre.
c) The information stating that the space is reserved for wheel chair users shall be conspicuously displayed.
d) Guiding floor materials shall be provided or a device which guides visually impaired persons with audible signals or other devices which serves the same purpose shall be provided.
The specified facilities for the building for physically handicapped persons shall be as follows.
1. Approach to plinth level.
2. Corridor connecting the entrance/ exit for the handicapped.
3. Stair- ways.
6. Drinking water.
28.5.1Approach to plinth level:
Every building should have at least one entrance accessible to the handicapped and shall be indicated by proper signage. This entrance shall be approached through a ramp together with the stepped entry.
Ramp shall be finished with non slip material to enter the building minimum width of ramp shall be 1800 mm. with maximum gradient 1:12, length of ramp shall not exceed 9.0 Mts. having 800 mm high hand rail on both sides extending 300 mm. beyond top and bottom of the ramp. .Minimum gap from the adjacent wall to the hand rail shall be 50 mm.
For stepped approach size of tread shall not be less than 300 mm. and maximum riser shall be 150 mm. Provision of 800 mm. high hand rail on both sides of the stepped approach similar to the ramped approach.
28.5.1.(C)Exit / Entrance Door
Minimum clear opening of the entrance door shall be 900 mm. and it shall not be provided with a step that obstructs the passage of a wheel chair user. Threshold shall not be raised more than 12 mm.
28.5.1.(D) Entrance Landing:
Entrance landing shall be providing adjacent to ramp with the minimum dimension 1800x2000 mm. The entrance landing that adjoin the top end of a slope shall be provided with floor materials to attract the attention of visually impaired persons (limited to coloured floor material whose colour and brightness is conspicuously different from that of the surrounding floor material or the material that emit different sound to guide visually impaired persons hereinafter referred to as "guiding floor material"(regulation no.28.6 )”
i). Finishes shall have a non slip surface with a texture travarsable by a wheel chair. Curbs wherever provided should blend to a common level.
28.5.2 Corridor connecting the entrance / exit for the handicapped:
The corridor connecting the entrance / exit for handicapped leading directly outdoors to a place where information concerning the overall use of the specified building can be provided to visually impaired persons either by a person or by signs, shall be provided as follows:
a) "Guiding floor materials " shall be provided or devices that emit sound to guide visually impaired persons.
b) The minimum width shall be 1500 mm.
c)In case there is a difference of level slope ways shall be provided with a slope of 1:12.
d)Hand rails shall be provided for ramps / slope ways.
One of the stair - ways near the entrance / exist for the handicapped shall have the following provisions:
a)The minimum width shall be 1350 mm.
b)Height of the riser shall not be more than 150 mm and width of the tread 300 m. The steps shall not have abrupt( square) nosing.
c)Maximum number of risers on a flight shall limited to 12.
d)Hand rails shall be provided on both sides and shall extend 300 mm. on the top and bottom of each flight on steps.
wherever lift is required as per bye-laws, provision of at least one lift shall be made for the wheel chair user with the following cage dimensions of lift recommended for passenger lift of 13 persons capacity by bureau of Indian standards.
Clear internal depth :1100mm
Clear internal width : 2000mm. Entrance door width:900mm.
a) A hand rail not less than 600 mm. long at 1000 mm. above floor level shall be fixed adjacent to the control panel.
b) The lift lobby shall be of an inside measurement of 1800x1800 mm. or more.
c) The time of an automatically closing door should be minimum 5 seconds and the closing speed should not exceed 0.25 m/sec.
d) The interior of the cage shall be provided with a device that audibly indicates the floor the cage has reached and indicates that the door of the cage for entrance/exit is either open or closed.
One special W.C in a set of toilet shall be provided for the use of handicapped with essential provision of wash basin near the entrance for the handicapped.
a)The minimum size shall be 1000x1750 mm.
b)Minimum clear opening of the door shall be 900 mm. and the door shall be swing out
c)Suitable arrangement of vertical / horizontal hand rails with 50 mm clearance from wall shall be made in the toilet.
d)The W.C seat shall be 500 mm. from the floor.
28.5.6 Drinking Water:
Suitable provision of drinking water shall be made for the handicapped near the special toilet provided for them.
28.5.7 Designing for Children:
In the buildings meant for the predominant use of the children, it will be necessary to suitably alter the height of the hand- rail and other fittings & fixtures etc.
28.6 EXPLANATORY NOTES
GUIDING / WARNING FLOOR MATERIAL
The floor materials to guide or to warn the visually impaired persons with a change of colour or material with conspicuously different texture and easily distinguishable from the rest of the surrounding floor materials is called guiding or warning floor materials. The material with different texture gives audible signals with sensory warning when a person moves on this surface with walking stick. The guiding / warning floor material is meant to give the directional effect or warn a person at critical places. This floor material shall be provided in the following areas :-
a) The access path to the building and to the parking area.
b) The landing lobby towards the information board, reception, lifts, stair-cases and toilets .
c) Immediately at the beginning / end of walkway where there is a vehicular traffic.
d) At the location abruptly changing in level or ramp.
e) Immediately in front of an entrance / exit and the landing.
Appropriate identification of specific facilities within a building for the handicapped persons should be done with proper signage. Visually impaired persons make use of other senses such as hearing and touch to compensate for the lack of vision. Whereas visual signals benefit those with hearing disabilities.
Signs should be designed and located so that they are easily legible by using suitable letter size (not less than 20 mm. high) . For visually impaired persons information board in Braille should be installed on the wall at a suitable height and it should be possible to approach them closely. To ensure safe walking there should not be any protruding sign which creates obstruction in walking. Public Address System may also be provided in busy public areas.
The symbols /information should be in contrasting colour. and properly illuminated because people with limited vision may be able to differentiate amongst primary colours. International symbol mark for wheel chair as shown below be installed at the lift, toilet, staircase, parking areas etc., that have been provided
for the handicapped.
If any question or dispute arises with regard to interpretation of any of these regulations the decision of the Competent Authority shall be final.
(a) In conformity with the intent and spirit of these Regulations, the Competent Authority may :-
(i) Decide on matters where it is alleged that there is an error in any order, requirement, decision, determination made by any Competent Authority under delegation of powers in Regulations or interpretation in the application of these Regulations.
(ii ) Interpretation of road alignment as per site situation.
(iii) If a line of the zone divides a plot in to two different zone the approval in the land falling under non-permissive zone shall be given up to 25% of land subject to maximum area up to 1000 sq. mt. in respective permissible zone.
(iv) Authorize the erection of a building or the use of premises for a public service undertaking for public utility purposes only, where he finds such an authorization to be reasonably necessary for the public convenience and welfare, even if it is not permitted in any land use classification.
(b)In specific cases where a clearly demonstrable hardship is caused, the Competent Authority may for reasons to be recorded in writing, by special permission permit any of the dimension prescribed in these Regulations to be modified, except those relating to floor space Indices unless otherwise permitted under these regulations, provided that the relaxation that will not affect the health, safety, fire safety, structural safety and public safety of the inhabitants of the building and the neighbourhood.
29.3 APPEAL COMMITTEE
The authority shall form an appeal committee of
(1) Chairman A.U.D.A. (Chairman)
Any person contravening any of the aforesaid regulations or any of the provisions of the Development Plan shall on such contravention be liable to a punishment as provided in the Gujarat Town Planning & Urban Development Act-1976, and Rules framed thereunder as in force from time to time.
31 TREE PLANTATION
While applying for development permission, at the rate of 1 tree for every 100 sq.mts of building unit, shall have to be shown on the site plan/layout plan.The trees shall have to be guarded by the tree guards and shall be maintained.
32 ZONING AND USE PROVISIONS
The type of development in each land use zone shall be regulated as per Use Zone Table where ever permitted such zones and shall be applicable as per G.D.C.R. of other cities.
32.1 LAND USE ZONING IN HAZARD PRONE AREAS
In Natural Hazard prone areas namely the earthquake prone zones as per IS:1893, the cyclone prone areas as per IS:875 Part-3 and flood prone areas as per the Flood Atlas prepared by the Central Water Commission and/or the flood departments of the State, the development shall be regulated to ensure special protection from hazards for any type of development irrespective of use zone. Whereas the hazard prone areas identified as per the Vulnerability Atlas of India-1997 (or revisions thereof) prepared by Govt. of India or as may be prepared by State Government from time to time shall be used for such regulations, as given in Appendix-A. Further action for protection from these hazards is to be dealt with taking into consideration the Guidelines givenin Appendix-B.
USE ZONE TABLE :
||Type of development for which the zone is primarily intended
||Type of development which may be permitted by Competent Authority.
||Type of development which may not be permitted.
(a) Residential Zone-I
(b) Residential Zone-II
|a) Residential Dwellings, Play fields, gardens, gymnasium, swimming pool etc. b)Pre-primary and primary schools, dispensary, clinic, maternity home, pathological laboratory.
c)The part of residential building may be permitted to use as office in case of professional requirements such as advocates ,doctors, architects ,engineers
,chartered accountants etc. bank, public buildings, educational institutions, such as secondary, high school, college, technical and vocational educational institutions, research institutions, library, community hall, auditorium, town hall.
(d)Cottage industries not involving use of or installation of any machinery driven by power of any kind and which do not create noise, vibration, fume dust etc. provided that such home occupations and cottage industries shall
not be permissible in the tenement dwellings or flats, service establishment (residential) light home workshop etc. lodging house boarding house,etc.
Shopping/Commercial Centre, restaurants, hotel, hostels, indoor hospital, nursing home, surgical hospital etc. subject to provisions of regulation no:12.1
|a) L.P.G., Cylinder delivery centre for the domestic consumption, coal depot, etc. on ground floor of building used for permissible non- residential use.
, club house, wadi, party plot, petrol pump with or without service station, garages etc.
b) Development Activities related to tourism sponsored / recommended by tourism Department of Government.
Development activities related to Information Technology.
The above uses shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of regulation No.12.1
|Obnoxious and hazardous uses, steel stock yard, truck terminal, saw mill, timber mart, ice factory and cold storage, junk yard, non-obnoxious and non-hazardous industries, wholesale market, ware houses, storage of perishable and inflammable goods, hospital for infectious and contagious diseases, mental hospital, jail etc.
||a)All permissible non- residential uses in residential zone may be permitted in a residential dwelling only on ground floor or any other floor with separate means of access/staircase.
b) Club house, party plot, wadi, community hall, auditorium, town hall, public assembly shall be permitted as specified in note under this table.
||Residential Zone – III
||Individual houses, residence, educational and cultural uses, public utility services.
All uses mentioned in Col.4 of zone at Sr.No.1
||The minimum size of the (individual residential) plot shall be 1000 sq mt. Permissible height of building shall be G+1 floors or 7mts.
F.S.I. shall be 0.30 Maximum built up area shall be 15%.
||Walled City, Village & Gamtal
||All uses mentioned in Col. 3 of zone at Sr. No.1.
||All uses mentioned in Col. 5 of zone at Sr. No. 1, college, community hall, auditorium, town hall, vocational and technical education institutions, Cinema Theater, starred hotel, coal depot, storage of perishable and inflammable goods, Petrol pump, filling station or filling cum service station.
||As mentioned Col. 6 of zone at Sr. No.1.
Note: (1) No development of non- residential building except dispensary and domestic flour-factory shall be permitted on roads having width less than 7.5 mts.
Commercial zone –I
|Retail commercial use such as Retail shops, Restaurants, Boardings, lodging, Hostels, Maternity homes, Clinic / Commercial Centre, professional office, Banks, Hotels, Public Buildings, Educational Institutions such as secondary high schools, colleges, technical & vocational educational Institutions, libraries, Indoor hospitals, Nursing Homes, Service Establishment, Club House, Community Hall, Wadi, Party Plot, Town hall, Petrol Pump with or without service stations, garage and light home workshops and cottage industries not involving use of or installation of any machinery driven by power of any machinery driven by power of any kind and which do not create noise, vibration, fume dust etc.,
L.P.G. cylinder delivery centre for domestic consumption, coal depot etc. on ground floor or building used for permissible non-residential uses. Wholesale market and their ancillary uses, ice factory and cold storage, ware houses, godowns, transport terminal for goods and passengers, kerosene depot, steel stock yard.
|Cinema, video hall, news paper, printing press, Timber Stock yard (lati), Junk Yard (Kabadi), Saw Mill, residential dwelling.
Provided that some home occupations and cottage industries shall not be permissible in the tenement dwellings or flats.
Development activities related to tourism, sponsored/recommended by tourism corporation of Government Development activities related to Information Technology.
|Obnoxious and hazardous uses, and non-hazardous industries, hospitals for infectious and contagious diseases, mental hospital, jail.
||Residential use is permitted but regulations of commercial development shall be applicable.
|All uses mentioned in Col. 3 and 4 of zone at Sr. no. 1 use excluding residential. Wholesale market and their ancillary uses, ice factory and cold storage, ware houses, godowns, transport terminal for goods and passengers, kerosene depot, steel stock yard, timber stock yard (lati), Junk yard (kabadi), saw mill, stone cutting and polishing industries. LPG Cylinder storage depot, storage of permissible goods.
||Development activities related to tourism sponsored/recommended by tourism corporation of Government building, Residential Dwellings.
||Obnoxious and hazardous uses, non-obnoxious and non-hazardous industries, hospitals for infections and contiguous diseases, mental hospital, jail.
||Residential use is permitted but regulations of commercial development shall be applicable.
||Predominantly light industrial zone.
||All types of light industriesservice industries,workshops, newspapeofficeswith printing press and necessary uses, small factories, ware house shops co-operative stores, wholesale business and godowns, business buildings, commercial establishments, hotels and restaurants stone cutting and polishing. Residential buildings for industrial workers and or other public utility service. Public buildings, public utility service buildings, place of public entertainment. Technical institutions for research and development pertaining to concerned industries.
Medical Centres. Transport terminals for goods and passengers, petrol pumps with garages and service stations, parking taxies, scooter and cycle stand, junk yard.
Development activities related to tourism sponsored recommended by tourism corporation of Government.
Recreational use and open space.
|Storage of perishable and inflammable goods, saw mill.
Development activities related to Information Technology.
|Obnoxious & hazardous industries general industries. Residential all other uses not mentioned col. No 3 & 4.
||Existing non conforming development of col. 6 to be discontinued after the end of useful life of the building
||General Industrial Zone.
||All Industries except obnoxious and hazardous industries as mentioned in Appendix-A.
Development activities related to tourism sponsored/recommended by tourism corporation of Government.
|a) Storage of inflammable goods, residential dwelling only for industrial workers and other public utility service staff working within the industrial premises, querying of gravel, sand, clay and stone. Dumping of solid industrial wastes (subject to N.O.C. and conditions laid down by Pollution Control Board).
b) All uses mentioned in Column (4) of zone at Sr. No. 1
|Obnoxious and hazardous industries, mental hospital, hospital for infectious & contiguous diseases, jail, dwelling except mentioned in Col. 4 of this zone.
||If mixed development is asked regulations relating to commercial development shall be applicable.
||Special Industrial Zone Or (obnoxious and hazardous industrial zone)
||All obnoxious and hazardous industries as mentioned in Appendix - A, storage of inflammable goods.
||Residential dwelling only for industrial worker and other public utility services staff working within the industrial premises. Quarrying of gravel, sand clay and stone.
Dumping of solid industrial wastes (subject to N.O.C. and conditions laid down by Pollution Control Board)
|Residential dwelling except mentioned in Col. 4 of this zone. Hospital for infectious and contagious diseases, mental hospital, jail.
||Schools, Colleges, Educational Buildings, research institutions, hostels, boarding houses, staff quarters,
Banks, canteens, sports complex gymnasium, dispensary, auditorium, library.
|Retail shops & restaurants as a part of educational institute.
Development activities related to Information Technology.
|All other uses not mentioned in Col. 3 and Col.4.
||The built-up area shall not exceed 30% of the area of the building Unit/Plot.
||Hospital, Nursing Home, Doctor’s clinic, Dispensary, Maternity home, X- ray clinic, Radiology centre, Diagnostic centre, Blood Bank , Pathology laboratory, Medical research centre, Health treatment centre, Medical staff hostels, Staff quarters, Canteens, as a part of Medical institute, Medicine shops, Health instrument shops, Library, Surgical hospital, Centre for Health care related activities.
||Bank & Restaurant as a part of Medical institute, Auditorium for hospital use. Development activities related to Information Technology.
||All other uses not mentioned in col.3.
||Allied uses (Canteen, Medicine shops etc.) other than Medical treatment facility should be in accordance with the requirement of particular Medical centre/ Hospital etc.
||Transport Node (T.N.)
||Transport terminal for goods and passengers ,warehouses, godowns
,kerosene depot, steel stock yard, timber stock yard, parking lots, public building.
|Ancillary uses related to Transport terminals ,godowns, restaurants, Hotels, shops, cinema, shopping centre.
Development activities related to tourism sponsored/ recommended by toursim corporation of Government. Development activities related to Information Technology.
|All other uses not mentioned in col.3 and col.4, Obnoxious and hazardous uses, non- obnoxious and non- hazardous industries, hospital for infectious and contagious diseases, mental hospital ,jail,
||1) Recreation of any type,
Residential accommodation and shops incidental to recreation, aquarium, natural reserve and sanctuary race track, shooting range, zoo, nursery, stadium, botanical garden, planetarium, amusement park, swimming pool, exhibition and mela, drive-in-cinema,
motion picture hall, cinema, restaurants, party plots, recreational use of water park.
|Farm houses, educational and Medical institutions (excluding infectious and contagious diseases, mental hospital) Hotels as per norms notified by the tourism Corporation of Gujarat.
Development activities related to Information Technology.
|All other uses not mentioned in Col. 3 & 4.
1) More than one farm house may be permitted provided the minimum area required for farm house is satisfied as mentioned in Col. 3, at Sr. No. 12.
2) Building to be constructed at a distance of not less than 30 mts.
from the road, on which it abuts.
3) The built up area (ground coverage) shall not exceed 15% of the plot area.
4) The maximum
permissible FSI shall not exceed 0.25.
||Horticulture, poultry keeping subject to the N.O.C./approval and conditions laid down by the Department of poultry, Dairy Development, fisheries, animal rearing and breeding, open storage of drying manure. Farm house located in land of not less than 4000 sq. Mts., Camp for recreation of any type natural reserves and sanctuaries, race track, shooting range, zoo, nursery, stadium, botanical garden, agricultural equipment, repair of tools and equipment of agricultural use, tannery, saw mill, timber depot, uses pertaining to processing of agro/farm/milk products, institutional uses, vocational training centre, for agriculture purposes wayside shops, restaurant, ice factory & cold storage, godowns and warehouses subject to N.O.C./approval & conditions laid down by warehousing corporation/ FCI/ Appropriate Govt./ Semi Govt.
Department, hospital for infectious and contiguous diseases, mental hospital and sanitarium subject to NOC/Approval and conditions laid
down by Civil Surgeon. Petrol pump with or without service station, garages, and workshop, Studio, roofing tiles and cement pipes, brick kiln, mining and quarrying, cemetery and burial ground, jail. Camp, for recreation of any type, club, aquarium,
, planetarium, amusement park. Development activity related to tourism sponsored/recommended by tourism Department of the Government.
1)Recreation of any type, Residential accommodation and shops incidental to recreation, aquarium, Natural reserve and sanctuary race track, shooting range, zoo, nursery, stadium, botanical garden, planetarium, amusement park, swimming pool, exhibition and
mela, drive- in -cinema, motion picture hall, cinema, restaurants, party plots, recreational use of water park, Resorts, hotels and Motels as per norms notified by the tourism corporation of Gujarat.
|Slaughter house, touring cinema, drive- in-cinema, storage of inflammable materials and explosive goods subject to NOC/Approval and conditions laid down by concerned department/ authority dealing with such work.
Dumping of solid industrial waste subject to N.O.C. and conditions laid down by Pollution Control Board.
Institutional Buildings, govt., semi govt. buildings, Buildings of public sector undertakings, Garden houses, petrol filling station, educational and Medical institutions(excluding infectious and contagious diseases, mental hospitals), Training and research centres, building for autonomous bodies related to their activities statutory organisations, convention centres.
Development activities related to Information Technology.
|All other uses not mentioned in Col. 3 and Col. 4.
All other uses not mentioned in Column. No.3 and 4.
|1) Building to be constructed at a distance of not less than 30 Mts. from the road, on which it abuts.
2) Built-up area (ground coverage) Permissible.
a) For farm house it shall not exceed 5% of the land area with maximum permissible height 7.5 mts.
b) Agrobased uses activities for this zoning regulation, ground coverage shall not exceed 5% of the land area with Maximum permissible height 7.5 mts.
In case of public and semi-public uses and buildings of charitable & religious purposes the competent authority may permit development activities to the extent of 15% of the land area with
maximum permissible eight 10 mts. The above restriction of built up area shall not apply to the following uses subject to maximum ground coverage of 15 % of the land with maximum permissible height 10 mts.
i) Education, Hospital for infectious and contiguous disease, mental hospital, sanitarium.
iii) Transport nagar & truck terminal.
iv) Slaughter house, cold storage.
v) Govt./Semi-Govt./ FCI godowns and warehouses and Charitable Trust.
vi) Development Activities related to tourism approved by tourism Department of Government. c) Only basement, and Ground floor, and first floor structure may be permitted, however, the structure for storage of inflammable material and explosive goods shall be single storied only.
4) For poultry farm, sheds of floor height upto 0 Mts. at the ridge level of the roof with perforated jali on all sides, maximum 25% ground coverage shall be permitted.
(5)No sub-division of land shall be allowed. (d)A comprehensive lay- out plan of 50 Hectors and above area shall be permitted as per the provisions of residential zone-II provided in case of sub-ploting of building unit the minimum area of sub-plot shall not be less than 1000 smt
(i)Maximum height of the buildings shall not be more than 7.5mt.
(ii)Maximum built up area at any floor shall not be more than 20%.
||Village Extension Area (Villages/ Gamtal falling within agricultural zone only for natural growth of the village)
||All uses of residential zone permitted in Col. 3 at Sr. No.1.
||All uses of residential zone permitted in Col. 4 at Sr. No. 1, Cinema, Light industries, medium industries.
||All uses mentioned in Col. 5 of residential zone at Sr. No. 1.
||For natural growth of village
1) Village extension area around existing gamtal/ gamtalav and adjoining the existing Gamtal limit will be for development of the respective village for its natural growth.
2) For the natural growth of the villages, the development permission for uses mentioned in Col. 3 and 4 of Sr. No. 1 may be permitted in area adjoining existing villages in revenue survey nos. outside existing gamtal within -
a) 200 Mt. from the limits of existing gamtal/gamtalav and adjoining the existing Gamtal limit
3) Provisions of regulation no.11 and 12 shall be applied excluding the provisions as mentioned in addition to the above conditions, other development control regulations mentioned in these
regulations , shall be applicable for the development.
||1) Garden and Open Space
2) Development of park and forest and allied uses.
|No development activity shall be permitted in areas designated as open space in the Development plan.
||1) Open space along the right bank of the river Sabarmati from Sardar Bridge upto the site of recreation ground, upper floors are permitted on the existing authorised buildings and development as per serial no. 1 of use zone table is permitted on hollow plinth of 3.0 mt clear height subject to these regulations.
2) No development except garden and allied activities.
||Flood Control area(NID circle to Vasna Barrage approach)
||All uses mentioned in col.3 of zone at Sr.No.1.
||Shopping/commercial centre, hotel, hostels, lodging house,boarding house, nursing home.
||All uses mentioned in Col.3 and 4 at Sr. No. 1.
||1 No cellar shall be permitted.
2 Construction is permitted only on hollow plinth .
The grant of development certificate shall be subject to the following conditions when a development certificate is required for the plots located on down-stream Sardar Bridge and ground level of which is below 139 R.L.
(a) The soil bearing capacity shall be considered as 10 metric tones/sq.mt.
(b) The minimum depth of foundation shall be 2 mts.
(c) The plinth of the building shall not be lower than 139 R.L.
||Science city and Science Park
||Use as may be prescribed by Gujarat Council of Science City from time to
||1) Use related to health, education, communication, safety and security, social and cultural activities, recreational, public utility services and allied activity like housing, commercial, etc. related to principal activity.
2) Maximum permissible built up area of allied activities shall be to the extent of 25% of built up area of principal activity subject to
||All other uses not mentioned in Col.3&4
Uses as and when required bythe Competent Authority.
||Service and Institutional Purpose.
||Government and semi Government buildings and their activities, Autonomous bodies and public sector undertaking buildings and activities like G.H.B. university, L.I.C. and
Non government organisation buildings, Registered charitable trust building or education, medical, health, religious and public welfare activities. Development activities related to
tourism, sponsored/ recommended by tourism corporation of Government
|Building of Public Utility and Services and assembly buildings including swimming pool, auditorium, club, stadium, theatre etc
Open space proposed for party and marriage ceremony and amusement and recreational activities.
Office buildings, business building and mercantile building.
|All other uses not mentioned in column 3 and column 4.
1) Public Utility Services buildings which shall include buildings or works developed or undertaken by the Govt./ Semi-Govt. or Public Undertaking only, such as sub-station, and receiving station of the Electricity Board, Building for infrastructure facilities like bus service, water supply, drainage, sanitation, domestic garbage disposal, pumping station, electricity, purification plant, police building, post & telegraph and telecommunication, public urinals, milk , octroi and public telephone booth, fire brigade station, ward and zonal offices of appropriate authority, taxies, scooter and cycle stand and parking plot, garden, nursery, playground and open spaces, canal, communication network, first aid medical centre, primary health centre, dispensary, library, reading room and religious buildings/places of public worship shall not exceed 10% of plot area.
2) Twenty Percent area of the "open space plots" provided under T.P.Schemes may be utilised for the construction with required margins for the common/institutional/community use having basement, ground floor or a floor on stilt only. In addition to the stair cabins and ramps, 5% of the permissible built-up area of this plot shall be allowed to be built-up on for the construction of storm room, chawkidar room, toilet etc. at the ground level, in case the building is constructed on stilt. The rest of the "Open Space Plot" shall be kept open to sky.
3 For Railway Container Depot the permission shall be issued for development for structures for Railway department.
4) No development shall be permitted in area designated for water body, pond and talav in development plan excluding Sabarmati Riverfront scheme.
5) The land designated under section 12 (2) (0) of the act for agricultural produce market, Hindustan Petroleum Ltd. and telephone exchange, the uses shall be permissible as per the requirements of concerned departments.
6) Development as mentioned in Col.3 & 4 may be permitted only on roads as specified in regulation No.12.1.
7)The religious building shall be permitted in all use zone with consent of the competent authority
8) Permission for clubs, wadies and party plots shall be permitted only if it is comply with following requirements:
a)Minimum Building Unit required is 2000 sq mts.
b) It shall be permitted on roads having width of 18.00 mts Or more
c)A garbage container of minimum 4.00 tones capacity with 6.00 mts X 7.50 mts paved area shall be provided for garbage disposal abutting the road.
d) All necessary permissions and N.O.C. shall be obtained from relevant offices before commencing the use.
e) To see that the place is used according to the provision of this regulation, Competent Authority can collect security deposit from the plot owner as may be decided by the Competent Authority
1. LIGHT INDUSTRY :
Light Industry means an industry in which the processes are carried out without detriment to the neighboring residential areas by reason of noise, vibration, smell, fumes, smoke, soot, ash, dust or grit. It will be subject to the following restrictions:
i) Power used will be electrical.
ii) Maximum power used will be 10 KW which may be enhanced upto 25 KW by the Competent Authority in special case of genuine expansion of existing factory which may have reached the maximum limit of power.
iii) Maximum floor space occupied should be 500 Sq.Mts.
iv) It will be housed in a building suitable for the purpose. However, it shall not include the following industries:
Manufacture or refining of ammonia, bleaching powder, chlorine, asphalt, brick, terra-cotta, gypsum, lime, plaster of Paris, coke, creosote, exctrain, glucose, starch, dye, explosive of fire works or storage thereof in excess of 50 Kg. fertilizers, gas (fuel or illuminating) in excess of three hundred cubic Mt., gelatine or glue or zie from fish or animal refuse or offal, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulphuric or sulphurous acid, lead black, linoleum or oil cloth, matches, pyrexylin or articles thereof or storage in excess of 250 Kg. rubber or treatment thereof involving offensive odour, tar, turpentine or Blast furnace, coal or junk yard, distillation of bores, coal weed or tar or manufacture of any of their distilled products, drop forsages, fat grease lard of fallow manufactures, refining or rendering lout or grist mill, hot rolling mill, incineration, reduction, or dumping of dead animals, garbage or refuse except when accumulated and consumed on the same premises without the emission of odour, production or refining or storage above ground of petroleum or other inflammable liquids except heating fuels, slaughtering of animals, tanning or curing or storage of raw hides and skins, tire recapping
2. SERVICE ESTABLISHMENT (RESIDENTIAL) :
The Service Establishment wherein the work done or the machinery installed in such as would render service to the local residents and would satisfy their day-to-day residential needs and which does not create
nuisance to the surrounding development in terms of noise dust and air pollution. It will be subject to the following restrictions:
i) Power used will be electrical.
ii) Maximum power used to be 10 KW for residential zone and not more than 25 KW in commercial zone.
iii) Maximum floor space occupied will be 50 sq.mts.
iv) It shall be detached and housed in a shop or a building specially designed for the purpose. Such establishment may be petrol pumps, service station, flour mill, bakery, laundry, air compressor unit, electrical motors, optical repair and watch repair shops, repair of musical instruments, carpentry, book-binding, printing press, paper-cutting, water cooling, and juice extracting units, black-smithy, vulcanizing, motor winding, cutting and nut cutting units etc.
3. LIGHT HOME WORKSHOPS :-
Light Home Workshop means a workshop wherein the work done or the machinery installed is such as could be done or installed in any residential area without detriment to the neighborhood by means of noise, vibration, smell, fumes, smoke, soot, ash, dust or grit etc.
It will be subject to the following restrictions:
i) Power used will be electrical.
ii) Maximum power used will be 1.5 KW.
iii) Maximum floor space occupied will be 20 sq.mts.
iv) It will be worked by the members of the family.
LAND USE ZONING IN HAZARD PRONE AREAS – GUIDELINES (Regulation No. 32.1)
1.1 The basic objective of land use zoning is to regulate land use in hazard prone areas to minimise the damage caused to the habitat, as a result of natural hazards viz. earthquakes, cyclonic storms and floods which recur from time to time. Land Use Zoning, therefore, aims at determining the locations and the extent of areas likely to be adversely affected by the hazards of different intensities and frequencies, and to develop such areas in a fashion that the loss to the development is reduced to the minimum.
1.2 Land Use Zoning envisages certain restrictions on the indiscriminate development of the "unprotected" hazard prone areas and to specify conditions for safer development by protecting the area from severe losses. In the former case, boundaries of different zones
are to be established to prevent unrestricted growth there
2.1Areas covered under Development Plan
The guidelines for Land Use Zoning in Hazard Prone Areas are to be taken into consideration while formulating the Development Plan and Area Plan under the Town Planning and Urban Development Act.
2.2Areas not covered under Development Plan
In such areas, these guidelines may be issued to the various local bodies, Municipalities, Individual Areas and Panchayats, enabling them to act while siting various development projects and deciding on construction of buildings, etc.
3 IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARD PRONE AREAS
3.1Earthquake Prone Areas
a. Intensities of VII or more on Modified Mercalli or MSK intensity scale are considered moderate to high. Areas under seismic zone III, IV and V as specified in IS 1893 are based on intensities VII, VIII, IX or more. Therefore, all areas in these three zones will be considered prone to earthquake hazards.
b. In these zones the areas which have soil conditions including the level of water table favourable to liquefaction or settlements under earthquake vibrations will have greater risk to buildings and structures which will be of special consideration under Land Use Zoning.
cUnder these zones, those hilly areas which are identified to have poor stability conditions and where landslides could be triggered by earthquake or where due to prior saturated conditions, mud flow could be initiated by earthquakes and where avalanches could be triggered by earthquake will be specially risk prone.
d.Whereas, earthquake hazard prone areas defined in 'a' above are identified on the
map given in IS 1893 to small scale and more easily identified in the larger scale statewise maps given in the Vulnerability Atlas of India, the special risky areas as defined in 'b' and 'c' above, have to be determined specifically for the planning area under consideration through special studies to be carried out by geologists and geo-technical engineers.
3.2 Cyclone Prone Areas
a. Areas prone to cyclonic storms are along the sea coast of India where the cyclonic wind velocities of 47 meter per second or more are specified in the Wind Velocity Map given in IS 875 (part 3) to a small scale and easily identified in the Vulnerability Atlas of India where the Maps are drawn statewise to a larger scale.
b. In these cyclone prone areas, those areas which are likely to be subjected to heavy rain induced floods or to flooding by sea-water under the conditions of storm surge, are specially risky due to damage by flood flow and inundation under water.
c. Whereas, areas under 'a' are easily identified, those with special risk as under 'b' have to be identified by special contour survey of the planning area under consideration and study of the past flooding and storm surge history of the area. These studies may have to be carried out through the Survey of India or locally appointed survey teams, and by reference to the Central Water Commission, Government of India and the concerned department of Gujarat State.
3.3 Flood Prone Areas
a. The flood prone areas in river plains (unprotected and protected by bunds) are indicated in the Flood Atlas of India prepared by the Central Water Commission and reproduced on larger scale in the statewise maps in the Vulnerability Atlas of India.
b.Besides the above areas, other areas can be flooded under conditions of heavy intensity rains, inundation in depressions, backflow in drains, inadequate drainage, failure of protection works, etc.
c. Whereas, the flood prone areas under 'a' are identified on the available maps as indicated, the areas under 'b' have to be identified through local contour survey and study of the flood history of the planning area. Such studies may be carried out through Survey of India or local survey teams, and by reference to the Central Water Commission and the concerned department of Gujarat State.
3.3. Land Use Zoning for Flood Safety
Some important considerations for regulating the land use in the planning areas are given below:i.Every settlement needs some open areas such as parks, play-grounds, gardens etc. In one way it will be possible to develop such areas by restricting anybuilding activity in vulnerable areas. Such a development will be in the interest of providing proper environment for the growth of such settlement.
ii.On the same analogy, certain areas on either side of the existing and proposed drains (including rural drains) should be declared as green belts where no building or other activity should be allowed. This will not only facilitate improvements of these drains in future for taking discharges on account of growing urbanisation, but will also help in minimising the damage due to drainage congestion wherever rainfall of higher frequency than designed is experienced. These green belts at suitable locations can also be developed as parks and gardens.
iii. In the existing developed areas, possibilities of protecting/ relocation/ exchanging the sites of vital installation like electricity sub-station/power houses, telephone exchange, etc. should be seriously examined, so that these are always safe from possible flood damage. Similarly, the pump station the tubewells meant for drinking water supply should be raised above the high flood levels.
iv.Similarly, possibility of removing or bypassing buildings/structures obstructing existing natural drainage lines should be seriously considered. In any case, with immediate effect unplanned growth can be restricted so that no construction obstructing natural drainage or resulting in increased flood hazard is allowed.
4.APPROACH FOR LAND USE ZONING
Following two alternatives can be adopted for dealing with the disaster risk problems.
aLeaving the area unprotected. In this case it will be necessary to specify Land Use Zoning for various development purposes as recommended under Para 6.
b. Using protection methods for the areas as a whole or in the construction of buildings, structures and infrastructure facilities to cater for the hazard intensities likely in the planning area as recommended under Appendix-B.
It will be appropriate to prioritise buildings, structures and infrastructures in terms of their importance from the point of view of impact of damage on the socio-economic structure of the society. Prioritisation scheme is suggested under Para 5.
In regard to Land Use Zoning, different types of buildings and utility services may be grouped under three priorities as indicated below.
Priority 1. Defence installation, industries, public utilities like hospitals, electricity installations, water supply, telephone exchange, aerodromes, railway stations, commercial centres, libraries, other buildings or installations with contents of high economic value.
Priority 2. Public institutions, Government offices, universities and residential areas. Priority 3. Parks, play grounds, wood lands, gardens
6. REGULATION FOR LAND USE ZONING
Appendix - B
PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS STRUCTURES AND INFRASTRUCTURES IN HAZARD PRONE AREAS
(Building Regulation No. 32.1)
A.PROTECTION OF AREAS FROM EARTHQUAKES
i. In those areas where there are no dangers of soil liquefaction or settlements or landslides, all building structures and infrastructures should be designed using the relevant Indian Standards as provided in the Building Regulations and the National Building Code
ii Soils subjected to liquefaction potential under earthquake shaking, can be improved by compaction to desired relative densities, so as to prevent the possibility of liquefaction.
iii. Buildings and structures could be founded on deep bearing piles going to non-liquefiable dense layers.
iv. Steep slopes can be made more stable by terracing and construction of retaining walls and breast walls, and by ensuring good drainage of water so that the saturation of the hill-slope is avoided.
iii. other appropriate engineering intervention to save the building structures or infrastructure from the fury of the earthquake.
Note The protective action given under (ii) to (v) will usually involve large amount of costs and should only be considered in the case of large and costly structures. For ordinary buildings the cost of improvement of the site will usually be uneconomical, hence bad sites should be excluded by Land Use Zoning.
B.PROTECTION FROM CYCLONIC WIND DAMAGE
i.Buildings, structures and infrastructures in the cyclone prone areas should be designed according to the Indian Standards and Guidelines as provided in the Regulations and the National Building Code.
ii. Light utility structures used for electrical transmission and distribution, and towers for communications, chimney stacks of industrial structures require special design considerations against the cyclonic wind pressures, suctions and uplifts.
iii.In case the buildings, structures and infrastructures are founded on marine clay deposits it will be advisable to adopt either under-reamed piled foundations, or individual column footing with a reinforced concrete beam located at the level of the ground, or a continuous reinforced concrete strip footing.
iv. Wherever, the top soil could become slushy due to flooding, the top layer of 30 cm depth of soil should not be considered for providing lateral stability
v. In storm surge prone areas, it will be preferable to construct the community structures, like schools, cyclone shelters, etc. by raising the level of the ground protected by provision of retaining walls at sufficient distance away from the building, taken to such depth that no erosion takes place due to receding storm surge. Alternatively, construct the community structures on stilts with no masonry or bracing upto the probable maximum surge level.
LIST OF OBNOXIOUS AND HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIE
||CHEMICAL INDUSTRY :-
Inorganic Manufacturing Industries :
Acids, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid (glacial) picric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, etc.
Alkalis, caustic soda, caustic potash, soda ash etc.
Production of mineral salts which involves use of acids.
Carbon disulphide, ultramarine blue, chlorine, hydrogen.
Organic Manufacturing Industries :
Dyes and dyestuff intermediate manufacture.
Synthetic plastic like polyethylene P.V.C. rexin, raisin nylon.
Insecticides, fungicides and pesticides. Phenoils and related industries based on coal tar distillations.
Organic solvents, chlorinated minerals, methanol, methylated spirits.
Manufacture of compressed `Permanent’ liquified and dissolved gases.
Acetylides pyridines, lotoform. B-Nepthol etc.
Electro-thermal industries such as manufacture of calcium carbide, phosphorous, aluminum dust, paste, powder, copper, zinc etc.
Fire hazards, offensive fumes and smokes.
Fire hazards, corrosive substances.
Risk of fire, dust and fumes.
|Washer water is acidic contain quantities of sluge.
Distillates from reaction vessels, fire risk also.
Liquid effluents with unpleasant smell.
Unpleasant smell and dust; fire hazards. Risk of fire.
Fire hazards, unpleasant smell
Risk of fire.
Risk of fire, smell.
Risk of fire.
Ammonium Sulpho-cyanide, arsenic and its compound, barium acetates, barium bodies, barium carbonate, barium cyanide, barium ethylsuphate, barium acetate, cinnabar copper sulphocyanide, Ferrocyanides, nitrocyanic acid, pottassium cyanide etc.
Manufacture of cellulosic products : rayon fibre, waster products, rayophans
paper etc. cellulose, nitrate, celluoid articles, scrap & solution.
Paints, enamels, colours, varnish (other than Litho Varnish) and Varnish remover of all kinds.
Turpentine & turpentine substitutes. Matches.
Printin ink. Industrial alcohol.
Manufacture of newsprint.
Petroleum Products :
Crude oil refining, processing & cracking, petroleum jelly, neptha cracking, including gas cracking for any purpose.
Carbon black manufacture and black of all kinds.
Petroleum coke usage for graphite production.
Lubricating & fuel oils & other oils such as schise oil, shale oil etc.
Reclamation of rubber andproduction of tyres, rubber solutions containing mineral neptha and rubber waste.
|Heavy Engineering & Forgoing shops: Using steam & power hammers & heavy metal forgings.
Wood & Wood Products : Distillation of Wood.
Oil sheets & waterproof clothing
a) Wool spinning.
|Noise, vibration & smoke.
|Clean rags (not including clean textiles cutting only) and grassy rags.
Flax yarn & other fiber.
Textile finishing, bleaching and dyeing.
Vegetable oils. Abottories.
Alcohol distilleries and breweries & potanis spirit.
Manufacture of aircraft, locomotives, tractors etc.
|Wool washing liquors containing certain impurities.
Waste water containing acid etc.
Noise, unpleasant smell.
Water, water with obnoxious smell. Oxygen causing unpleasant smell, noise, fire hazards.
Unpleasant smell, fire hazards.
Smoke and noise.