Finishing of a building includes finishing works of floor, wall, ceiling etc. Several types of finishes can be provided based on the materials used, environmental conditionsand cost.
1. Cement water proofing compound
- It shall be used for cement mortar for plastering.
- Integral cement water proofing compound conforming to IS: 2645 and of approved brand and manufacture, enlisted by the Field Engineers shall be used.
2. Pointing on Brick work, Tile work and Stone work
- The mortar shall be pressed into the raked out joints, with a pointing trowel, either flush, sunk or raised, according to the type of pointing required.
- The mortar shall not spread over the corner, edges or surface of the masonry.
- The pointing shall then be finished with the proper tool.
- The pointing lines shall be truly horizontal and vertical except where the joints are slanting as in random rubble masonry.
- Lines of joints from different directions should meet neatly at the junctions instead of crossing beyond.
- The pointing shall be kept wet for seven days. During this period it shall be suitably protected from all damages.
3. WHITE WASHING
- White washing shall be done using lime or similar products available in the market as specified in the item.
- The white wash shall be applied with brushes of specified standards to the specified number of coats.
- The operation for each coat shall consist of a stroke of the brush given from the top downwards, another from the bottom upwards over the first stroke, and similarly one stroke horizontally from the right and another from the left before it dries.
- Each coat shall be allowed to dry before the next one is applied.
- No portion of the surface shall be left out initially to be patched up later on.
- For new work, two coats shall be applied till the surface presents a smooth and uniform finish through which the plaster does not show.
- The finished dry surface shall not show any signs of cracking and peeling nor shall it come off readily on the hand when rubbed.
- The white washed surface should present a uniform finish through which the plaster patches do not appear.
- The washing on ceiling should be done prior to that on walls.
- Doors, windows, floors, articles of furniture etc. and such other parts of the building not to be white washed, shall be protected from being splashed upon.
- Splashings and droppings, if any shall be removed and the surfaces cleaned.
4. COLOUR WASHING
- The mineral colours not affected by lime, shall be added to white wash.
- No colour wash shall be done until a sample of the colour wash of the required tint or shade has been got approved from the Field Engineer.
- The colour shall be of even tint or shade over the whole surface.
- If it is blotchy or otherwise badly applied, it shall be redone.
- The finished dry surface shall not be powdery and shall not readily come off on the hand when rubbed.
- All relevant points for ensuring quality control for white washing are applicable to this type of finishing also.
5. DRY DISTEMPERING
- Dry distemper of required colour (IS: 427) and of approved brand and manufacture shall be used.
- The shade shall be got approved by the Engineer before application of the distemper.
- The dry distemper of approved colour shall be stirred slowly in clean water using 600 ml of water per kg of distemper or as specified by the manufacturers.
- Warm water shall preferably be used.
- It shall be allowed to stand for at least 30 minutes (or if practicable, overnight) before use.
- The mixture shall be well stirred before and during use to maintain an even consistency.
- Distemper shall not be mixed in larger quantity than is actually required for one day’s work.
5.1 Oil Emulsion (Oil Bound) Washable Distempering
- Oil emulsion (Oil bound) washable distemper (IS: 428) of approved brand and manufacture shall be used.
- The primer used in new work shall be cement primer or distemper primer as specified in the item.
- These shall be of the same manufacture as distemper.
- The distemper shall be diluted with water or any other prescribed thinner in a manner recommended by the manufacturer.
- Only sufficient quantity of distemper required for day’s work shall be prepared.
- The distemper and primer shall be brought by the Contractor in sealed tins in sufficient quantities.
- Oil bound distemper is not recommended to be applied, within six months of the completion of wall plaster. However, newly plastered surfaces if required to be distempered before a period of six months shall be given a coat of alkali resistant priming paint conforming to IS: 109 and allowed to dry for at least 48 hours before distempering is commenced.
- For old work, no primer coating is necessary.
6. CEMENT PRIMER COAT
- Cement primer coat is used as a base coat on wall finish of cement, lime or lime cement plaster or on non-asbestos cement surfaces before oil emulsion distemper paints are applied on them.
- Primer coat shall be preferably applied by brushing and not by spraying.
- Hurried priming shall be avoided particularly on absorbent surfaces.
- New plaster patches in old work should also be treated with cement primer before applying oil emulsion paints etc.
7. CEMENT PAINT
- The cement paint shall be of approved brand and manufacture conforming to IS: 5410.
- The cement paint shall be brought to the site of work in its original containers in sealed condition.
- The materials shall be brought in at a time in adequate quantities for the whole work.
- The lids of cement paint drums shall be kept tightly closed when not in use, as by exposure to atmosphere the cement paint rapidly becomes air set due to its hygroscopic qualities.
- In case of cement paint brought in gunny bags, once the bag is opened, the contents should be consumed in full on the day of its opening. If the same is not likely to be consumed in full, the balance quantity should be transferred and preserved in an airtight container to avoid its exposure to atmosphere.
- Water proof cement paint shall not be applied on surfaces already treated with white wash, colour wash, distemper dry or oil bound, varnishes, paints etc.,
- It shall not be applied on gypsums, wood and metal surfaces.
- If water proofing cement is required to be applied on existing surface, previously treated with white wash, colour wash etc., the surface shall be thoroughly cleaned by scrapping off all the white wash, colour wash etc., completely.
- Thereafter, a coat of cement primer shall be applied followed by two coats of water proof cement.
8. PAINTING ON EXTERIOR WALL
- Before pouring into smaller containers for use, the paint shall be stirred thoroughly in its container, when applying also the paint shall be continuously stirred in the smaller containers so that its consistency is kept uniform.
- Dilution ratio of paint with potable water can be altered taking into consideration the nature of surface, climate and as per recommended dilution given by manufacturer.
- In all cases, the manufacturer’s instructions and directions of the Engineer shall be followed meticulously.
- The lids of paint drums shall be kept tightly closed when not in use as by exposure to atmosphere the paint may thicken and also be kept safe from dust.
9. PAINTING PRIMING COAT ON WOOD, IRON OR PLASTERED SURFACES
- The primer for wood work, iron work or plastered surface shall be as specified in the description of item.
- Mineral turpentine i.e., petroleum distillate which has the same rate of evaporation as vegetable turpentine (Distillate product of oleoresin of conifers) shall be used. It shall have no grease or other residue when allowed to evaporate. It shall conform to IS: 533.
10. PAINTING SYNTHETIC ENAMEL PAINT OVER GS SHEETS
- Paint, suitable for painting over GS sheets, of approved brand and manufacture and of the required shade shall be used.
- New or weathered GS sheets shall be painted with a priming coat of one coat of red oxide zinc chromate paint. Primer shall be applied before fixing sheets in place.
11. PAINTING RAIN WATER/SOIL/WASTE/VENT PIPES AND FITTINGS OFCAST IRON
- The primer shall be of approved brand and manufacture as specified in the item.
- Paint shall be anti-corrosive bit mastic paint, aluminium paint or other type of paint as specified in the description of the item.
12. PAINTING WITH WOOD PRESERVATIVE
- Oil type wood preservative of specified quality and approved make, conforming to IS: 218 shall be used.
- Generally, it shall be creosote oil type - I or anthracene oil.
13. COAL TARRING
- Coal tar of approved manufacture conforming to IS: 290 shall be used.
- The tar, to every litre of which 200gm of un-slaked lime has been added, shall be heated till it begins to boil.
14. WALL PAINTING WITH PLASTIC EMULSION PAINT
- Plastic emulsion paint shall confirm to IS: 5411 and shall be of the approved brand and manufacture.
15. PAINTING WITH SYNTHETIC ENAMEL PAINT
- Synthetic enamel paint of approved brand and manufacture conforming to IS: 2933 and of the required colour shall be used.
- During the twelve months storage period, the rating for degree of settling shall not drop to zero, when tested as per IS: 101 (Part 6/Sec. 2).
- The paint shall be free from coarse particles, suspended particles of gel and foreign matter, when tested as per IS: 101 (Part 1/Sec. 2). hydrocarbon, solvent grade (IS: 1745) or with a suitable thinner as agreed to between the purchaser and the supplier, without showing any precipitation.
- The material shall be supplied in brushing consistency, suitable for application by brushing and air spraying.
- Manufacturer’s test certificate is mandatory if the area of painting is greater than 250 m2.
16. PAINTING WITH ALUMINIUM PAINT
- Aluminium paint shall be of approved brand and manufacture conforming to IS: 2339.
- If the paint comes in compact dual container with the paste and the medium separately, the two shall be mixed together to proper consistency before use.
- As aluminium paste is likely to settle in the container, care shall be taken to frequently stir the paint during use.
- Also the paint shall be applied and laid off quickly, as surface is otherwise not easily finished.
17. PAINTING WITH ANTI-CORROSIVE BITUMASTIC PAINT
- Ready mixed paint shall be of approved brand and manufacture conforming to IS: 158.
- It shall be black, lead free and acid-alkali-heat-water resistant.
- Varnish for the finishing and under coats shall be of the approved manufacturer conforming to IS: 347.
- Ordinary copal varnish or superior quality spray varnish shall be used.
- The work includes sizing of transparent wood filler.
- Rubbing down and flatting the surface shall be done after each coat except the final coat with fine sand paper.
- The work shall be allowed to dry away from droughts and damp air. The finished surface shall then present a uniform appearance and fine glossy surface free from streaks, blister etc.,
- Any varnish left over in the small container shall not be poured back in to the stock tin, as it will render the latter unfit for use.
- Special fine haired varnishing brushes shall be used and not ordinary paint brushes. Brushes shall be well worn and perfectly clean.
19. FRENCH POLISHING
Readymade polish conforming to IS: 348 shall be used.
20. BEES WAXING OR POLISHING WITH READY MADE WAX POLISH
The polishing shall be done with readymade wax polish of approved brand and manufacture.
21. REMOVING OLD PAINT
- With patent paint remover: Patent paint removers shall consist of volatile organic liquids thickened with waxes and other ingredients to retard the evaporation of the liquid and to enable a substantial layer of remover to be applied to the surface. The paint remover shall be of a brand and manufacture approved by the Engineer. It shall be free from alkaline matter and non-caustic so that it can be handled by workmen without injury. It shall be of non-inflammable quality as far as possible.
- With caustic soda solution: Caustic soda, as its name implies, is a corrosive liquid and care should be taken to see that no liquid spills over the skin or clothing.
- With blow lamp: The paint shall be removed either with a blow lamp or air-acetylene equipment. The flame shall be allowed to play upon the paint just enough to soften it without charring either the paint or the background. The softened paint shall then be removed with a stripping knife following the flame as it is moved up the surface. Burning off shall begin at the bottom of the vertical surface and shall proceed upwards. Removal with blow lamp shall not be done on narrow or carved undercut surfaces or where there is risk of damage to neighbouring materials such as panes in glazed windows.
RELATED CODES :
(Part 1)-Handmade shellac.
(Part 2)-Machine made shellac.
2. IS:75-Linseed oil raw and refined.
3. IS:77-Linseed oil boiled for paints.
4. IS:102-Ready mixed paint, brushing, red lead, non-setting, priming.
5. IS:104-Specification for ready mixed paint, brushing, zinc chrome, priming.
6.IS:109-Ready mixed paint, brushing, priming plaster to Indian standard colour No.361, 631 white and off white.
7. IS:117-Ready mixed paint, brushing, finishing exterior, semi-gloss for general purposes to Indian Standards colours.
8. IS:133-Enamel, interior (a) under coating (b) finishing.
9. IS:137-Ready mixed paint, brushing, matt or egg shell flat, finishing interior to Indian standard colour as required.
10. IS:158-Ready mixed paint, brushing, bituminous black, lead free, acid, alkali and heat resisting.
11. IS:217-Specification for cut back bitumen.
12.IS: 218-Specification for creosote and anthracene oil for use as wood
13. IS:290-Preservatives paint.
14. IS:337-Varnish, finishing interior.
15. IS:341-Black Japan, Types ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’
16. IS:347-Varnish, shellac for general purposes.
17. IS:348-French polish.
18. IS:419-Putty for use on window frames.
19. IS:427-Distemper, dry colour as required.
20. IS:428-Distemper, oil emulsion, colour as required.
21. IS:524-Varnish, finishing, exterior, synthetic air drying.
22.IS:533-Gum spirit of turpentine (Oil of turpentine).
23. IS:712-Specification for building limes.
24. IS:1200-Method of measurements of building and Civil Engineering:
(Part 12)-Plastering and pointing.
(Part 13)-White washing, colour washing distempering and painting of building surfaces.
(Part 15)-Painting, polishing, varnishing etc.
25. IS:2339-Aluminium paint for general purposes, in dual container.
26. IS:2547-Gypsum building plasters:
(Part 2)-Premixed light weight plasters.
27. IS:2932-Enamel, synthetic, exterior (a) undercoating, (b) finishing.
28. IS:2933-Enamel, exterior: (a) undercoating (b) finishing
29. IS:5410-Cement paint.
30. IS:5411-Plastic emulsion paint:
(Part 1)-For interior use.
31. IS:6278-White washing and colour washing.