6.Ecotourism&Forest



Chapter - 18

Ecotourism : Impact, Planning and Development

(P.S.Sodhi, M. Arch. (Landscape), Architect, CPWD)

Ecotourism means- “Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people”.

“Ecotourism” is a relatively new idea that has dramatically captured the attention of many people from a variety of backgrounds. It seems to be a catchall word that has different meaning to different persons. To some it means ecologically sound tourism; to others it is synonymous with nature tourism and other forms of alternative tourisms like responsible tourism, ethical tourism, and environmentally friendly or sustainable tourism. Despite the continued debate about what exactly eco tourism entails, it seems that it must be a force for sustaining natural resources.

Many view ecotourism as a viable way to protect the natural environment and create social and economic benefits for local communities. If we compare with other forms of alternate tourisms, basically it focuses on nature, local cultures, wilderness adventures and the uniqueness of the area. It is a responsible travelling to natural destinations where the flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions.

Rainforests are becoming an attraction around the world which portrays the uniqueness of nature, like people going to see a 200-year-old Cactus in Arizona. But at the same time there is a risk that it can be damaged or cut down within no time. So the visitors are required to be sensitive enough to take care of the uniqueness of the site because their little carelessness can destroy it forever.

On the other hand if an attraction is unique then it will attract more and more tourism. Like incase of General Sherman tree, the largest living thing on earth is one of the biggest attractions in California’s Yosemite National park. It stands tall at 275 feet (84 meters) with a base diameter of 36’-6"(11 meters) having age of 2200 years approx.

The eco-tourism is to preserve the natural resources since most of the popular eco-travel destinations have fragile eco-systems. It is important to maintain a careful balance between preservation and promotion – “sustainable development” to ensure the long-term health of both the ecosystems and tourism economics. It is need to make the entire travel industry more sensitive towards the environment and incorporates a strong commitment to nature and sense of social responsibility.

Origin of Ecotourism

The history of nature travel is traced back to Aristotle who is known to have traveled to the island of Lesbos (Greek island) in the Aegean Sea where he spent time studying marine creatures. Nature travel during the 19th Century became an essentially a quest for spectacular and unique scenery. This was also the time when the concept of national parks came into being.

In recent times, with the start of events such as Earth Day (1970) and the formation of United Nations Environment Programme (1972), the nature based tourism started taking shape of ecologically sensitive tourism. Subsequently world summits such as the Rio Earth Summit (1992) have helped to establish a worldwide concern for the impact of human activities on the natural environment. In 1983, Hector Ceballos-Lascurian, an enthusiast Architect of Mexico had evolved an idea in which travelling to relatively undisturbed natural areas with the specific objective of studying was mooted. In 1981, he first used the Spanish term turisimo ecologica” to designate forms of ecological tourism. This term was later changed to “ecoturisimo” in 1983 and ultimately became Ecotourism.

The intention behind this idea was

• To encourage environmentally responsible travels and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas.

• To enjoy, study and appreciate nature and any accompanying cultural features that promote conservation.

• Be economically viable in order to attract financing and be sustainable.

Need for Ecotourism

Economic globalization has led to the rapid expansion of international tourism. Modern mass tourism has been earlier embraced by most of the governments in world as a “smokeless” (non-polluting) industry to increase employment and economic prosperity, especially in developing countries. But mass tourism development projects are often ridden with long-term negative impacts on the environment. It often promotes unsustainable production and consumption patterns in developing countries where appropriate technology for waste treatment and pollution abatement is often insufficient or entirely lacking.

It was observed that mass tourism has adverse effects on the environment, culture, and economics of the local communities. To overcome the further negative effects of mass tourism on environment, the necessity to have a new concept of tourism was felt, that could protect the fragile areas from deterioration, and preserve it for future generations. It was discovered in the form of Eco-tourism.

India

India is the seventh largest country in the world with a geographical area of 329 million hectares. It is situated in South Asia and is of sub continental dimension with a population of over one billion people. India is primarily an agricultural economy with a vast range of crops. The livelihood of over 60% of the population continues to be based on agriculture. The primary issue is one of poverty, with 320 million (32 Crore) people estimated to be below the poverty line.

India is one of the oldest civilizations with a kaleidoscopic variety of cultures, which makes for a rich cultural heritage. It has thousands of monuments and remains of many civilizations. The peoples’ lifestyles are varied e.g. Tribes of Bastar, Rann of Kucch, Banjaras etc. The Taj Mahal and 25 other World Heritage Properties and several National Heritage sites are in India. Hospitality for visitors is an ancient Indian tradition. The peoples’ lifestyles are varied. Life is full of culture, fairs and festivals, art and handicrafts, classical dances, colour and spectacle. The country has an unparallel cultural diversity.

Indian subcontinent is one of the most fascinating ecological and geographical regions in the world. It offers enormous diversity in topography, natural resources, and climate as well. The mainland comprises of seven regions, viz. the great mountain zone, the plains of Ganges and Indus, the desert region, and southern peninsula etc. It includes the nearly rainless desert of Thar and the rainiest place on earth, Cherrapunjee, the hot, salty Rann of Kacch, and the permanently snowbound peaks of Himalayas.

India happens to be one of the 12-mega biodiversity countries in the world. The Western Ghats and Eastern Himalayan regions are among the 18 biodiversity “hot spots” in the world. India’s biodiversity is rich, often unique and increasingly endangered. Consisting of 2% of the world’s landmass, India possesses around 5% of the known living organisms on earth. It houses a wealth of various ecosystems, which are well protected and preserved.

Scope of Ecotourism in India

Tourism has proved to have both positive as well as negative impacts. In terms of positive impacts, it generates employment and revenue, whereas in terms of negative impacts, it contaminates indigenous culture, leads to degradation of environmentally fragile areas like mountains, hills, deserts and coastal regions.

In India, ecotourism can also become an instrument for sustainable human development also through poverty alleviation, environmental regeneration, job creation and that too, in the remotest areas of the country.

Most of the ecotourism sites of natural beauty and biodiversity value are located in the forest areas, and to promote wildlife preservation the Indian government has established 75 National Parks, 421 Wildlife Sanctuaries, apart from 7 Biosphere Reserves, which account for most of India’s wildlife resources spread over an area of 14 million hectares. This covers 4.3% of the total geographical area of India.

Hence there is wide scope to practice ecotourism in India.

Chapter - 19

Forest and Vegetation Types of India

(Sudhir Kamal Seem, M.Arch. (Landscape), Senior Architect, CPWD)

Different Types of Forests of India

India has a diverse range of forests: from the rainforest of Kerala in the south to the alpine pastures of Ladakh in the north, from the deserts of Rajasthan in the west to the evergreen forests in the north-east. Climate, soil type, topography, and elevation are the main factors that determine the type of forest. Forests are classified according to their nature and composition, the type of climate in which they thrive, and its relationship with the surrounding environment.

Forests can be divided into six broad types, with a number of sub types.

Vegetation Types of India:

Located at tropical latitudes, the beautiful land of India is characterized by rainfall regimes and diverse temperature and climate. India’s climate helps in the growth of forests in the country. However, in the past thousand years, various types of human activities have altered the climatic formations in the country to ala large extent.

The natural vegetation in India primarily comprise of dry deciduous forests. Vegetation growing in correspondence with different environmental conditions is the natural vegetation of a particular place. Several major factors such as soil, topography, temperature and rainfall have influenced the natural vegetation of India to a large extent. Depending on the atmosphere, weather, position and other factors, there can be several classification of India’s natural vegetation.

• The many features that characterize the natural vegetation of India are:

• Tropical deciduous forests, Tropical rain forests,

• Alpine and tundra vegetation, Forests of Southern India,

• Himalayan vegetation,

• Desert region,

• Temperature forests and Grasslands.

A major role is played by the tropical rain forests, in the natural vegetation in India. These forests include the tropical semi-evergreen forests and the tropical evergreen forests. A place experiencing large amount of sunshine and rainfall have this type of forests. The trees found in these forests do not have any particular season to cast off their leaves since the area stays wet and warm all through the year.

The growth of the trees happens to be very briskly where the sublime height attained by the trees is 60m or more. The forests are also known as archetypal rain-forests. These type of regions are only concentrated to the plains of West Bengal and Orissa, the Western Ghats and North-eastern India. The varied species available in the region are huge and can be used commercially. Some of the functional trees found in the region consist of Mahogany, Rosewood and Ebony.

Alpine Vegetation: The Eastern slopes in the Western Ghats are home to the moist deciduous forests. These type of forests can also be located in northeast of India that is areas of Chhotanagpur Plateau, south Bihar, east Madhya Pradesh, and west Orissa They are also found in the north-eastern part of the peninsula i.e. in the region of Chhotanagpur plateau, covering east Madhya Pradesh, south Bihar, the Shiwaliks in North India and west Orissa. The major trees in the region are Sal, Teak and Sandalwood. While Teak serves as an essential species in the region, Sal on the other happens to be an important tree found in the dry deciduous forests. Over the time, it has been noticed that the moist deciduous forests in India are being slowly replaced by the dry deciduous forests. The tress in this region unlike those found in the tropical rain forests, have a particular time for casting off leaves.

Alpine : Moist

Moist alpines are found all along the Himalayas and on the higher hills near the Myanmar border. It has a low scrub, dense evergreen forest, consisting mainly of rhododendron and birch. Mosses and ferns cover the ground in patches. This region receives heavy snowfall.

Dry

Dry alpines are found from about 3000 metres to about 4900 metres. Dwarf plants predominate, mainly the black juniper, the drooping juniper, honeysuckle, and willow.

Montane temperate forests Wet

Wet montane temperate forests occur in the North and the South. In the North, it is found in the region to the east of Nepal into Arunachal Pradesh, at a height of 1800–3000 metres, receiving a minimum rainfall of 2000 mm. In the South, it is found in parts of the Niligiri Hills, the higher reaches of Kerala. The forests in the northern region are denser than in the South. This is because over time the original trees have been replaced by fast-growing varieties such as the eucalyptus. Rhododendrons and a variety of ground flora can be found here.

In the North, there are three layers of forests:

the higher layer has mainly coniferous, the middle layer has deciduous trees such as the oak and the Stratification a Tropical Forest lowest layer is covered by rhododendron and champa.

Moist

This type spreads from the Western Himalayas to the Eastern Himalayas. The trees found in the western section are broad-leaved oak, brown oak, walnut, rhododendron, etc. In the Eastern Himalayas, the rainfall is much heavier and therefore the vegetation is also more lush and dense. There are a large variety of broad-leaved trees, ferns, and bamboo. Coniferous trees are also found here, some of the varieties being different from the ones found in the South.

Dry

This type is found mainly in Lahul, Kinnaur, Sikkim, and other parts of the Himalayas. There are predominantly coniferous trees that are not too tall, along with broad-leaved trees such as the oak, maple, and ash. At higher elevation, fir, juniper, deodar, and chilgoza can be found.

Sub alpine

Sub alpine forests extends from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh between 2900 to 3500 metres. In the Western Himalayas, the vegetation consists mainly of juniper, rhododendron, willow, and black currant. In the eastern parts, red fir, black juniper, birch, and larch are the common trees. Due to heavy rainfall and high humidity the timberline in this part is higher than that in the West. Rhododendron of many species covers the hills in these parts.

Montane sub tropical forests Broad-leaved forests 

Broad-leaved forests are found in the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats, along the Silent Valley. There is a marked difference in the form of the vegetation in the two  areas. In the Silent Valley, the poonspar, cinnamon, rhododendron, and fragrant grass are predominant. In the Eastern Himalayas, the flora has been badly affected by the shifting cultivation and forest fires. These wet forests consist mainly of evergreen trees with a sprinkling of deciduous here and there. There are oak, alder,chestnut, birch, and cherry trees. There are a large variety of orchids, bamboo and creepers.

Pine: Pine forests are found in the steep dry slopes of the Shivalik Hills, Western and Central Himalayas, Khasi, Naga, and Manipur Hills. The trees predominantly found in these areas are the chir, oak, rhododendron, and pine. In the lower regions sal, sandan, amla, and laburnum are found.

Dry evergreen

Dry evergreen forests normally have a prolonged hot and dry season and a cold winter. It generally has evergreen trees with shining leaves that have a varnished look. Some of the more common ones are the pomegranate, olive, and oleander. These forests are found in the Shivalik Hills and foothills of the Himalayas up to a height of 1000 metres.

Yetanother kind of natural vegetation offered to India is by the Thorn Forests and Scrub. Found in dry places with an average annual rainfall below 70 cm, these forest sprawls over the north western region of India, from Saurashtra in the south of the country to Punjab in the northern side. In the eastern part, the forests extend to the state of Madhya Pradesh, the south western part of Uttar Pradesh and the Bundelkhand plateau. Long roots, broadness and radial pattern are the most common features of the dispersed trees found in this region. The forests gradually die away to thorny bushes and scrubs, thereby consisting of the most classic vegetation of the deserts.

Among the valuable species of plants found in this region, are kikar, babul, and coarse grasses. Dry tropical forests: Dry deciduous forest: Dry deciduous forests are found throughout the northern part of the country except in the North-East. It is also found in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The canopy of the trees does not normally exceed 25 metres. The common trees are the sal, a variety of acacia, and bamboo.

Thorn : This type is found in areas with black soil: North, West, Central, and South India. The trees do not grow beyond 10 metres. Spurge, caper, and cactus are typical of this region.

Dry evergreen : Dry evergreens are found along the Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka coast. It has mainly hard-leaved evergreen trees with fragrant flowers, along with a few deciduous trees.

Tropical deciduous forests: The forests are also known as deciduous, since the tress of the forests cast off the leaves for 6 to 8 weeks in the month of summer. With immense beauty and grandeur, these forests are also known as the monsoon forests. A natural cover is provided by this natural vegetation to the entire country, specially those areas that receive about having 200 and 75 cm of rainfall annually.

The forests stretch to Kerala, valleys of the Himalayas, eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, north eastern region of the peninsular plateau. The tropical deciduous forests are – effective, substantial, and less resistant towards fire. The forests can further be divided into dry and the moist deciduous forests.

A kind of vegetation is also found at the grasslands and temperate forests of India. Numerous types of plants can be traced at the Himalayas, varying with rising altitudes. Evergreen trees such as Chestnut, Oak, Maple etc are usually broad leaved and grow in altitudes between 1000m to 2000m. While the Coniferous trees such as Silver Fir, Deodar, Pine, Spruce etc, on the other hand, grow in altitudes between 1500m to 3000m. These trees are generally found in the southern slopes of the Himalayan Region. The temperate grasslands are generally found in higher altitudes.

Moist tropical forests : Wet evergreen : Wet evergreen forests are found in the south along the Western Ghats and the Nicobar and Andaman Islands and all along the north-eastern region. It is characterized by tall, straight evergreen trees that have a buttressed trunk or root on three sides like a tripod that helps to keep a tree upright during a storm. These trees often rise to a great height before they open out like a cauliflower. The more common trees that are found here are the jackfruit, betel nut palm, jamun, mango, and hollock. The trees in this forest form a tier pattern: shrubs cover the layer closer to the ground, followed by the short structured trees and then the tall variety. Beautiful fern of various colours and different varieties of orchids grow on the trunks of the trees.

Semi-evergreen: Semi-evergreen forests are found in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the Eastern Himalayas. Such forests have a mixture of the wet evergreen trees and the moist deciduous tress. The forest is dense and is filled with a large variety of trees of both types.

Moist deciduous: Moist deciduous forests are found throughout India except in the western and the north-western regions. The trees have broad trunks, are tall and have branching trunks and roots to hold them firmly to the ground. Some of the taller trees shed their leaves in the dry season. There is a layer of shorter trees and evergreen shrubs in the undergrowth. These forests are dominated by sal and teak, along with mango, bamboo, and rosewood. 

Littoral and swamp : Littoral and swamp forests are found along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the delta area of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. It consists  mainly of whistling pines, mangrove dates, palms, and bullet wood. They have roots that consist of soft tissue so that the plant can breathe in the water.

Alpine and tundra vegetation : The Alpine Vegetation grows at an altitude of over 3600 m. It has been noticed that with an increment in the altitude, the plants in the region show a stunted growth. Trees such as pine, silver fir, birch, juniper etc fall in this category of vegetation. An extensive use of the Alpine vegetation is made by the tribal people of Bakarwal and Gujjar. Vegetations such as lichen and mosses can also be found at high altitudes.

A major type of natural vegetation in India happens to be the Himalayan vegetation. The deep tropical forests located in the eastern part of India have differs sharply from coniferous and pine woodlands found in the western Himalayas. The natural cover changes with the change in the altitude. The evergreen forests usually having high alpine vegetation close to the snowline generally have temperate forests near the lower elevations. A plant called chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) exists in the northwest Himalayas, except Kashmir. Other plants such as oak, maple, chilgoza (pine nut), ash (Fraxinus xanthoxyloides), grow largely in the Inner Himalayas. Deciduous trees, fern, shrubs and grass mainly cover the wet foothills of the Himalayas while the Brahmaputra Valley consists of tea plantations and rice fields.

The rain forests in South India contribute greatly to the natural vegetation in India. The most abundant rain forests are situated on the southwestern coast of Kerala. Here large number of coconut trees can be found canopying the lagoons, thereby leading to the development of a continuous stretch of rain forests in India. Some of the other parts in India where rain forests can be found are Arunachal Pradesh and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Further Teak,sandal and sisoo (Dalbergia sissoo) forests grow in the wet plateau of Karnataka plateau. The dry Telengana plateau located in the state of Andhra Pradesh comprises wild Indian date palm and thorny scrub.

When we are talking about the Natural vegetation in India, how can we forget the desert region in the country! The Thar Desert is a beautiful example of the vegetation in India. The trees in the Thar Desert are generally found to be stout, short and stunted by the sun. The popular trees in the region are reunjha (Acacia leucophloea), cacti, khejra (Prosopis spicigera), ak (Calotropis gigantea), kanju (Holoptelia integrifolia) etc.

Chapter - 20

Master Plan for Delhi 2021

Environmentally Sustainable Development - Guidelines on Open Spaces in Delhi

Master Plan for Delhi 2021 has attempted to achieve environmentally sustainable development/ re-development considering the limitations of land and water with significantly improved quality of infrastructure. The main points related to environmentally sustainable development are elaborated below:

Green / Recreational Areas

Delhi has a much larger green cover than any of the other metropolitan city in the country, and could well be called “Green City”. The green recreational use constitutes 8,722 ha of land as per MPD 2001, which is around 19% of the total urban land area of 44,777 ha. This includes 1577 ha. Under the Northern, Central & South Central Ridge (the remaining area of the Ridge is in the rural area). The balance area under recreational/green use i.e.7145 ha. is in the form of District Parks, City Parks, Community Parks etc. comprising around the 15% of the total urban land area. In addition to this, a large chunk of green area is provided in the form of Neighbourhood Parks /Tot lots in the gross residential use zones, plantations / greens in large campuses like President’s Estates, JNU, IARI, Delhi University, plantations along drains and roadside plantations. In addition to above, two Bio-diversity parks are under development by the DDA.

In the Urban Extension the green cover is to be provided at the rate of 15% of the total land, excluding the Ridge/Regional Park. Out of this, some area shall be developed in the form of formal parks for the community and the rest shall be developed as woodlands and incidental greens for balancing the environment. This will be in addition to the development of specialized parks like Bio-Diversity Parks, plantation along the roads, drains, riverbanks etc.

Environment

Creation of a sustainable physical and social environment for improving quality of life is one of the major objectives of the plan. The almost unprecedented scale and speed of urbanization in Delhi has resulted in enormous pressures on the physical environment with a severe adverse impact in terms of pollution, and today Delhi is considered to be among the most polluted cities in the world.

The city’s environment can essentially be seen in terms of two components of urban management - the environment per se or the habitat, and services management. The pertains to the natural features and resources including : the elements of air and noise, water (Water bodies – rivers, lakes, drains and ponds and ground water) and land with reference to open spaces, green areas and other surface and sub-surface conditions. The latter is related to the built environment and includes the environmental infrastructure- water supply, sewerage, solid waste disposal and the transportation network.

In the above stated background the following three fold approach and strategy will need to be adopted:

i) Management of Natural Recourses and the related environment infrastructure and services in a manner that would lead to optimization of use of natural resources, and reduction/ abatement or pollution.

ii) Conservation and Development of the Natural features with a view to enhancing their environmental value; and

iii) Development and preservation of open spaces, greens and landscape/ recreational areas.

A clear approach towards management of 4 types of wastes generated in Delhi, namely Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Bio-Medical Waste and Electronic Waste should be adopted. The approach should take into account the need for adopting the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the awareness of the carbon credits that can be earned and encashed through a planned and organized mechanism, to be developed for this purpose.

The following critical areas from environmental point of view have been the focal points of the

Master Plan of Delhi 2021:

• Special emphasis on conservation of the Ridge.

• Rejuvenation of River Yamuna through a number of measures including ensuring adequate flow in river by release of water by riparian states, refurbishment of trunk sewers, treatment of drains, sewering of unsewered area, treatment of industrials affluent, recycling of treated effluent and removal of coliforms at STPs.

Provision of lung spaces/ recreational areas and green belt to the extent of 15 to 20% of land use.

• Multipurpose grounds: A special category for marriage/ public functions.

• The Master Plan 2021 stipulates that the land up to the depth of one peripheral village revenue boundary along the border of NCTD, wherever available, would be maintained as Green belt. 15-20 % of Land is distributed under Green/ Recreational land use.

Green Belt

The plan provides for agricultural land as Green Belt along the border of NCT of Delhi, in synergy with the provisions of Regional Plan 2021 of NCR. The belt extends from the NCTD boundary up to a depth of one peripheral revenue village boundary, wherever possible.

Bungalow Area

Lutyens’ Bungalow Zone comprises of large size plots and has a very pleasant green environment. The essential character of wide avenues, large plots, extensive landscape and low rise development, has a heritage value which has to be conserved. Mix use high intensity development along MRTS corridor and de-densification of trees / reduction of green cover is not permitted at all. The strategy for development in this zone will be as per the approved plans and the LBZ guidelines, as may be issued by the Government of India from time to time. Civil lines also has Bungalow area of which the basic character has to be maintained.

Hierarchy of  Urban Development- Provision of Open spaces

S. No Level Facilities No Land Area in Sqm
Per Unit Total
1

Housing Area Population 5,000
 

1. Totlot
2. Housing Area Park
3. Housing Area Playground
4. Aanganwari

 
20
1
1
1

 
125
5,000
5,000
200-300

 
2500
5,000
5,000
400-600

 
2

Neighbourhood Population 10,000
 

1. Neighbourhood Park
2. Neighbourhood Play Area
1
1

 
10,000
5,000-10,000
10000
5,000-10,000
3

Community Population 1,00,000

 

1.Community Park
a) Park
b) Multipurpose Park/ground

 

1
1

 

50,000
20,000

 
 
4

District Population 5,00,000
 

1. District Park
a) Park
b) Multipurpose Park/ground

 

1
1

 

2,50,000
40,000

 
 
5

Zonal/Sub City Population 10,00,000

1. City Park
a) Park
b) Multipurpose Park/ground

 

1
1

 

10,00,000
80,000

 
 

Notes:

• The open space at the Neighbourhood level shall be provided @ 4.5 sqm. per person.

• Minimum size of Tot lot at cluster level shall be 125 sq.m.

•  The location of Schools and Aanganwaris should be made in the lay out plan in cluster form to facilitate sharing of common parking space and playground.

•  Rain water harvesting shall be an integral part of the storm water drainage plan at the time of sanction of layout plan for all plots.

• The natural drainage pattern is not to be disturbed.

• Dual pipe system of recycled water I recommended in new areas and redevelopment schemes.

•  Dhalaos including facility of segregation of biodegradable and recyclable solid waste should be provided.

• Non-conventional sources i.e. solar energy etc. is recommended for public areas in all establishments.

• Suitable landscape plans for the neighbourhood shall be pre4pared, indicating in reasonable details, the landscape development of the parks and roadside plantation etc.

Infrastructure Requirement for layout at Residential Neighbourhood  Level

Use Premises No. of Units As per standard norms (in LSC)
Unit Area(ha) Total Land(ha)
Recreational
(i) Totlot @ 0.50sqm/person
  0.0125 0.5
(ii) Housing Area Park 2 0.5 1.0
(iii)Neighbourhood Park 1 1.0 1.0

Planning Norms, Standards for Recreational Areas/Parks at Sub-City Level

S. No Category Planning Norms & Standards
Population/ Unit (APPROX.) Plot Area (Ha)
1 City Park 10 lakh 100
2 District Park 5 lakh 25
3 Community Park 1 lakh 5

Planning Norms, Standards for Recreational Areas/Parks at Neighbourhood Level

S. No Category Planning Norms & Standards
Population/ Unit (APPROX.) Plot Area (Ha)
1 Neighbourhood Park 10000 1
2 Housing Area Park 5000 0.5
3 Tot lot at Housing Cluster Level 250 0.025

Planning Norms, Standards for Multipurpose Grounds

S. No Category Planning Norms & Standards
Population/ Unit (APPROX.) Plot Area (Ha)
1 City Multipurpose Ground 10 lakh 8
2 District Multipurpose Ground 5 lakh 4
3 Community Multipurpose Ground 1 lakh 2

1.Minimum 50% of total area shall be under Soft Parking and remaining 50% shall be utilized for activities.

2.Minimum 3% of the remaining area (excluding Soft Park area) shall be utilized for Electric Sub Station, Toilets, Security and other marriage related activities etc.

3.Multipurpose Ground can be sub-divided suitably with minimum of 0.5 ha of plot area to accommodate number of functions at one time.

4.Park Multipurpose Ground shall have provisions for rainwater harvesting.

Permission of Use Premises in Sub Use Zone

S. No Use Zone Activities Permitted
1 Green Belt Forest, Agriculture use, Vegetation belt, Dairy Forms, Piggery, Poultry farms, Farm house, Wild life sanctuary, Biodiversity Park, Veterinary Centre, Police Post, Fire Post, Smriti Van, Plant Nursery, Orchard, Area for water-harvesting, Floriculture farm, Open Playground, Agro Forestry, Amenity structureExisting village Abadis, already regularized  Unauthorised colonies & already approved Motels may continue.
2 Regional Park Ridge, Residential Flats (for watch & ward), Picnic Hut, Park, Shooting Range, Zoological Garden, Bird Sanctuary, Botanical Garden, Local Govt. Office (Maintenance), Open Air Theatre, Police Post, Fire Post, Orchard, Plant Nursery and Forest.Approved Farm Houses sanctioned prior to 01.08.90 may continue.
3 City Park Aqua Park/water sport park, Arboretum, Botanical Garden, National Memorial (approved by Cabinet/Govt. of India), Amphitheatre, Open Playground, and Aquarium. Other activities same as permitted in District Park. 30% of the area shall be developed with plantation of native species
4 District Park District Park, Theme Park, Recreational Club, National Memorial, Open-air food court, Children Park, Orchard, Plant Nursery, Area for water-harvesting, Archaeology Park, Specialized Park, Amusement Park, Children Traffic Park, Sports activity, Playground, Amenity structures. Restaurants in a District Park having an area above 25 Ha, subject to following : 
 
    (a)  Area of the restaurant plot shall not be more than 0.8 Ha or 1% of the District Park, whichever is less.
(b)  Restaurant plot shall have no physical segregation from the rest of the District Park area.
(c)  The building shall be a single storey structure with max. FAR of 5 and height not more than 4m. without any residential facility and to harmonize with the surroundings.
(d)  In case there is no parking lot in the vicinity, parking should be provided at a reasonable distance from the restaurant complex / green.e 30% of the area shall be developed as dense platform.
5 Community Park Park, Children Park, Open- air food court, Playground etc.
6 Multipurpose Ground Public meeting ground, Public address podium, Social functions, Soft drink and snack stalls etc.

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