DOORS AND WINDOWS



DOORS AND WINDOWS

The main function of a door in a building is to serve as a connecting link between the internal parts and to allow free movement to the outside of the building. Windows are generally provided for the proper ventilation and lighting of a building and their size and number should be properly determined as per the requirements. The requirements for wooden, steel, aluminium, PVC doors and windows are given in thissection.

1. TIMBER

 The timber shall be free from decay, fungal growth, boxed heart, pitchpockets or streaks on the exposed edges, splits and cracks. The timber shall be graded as first grade and second grade on the basis ofthe permissible defects in the timber as given in Appendix A (Clause 9.1) of CPWDSpecifications 2009.

1.1 Moisture content

 Control on moisture content of timber is necessary to ensure its properutility in various climatic conditions. For specifying the permissible limit ofmoisture content in the timber the country has been divided into fourclimatic zones.Moisture content of timber shall be checked for every 1 m3 or part thereof byelectrical moisture meters as per IS: 287.

Table: Maximum permissible moisture content of timber

Sl.No

Use

Zone-I

Zone-II

Zone-III

Zone-IV

1

Beams, Rafters & Posts

12

14

17

20

2

Doors and Windows:

i) Thickness 50mm and above

ii) Thinner than 50 mm

 

10

8

 

1

1

 

14

12

 

16

14

3

Flooring strips

8

1

10

12

4

Furniture and cabinet making

10

12

14

15

 

NOTE: Zones I, II, II and IV represents various regions in India which are

                                                                

1.2 Seasoning of timber
  1. The process of drying timber under controlled conditions is called seasoning of timber. Timber shall be either air seasoned or kiln seasoned and in both cases moisture content of the seasoned timber shall be as specified in table 700-1. Unless otherwise specified, air seasoned timber shall be used. Kiln seasoning of timber, where specified, shall be done as per IS: 1141 in a plant approved by the Engineer.
  2. Preservative treatment of timber shall be done as per IS: 401 in a plant approved by the Engineer.

1.3 Quality control tests

Test

Code

Moisture content

(Laboratory / field)

IS:287

Standard sizes of door frames are covered in IS: 4021 and IS: 4351.Window and ventilator shutters shall conform to IS: 1003 (Part 2).

2.  FLUSH DOOR SHUTTERS

  1. Flush door shutters shall have a solid core and may be of the decorative or non-decorative (Paintable type as per IS: 2202-Part 1).
  2. The moisture content in timbers used in the manufacture of flush door shutters shall be not more than 12 per cent when tested according to IS: 1708 (Part 1).

Table: Sample size and criteria for conformity

Lot Size

Field sample

Test sample for

laboratory test

Permissible number ofDefective

From 21 to 50

8

1

0

51 -100

13

2

1

101-150

20

2

1

151-300

32

3

1

301-500

50

4

2

501 and above

80

5

2

Table: Quality tests for door shutters

Test

Code

Minimum Sample size

Frequency of Testing

End immersiontest

IS: 4020 (Part 13)

IS: 2202 (Part 1)

 

 

21 shutters

As per sampling

and testing

specified in above table

 

Knife test

IS: 4020 (Part 14)

IS: 2202 (Part 1)

Glue adhesiontest

IS: 4020 (Part 15)

IS: 2202 (Part 1)

 3. STEEL DOORS AND WINDOWS

3.1 Materials

  1. Rolled steel sections for the fabrication of steel doors, windows, ventilators and fixed-lights shall conform to IS: 7452. Steel used in the manufacture of these sections shall conform to IS: 7452.
  2. The fabricated steel doors and windows shall confirm to IS: 1038.
  3. Glass panes shall be at least at 3 mm thick and shall conform to IS: 2835. All glass panes shall have properly squared corners and straight edges.
  4. Screw threads of machine screws used in the manufacture of steel doors, windows, ventilators and fixed-lights shall conform to the requirements of IS: 4218 (Parts 1 to 6)
  5. In order to ensure the randomness of selection of the sample procedures given in IS: 4905 may be followed.
  6. The doors windows/ventilators/fixed-lights selected in the sample shall be inspected for dimensions, tolerances, materials, fabrication except positioningof holes, fixing screws and lugs, finishing and glazing.

Lot size (no. of

doors/windows/

ventilators/ fixed-

lights in the lot)

Sample size (no. of

doors/windows/

ventilators, fixed-

lights, to be selected in the sample)

Permissible no. of

defectives

Sub sample size

Permissible no.

of defectives in

the sub-sample

Up to 50

5

0

2

0

51 to 150

8

0

3

0

151 to 300

13

1

5

0

301 to 500

20

2

58

0

501 to 1000

32

3

13

1

1001 to 3000

50

5

20

2

4.  PRESSED STEEL DOORS AND WINDOWS

  1. Mild steel sheet, round bars, square bars and other sections used in thefabrication shall conform to grade Fe410W Aof IS: 2062.
  2. CR-sheet used in the fabrication shall conform to IS: 513.
  3. Pressed steel shutters/frames for door/windows shall be de-rusted, degreased& painted with one coat of metal primer.
  4. Rolling and cutting tolerances shall conform to IS: 1852.

5.  PRE-COATED GALVANISED STEEL DOORS AND WINDOWS

  1. The sections are fabricated from Galvanized Pre-coated steel sheets through rollforming into closed sections in intricate shapes with seamed edges (Base steelas per IS 513 ‘D’ quality, galvanized as per IS: 277 with zinc of 120 gm/m2)with total coated thickness of 0.6 mm.

Table: Requirements of coatings

Sl. No

Property

Code

1

Specular gloss

ASTM D 523

2

Pencil hardness

ASTM D 3363

3

Scratch resistance

BS 3900

4

Reverse impact

BS 3900

5

Bend test

BS 3900

6

Erichsen test

IS: 10175

7

Adhesion

BS 3990

8

Corrosion resistance:

a) Salt spray

b) Humidity

c) QUV weatherometer

ASTMB- 117-73

BS 3900

ASTM G-53-84

9

Fire performance

a) Ignitability

b) Fire rating

BS 476

BS 476

10

Detergent resistance

ASTM D-2248

6.  PVC/UPVC DOORS

a) The PVC shutters and solid PVC door frames shall be fabricated at factory asper the Specifications and directions of the Engineer.

b) Shutter shall be made of PVC material conforming to IS: 10151.

6.1 Quality control tests

Quality tests prescribed for door shutters

  1. Dimension and squareness test: Door shutters when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 2) the dimensions of nominal width and height will be within alimit of±5 mm. The door shutter shall not deviate by more than 1 mm on alength of 500 mm. The thickness of the door shutter shall be uniformthroughout with the permissible variation of not more than 0.8 mm betweenany two points. The nominal thickness of the shutter shall be within a limit of1.5 mm.
  2. General flatness test: Door shutter, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 3) the twist, cupping and warping shall not exceed 6 mm.
  3. Local planeness test: Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 4), the depth of deviation measured at any point shall not be more than0.5 mm.
  4. Impact indentation test: Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 5), shall have no defects such as cracking, tearing or delamination andthe depth of indentation shall not be more than 0.2 mm.
  5. Edge loading test - Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 7) the deflection of the edge at the maximum load shall not be more than5 mm. On removal of the loads, the residual deflection shall not be more than0.5 mm, failing which the test may be repeated on the other edge in the reversedirection. Also there shall be no lateral buckling by more than 2 mm duringloaded condition and no residual lateral buckling after removal of the load.
  6. Shock resistance test: Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 8), there shall be no visible damage in any part of the door after twentyfive blows on each end.
  7. Buckling test: Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020 (Part 9)shall not show any deterioration and any residual deformation more than 5mm after 15 minutes of unloading and the initial deflection also shall not bemore than 50 mm.
  8. Slamming test: Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020 (Part10), shall not have any damage in any part of the door at the end of successiveimpacts. Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020 (Part 10)shall not have any visible damage in part of the door at the end of 100successive impacts.
  9. Misuse test: Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020 (Part 11,there shall not be any permanent deformation of the fixing or any other part ofthe door set in hindering its normal working after the test.
  10. Screw holding test: Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 16), the load shall not be less than 1000 N.
  11. End immersion test: Door shutters, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 13), the shutter shall not show any delamination.
  12. Knife test: Door shutter, when tested in accordance with IS: 4020 (Part 14), thegrading shall be standard and excellent.
  13. Glue adhesion test: Door shutters when tested in accordance with IS: 4020(Part 15), shall not show any delamination.

7. ALUMINIUM DOORS AND WINDOWS

  1. Material, fabrication and dimensions of aluminium doors, windows andventilators manufactured from extruded aluminium alloy sections of standardsizes and designs complete with fittings, ready for being fixed into the buildingshall be as per IS: 1948.
  2. Aluminium alloy extruded sections used in the manufacture of extrudedwindow sections shall conform to IS: 733. Hollow aluminium alloy sectionsused shall conform to IS: 1285. 
  3. Glass panes shall weigh at least 7.5 kg/m2 and shall be free from flaws, specksor bubbles. All panes shall have properly squared corners and straight edges.
  4. Screws threads of machine screws used in the fabrication of aluminium doors,windows and ventilators shall conform to IS: 1362.
  5. The aluminium alloy for cast hinges shall conform to BIS Designation A-5-M of IS: 617.
  6. Specification for aluminium and aluminium alloy ingots and castings forgeneral engineering purpose and for extruded section of hinges to BISDesignation HE10-WP or HE30-WP of IS: 733. 
  7. Centre hung ventilators shall be hung on two pairs of cup pivots of aluminiumalloy to BIS designation NS-4 of IS: 737 and BIS designation A-5-M of IS: 617or on brass or bronze cup pivots which should be either chromium or cadmiumplated and riveted to the inner and outer frames of the ventilators to permit theventilator to swing through an angle of approximately 850.

7.1.  Fittings for aluminium doors and windows

  1. Stainless steel friction stay: The stainless steel friction stays of make approvedby the Engineer shall be used. The SS friction stays shall be of grade AISI-304and of sizes specified in nomenclature of item.
  2. Lockable handles: The lockable handle shall be of make approved by theEngineer and of required colour to match the colour of powder coated/anodized aluminium window sections.
  3. Hydraulic floor spring: The hydraulic floor spring shall be heavy duty doubleaction floor spring of make approved by the Engineer suitable for door leaf ofweight minimum 100 kg.
  4. Tubular handle: The tubular handle bar shall be aluminium polyester powdercoated minimum 50 micron of required colour/anodized AC 15. Outer dia oftube shall be 32 mm, tube thickness 3.0 mm and centre to centre length of2115 ±5 mm.
  5. Louvers: Aluminium extruded sections (anodized or power coated) are used forproviding louvers in aluminium door, window and partition for ventilation.
  6. Brass lock: This should generally conform to IS: 2209. False lever shall not beused. Lever shall be fitted with one spring of phosphor-bronze or steel wire andshall withstand the test as provided in IS: 2209. Locking-bolt spring and strikeplate shall conform to IS: 2209. Two keys shall be provided with each lock.

8.  FIBRE GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC (FRP) DOORS

FRP doors and shutters shall be manufactured as per specifications laid down in IS:14856, nomenclature of items and direction of the Engineer.

9.  SOLID PVC FOAM PROFILE DOORS

  1. Solid PVC foam profile frame doors are made from solid PVC foam profiles60 x 30 mm with integral skin cut to required size.
  2. Doors are provided with naturally strong stiffener frame and sandwichpanelled to offer sound and heat insulation with pressure laminate/infill panelto provide scratch resistance surface.
  3. Tests on PVC foam profiles shall be as per table.

Quality Tests for PVC foam profile doors

Sl. No.

Property

Test method

Acceptable value

1

Density (at 27°C)

ASTM D 792

0.5-0.7 gm/cc

2

i) Tensile strength at yield

ii) Elongation at break

ASTM D 638

ASTM D 638

2000 psi

20%

3

Tensile modulus

(Modulus of elasticity)

ASTM D 638

200 MPa

4

Impact strength

(Charpyunnotched)

ASTM D 256

200 MPa

5

Durometer hardness

DIN 53505

70 shore D

6

Vicat softening point

(at 10N Load)

ASTM D 1525

75?C

7

Flammability

UL 94

Self-extinguishing.

10. LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER (LVL)

Laminated veneer lumber door frames and shutters shall conform to IS: 14616.

11. UPVC DOOR FRAME

UPVC door frame shall be made of PVC material conforming to IS: 10151.

12. DOOR/WINDOW FITTINGS

12.1 Butt hinges

These shall be of the following types according to the material used.

  1. Mild steel butt hinges (medium).
  2. Cast brass butt hinges light/ordinary or heavy.
  3. Extruded aluminium alloy butt hinges.

12.2 Parliament hinges

These shall be of mild steel cast brass or as specified, and shall generallyconform to IS: 362.

12.3 Spring hinges

These shall be made of MS or brass as specified, and shall generally conform to IS:453.

12.4 Door handles (for Doors and windows)

These should generally conform to IS: 208.

12.5 Floor door stopper

  1. The floor door stopper shall conform to IS: 1823.
  2. Aluminium stopper shall be anodised and anodic film shall not be less thangrade AC-10 of IS: 1868.

12.6 Door closers

The nominal size of door closers in relation to the weight and the width of thedoor size to which it is intended to be fitted shall be as per table (Ref.IS:3564).

Type and Designation of door closers

Design- ation of closers

Mass of the

door (kg)

Width of the

door (mm)

Remarks

1

Upto 35

Upto 700

For light doors such as double

leaved and toilet doors.

2

36 to 60

701 to 850

Interior doors, such as of bed

rooms, kitchen and store.

3

61 to 80

851 to 1000

Main doors in a building, such

as entrance doors.

12.7 Mortice locks

12.7.1 Test for mortice locks

Test for mortice locks are carried out as per IS: 2209. The frequency of tests shall beas given in table. At the time of supply, the Contractor shall producemanufacturer’s certificate as required.

Table :Test for mortice lock

Material

Code

Min. quantity of

material for carrying

out the test

Frequency of testing

Frequency of testing

IS: 2209

50 Nos.

100 or part thereof.

 

RELATED CODES:

1.IS:204-Specification for tower bolts:

(Part 1)-Ferrous bolt.

(Part 2)-Non ferrous metals.

2.IS:205-Specification for non ferrous metal butt hinges.

3.IS;206-Specification for Tee and strap hinges.

4.IS:207-Specification for gate and shutter hook and eye.

5.IS:208-Specification for door handles.

6.IS:281-Specification for mild steel door bolts for use with pad locks.

7.IS:287-Recommendations for maximum permissible moisture contents oftimber used for different purpose.

8.IS:303-Specification for plywood for general purposes.

9.IS:362-Specification for parliament hinges.

10.IS:363-Specification for hasps and staple.

11.IS:364-Specification for fan light catch.

12.IS:401-Code of practice for preservation of timber.

13.IS:419-Putty for use on window frames.

14.IS:451-Technical supply condition for wood screws.

15.IS:452-Specification for door spring rat tail type.

16.IS:453-Specification for double acting spring hinge.

17.IS:707-Glossary of terms applicable to timber technology and utilization.

18.IS:710-Specifications for marine plywood.

19.IS:723-Specification for steel counter sunk head wire nails.

20.IS:729-Specification for drawer lock, cupboard lock and box locks.

21.IS:848-Specification for synthetic resin adhesive for plywood (phenoicand amino plastic).

22.IS:851-Specification for synthetic resin adhesive for const. work (nonstructural in wood).

23.IS:852-Specification for animal glue for general wood work purpose.

24.IS:1003-Specification for timber panelled and glazed shutter:

 (Part 2)-Window and ventilator shutter.

25.IS:1038-Specification for steel doors, windows and ventilators.

26.IS:1141-Specification for code of practice for seasoning of timber.

27.IS:1200-Method of measurement of building and civil engineering works:

 (Part 12)-Wood work and joinery.

 (Part 14)-Glazing.

28.IS:1328-Specification for veneered decorative plywood.

29.IS:1341-Specification for steel butt hinges.

30.IS:1378-Specification for oxidized copper finishes.

31.IS:1566-Specification for hard drawn steel wire fabric.

32.IS:1568-Specification for wire cloth for general purposes.

33.IS:1658-Specification for hard drawn steel wire fabric.

34.IS:1659-Specification for block boards.

35.IS:1708-Testing of small clear specimen for timber.

36.IS:1734-Determination of density and moisture content.

37.IS:1823-Specification for floor door stopper.

38.IS:1868-Specification for anodic coating on aluminium and its alloy.

39.IS:2046-Decorative thermosetting synthetic resin bonded laminatedsheet.

40.IS:2095-Specification for gypsum plaster board.

41.IS:2096-Specification for asbestos cement flat sheet.

42.IS:2202-Specification for wooden flush door shutter, solid core type:

(Part 1)-Plywood face panels.

(Part 2)-Particle boards and hard board face panels.

43.IS:2209-Specification for mortice lock: Vertical type

44.IS:2380-Method of test for wood particle board and board forlignocelluloses material.

45.IS:2547-Specification for gypsum plaster.

46.IS:2753-Method for estimation of preservatives in treated timber and intreating solutions.

47.IS:2681-Specification for non-ferrous metal sliding door bolts use withpad locks.

48.IS:3087-Specification for wood particle boards (Medium density) forgeneral purpose.

49.IS:3097-Specification for veneered particle board.

50.IS:3828-Specification for ventilator chain.

51.IS:3400-Method of test for vulcanized rubber:

(Part 2)-Hardness.

 (Part 4)-Accelerated aging.

 (Part 9)-Density.

52.IS:3564-Specification for door closer (hydraulically regulated).

53.IS:3618-Phosphate treatment of iron and steel for protection againstcorrosion.

54.IS:3813-'C' hooks for use with swivels.

55.IS:3818-Specification for continuous (Piano) hinges.

56.IS:3847-Specification for mortice night latch.

57.IS:4835-Specification for polyvinyl acetate dispersion based adhesive forwood.

58.IS:4948-Specification for welded steel wire fabric for general use.

59.IS:4992-Specification for rebated mortice lock.

60.IS:5187-Specification for flush bolts.

61.IS:5509-Specification for fire retardant plywood.

62.IS:5930-Specification for mortice latch.

63.IS:6318-Specification for plastic wire window fasteners.

64.IS:6607-Specification for rebated mortice lock (Vertical type).

65.IS:6760-Specification for slotted counter sunk head wood screws.

66.IS:7196-Specification for hold fast.

67.IS:7534-Specification for sliding locking bolts for use with pad lock.

68.IS:7638-Wood/lignocellulosic based panel products - method forsampling.

69.IS:8756-Specification for mortice ball catch for use in wooden almirah.

70.IS:9308-Specification for mechanically extracted coir fibres.

(Part 1)-Mattress coir fibres.

(Part 3)-Decorated coir fibres.

71.IS:11215-Moisture content of timber and timber products method ofdetermination.

72.IS:12049-Dimensions and tolerance relating to wood based panelmaterials.

73.IS:12406-Specification for medium density fibre board.

74.IS:12817-Specification for stainless steel butt hinges.

75.IS:12823-Specification for wood products – prelaminated particle boards.

76.IS:14616-Specifications for laminated veneer lumber.

77.IS:14842-Specification for coir veneer board for general purposes.

78.IS:14856-Specification for glass fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) panel typedoor.

79.IS:14900-Specifications for transparent float glass

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