FIRE PROTECTION



FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

7.1  SCOPE 

This part covers the requirements of the fire protection for the multi storeyed buildings (high rise buildings) and the buildings, which are of  12 m.  and above in height and low occupancies of categories such as  Assembly, Institutional., Educational (more than two storeyed and  built-up area which exceeds 1000 sq m)., Business (where plot area  exceeds 500 sq m.), Mercantile (where aggregate covered area exceeds  750 sq m.), Hotel, Hospital, Nursing Homes, Underground Complexes,  Industrial Storage, Meeting / Banquet Halls, Hazardous Occupancies.

7.2  PROCEDURE FOR CLEARANCE FROM FIRE SERVICE   

(a) The concerned Authority shall refer the building plans to the  Director Fire service for obtaining clearance in respect of  building identified in clause 7.1 of this Building Bye-law.  

(b)  The Authority shall furnish three sets of complete building plans along with prescribed fee to the Director Fire service, after ensuring that the proposals are in line with Master Plan/Zonal Plan of the area.  

(c)  The plans shall be clearly marked and indicate the complete fire  protection arrangements and the means of access/escape for the  proposed building with suitable legend along with standard  signs and symbols on the drawings. The same shall be duly  signed/certified by a licensed Fire Consultant/Architect. The  information regarding fire safety measures shall be furnished as  per Annexure ‘D’ along with details. 

7.2  PROCEDURE FOR CLEARANCE FROM FIRE SERVICE   

(a) The concerned Authority shall refer the building plans to the  Director Fire service for obtaining clearance in respect of  building identified in clause 7.1 of this Building Bye-law.  

(b)  The Authority shall furnish three sets of complete building  plans along with prescribed fee to the Director Fire service,  after ensuring that the proposals are in line with Master  Plan/Zonal Plan of the area.  

(c)  The plans shall be clearly marked and indicate the complete fire  protection arrangements and the means of access/escape for the  proposed building with suitable legend along with standard  signs and symbols on the drawings. The same shall be duly  signed/certified by a licensed Fire Consultant/Architect. The  information regarding fire safety measures shall be furnished as  per Annexure ‘D’ along with details. 

(d)  The Director Fire service shall examine these plans to ensure  that they are in accordance with the provisions of fire safety  and means of escape as per these bye- laws and shall forward  two sets of plans duly signed for implementation to the building sanctioning Authority.  

(e)  After completion of fire fighting  installations as approved and duly tested and  certified by the licensed Fire Consultant /  Architect, the Owner/ Builder of the building  shall approach the Director Fire service 
through the concerned Authority for obtaining  clearance from fire safety and means of escape  point of view. The concerned Authority shall  ensure that clearance from Director Fire  service has been obtained for the building  identified in clause 7.1 before granting the  completion certificate. 

(f) On receipt of the above request, the Director Fire service shall  issue the No Objection Certificate from fire safety and means  of escape point of view after satisfying himself that the entire  fire protection measures are implemented and functional as per  approved plans. 

(g) Any deficiencies observed during the course of inspection shall  be communicated to the Authority for rectification and a copy  of the same shall be forwarded to the concerned building owner  /builder.   

7.3  RENEWAL OF FIRE CLEARANCE   

On the basis of undertaking given by the Fire Consultant / Architect,  the Director Fire service shall renew the fire clearance in respect of the  following buildings on annual basis:-  

(1)  Public entertainment and assembly  

(2)  Hospitals 

(3)  Hotels  

(4)  Under ground shopping complex  

7.4 FEE  

(a)  For augmentation of fire service  facilities for effecting rescue/fire fighting  operation in high rise building, fee payable to  Director Fire Serviceby the applicant(s) along  with sets of plans for obtaining the No  Objection Certificate shall be as prescribed by  the Authority.   

7.5 FIRE CONSULTANT  

The Architect of the project will be responsible  for making provisions for fire protection and  fire fighting measure as provided in this  Chapter and for that she / he may consult an  expert in this field, like professionals for  structural, sanitary and others.   

7.6  TERMINOLOGY  

For the purpose of this Chapter all the technical terms shall have the  meaning as defined in the National Building Code of India, Part-IV,  Fire Protection as amended from time to time but for the terms which  are defined otherwise shall be same as defind. in this Building Bye laws.  

7.7 GENERAL  

The Director Fire service  may insist on suitable provisions in the  building from fire safety and means of escape point of view depending  on the occupancy, height or on account of new developments creating  special fire hazard, in addition to the provision of these building bye  laws and part IV (Fire Protection) of National Building Code of India   

7.8 MEANS OF ACCESS  

As provided in Building Bye laws 4.7.  

7.8.1 Provisions of Exterior Open Spaces around the Building: As  provided in building bye laws 4.9.4.  

7.10 EXIT REQUIREMENT  

As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.8.  

7.9.1 Type of Exits: As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.8.1  

7.9.2 Number and Size of Exits: As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.8.2  

7.9.3 Arrangements of Exits: As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.8.3  

7.9.4 Occupant Load: As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.1  

7.9.5 Capacity of Exit: As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.8.4  

7.9.6 Staircase Requirements: As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.8.5  

7.9.9 Minimum Width Provision for Stairways: As provided in Building   Bye-laws 4.8.6  

7.9.10 Minimum Width Provision for Passageway/Corridors: As provided in  Building Bye-laws 4.8.7  

7.9.9  Doorways: As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.8.8  

7.9.10 Stairways: As provided in Building Bye-laws 4.8.9  

7.9.11  Fire Escapes or External Stairs:  

(a) Fire escape shall not be taken into  account while calculating the number of  staircases for a building.

(b) All fire escapes shall be directly connected to the ground. 

(c) Entrance to the fire escape shall be separate and remote from  internal staircase. 

(d) The route to fire escape shall be free of obstructions at all times 

except the doorway leading to the fire escape which shall have  the required fire resistance. 

(e) Fire escape shall be constructed of non-combustible materials. 

(f) Fire escape stairs shall have straight flight not less than 125 cm  wide with 25 cm treads and risers not more than 19 cm.   

(g) Handrails shall be at a height not less than 100 cm. 

(h) Fire escape staircase in the mercantile,  business, assembly, hotel buildings above 15  meter height shall installed a fire tower and  in such case width of the same shall not be  less than the width of the main staircase.  No 
combustible material shall be allowed in the  fire tower. 

7.9.12 Spiral Stairs 

(a) The use of spiral staircase shall be  limited to low occupant load and to a building  height 9 m. 

(b) A spiral stair shall not be less than 1.50 m in diameter  and shall be designed to give the adequate headroom.  

7.9.14 Staircase Enclosures 

(a) The external enclosing walls of the staircase shall be of the  brick or the R.C.C. construction having fire resistance of not  less than two hours. All enclosed staircases shall have access  through self-closing door of one-hour fire resistance.  These  shall be single swing doors opening in the direction of the  escape.  The door shall be fitted with the check action door  closers.  

(b) The staircase enclosures on the external wall of the building  shall be ventilated to the atmosphere at each landing.  

(c) Permanent vent at the top equal to the 5% of the cross sectional  area of the enclosure and openable sashes at each floor level  with area equal to 1 to 15% of the cross sectional area of the  enclosure on external shall be provided.  The roof of the shaft  shall be at least 1 m. above the surrounding roof. There shall be  no glazing or the glass bricks in any internal closing wall of  staircase. If the staircase is in the core of the building and  cannot be ventilated at each landing, a positive of 5-mm. w.g.  by electrically operated blower/blowers shall be maintained.  

(d) The mechanism for pressurizing the staircase shaft shall be so  installed that the same shall operate automatically on fire alarm  system/sprinkler system and be provided with manual operation  facilities

7.9.14   Ramps  

(a)  Ramps of slope of not more than 1 in  10 may be substituted for and shall  comply with all the applicable  requirements of all required stairways  as to enclosure capacity and limiting  dimensions. Larger slopes shall be  provided for special uses but in no case  greater than 1 in 8. For all slopes  exceeding 1 in 10 and where the use is  such as to involve danger of slipping,  the ramp shall be surfaced with approved  non-slipping material.  

(b)  The minimum width of the ramps in the  Hospitals shall be 2.4 m. and in the  basement using car parking shall be 6.0  m.  

(c)  Handrails shall be provided on both sides of the ramp.  

(d)  Ramp shall lead directly to outside open space at ground  level or courtyards of safe place

(e) In case of nursing homes, hospitals etc. area exceeding 300  sq m. at each floor one of the exit facility shall be a ramp of  not less than 2.4 m. in width. 

7.10  PROVISION OF LIFTS   

(a) Provision of the lifts shall be made for  all multi-storeyed building having a height of  12 m. and above. 

(b) All the floors shall be accessible for 24 hrs. by the lift. The lift  provided in the buildings shall not be considered as a means of  escape in case of emergency.  

(c) Grounding switch at ground floor level to enable the fire service to ground the lift car in case of emergency shall also be  provided.  

(d)  The lift machine room shall be separated and no other machinery be installed in it. 

7.10.1  Lift Enclosure/lift   

General requirements shall be as follows  

(a) Walls of lift enclosures shall have a fire rating of two hours.   Lift shafts shall have a vent at the top of area not less than 0.2  sq m.  

(b) Lift motor room shall be located preferably on top of the shaft  and separated from the shaft by the floor of the room.  

(c) Landing door in lift enclosures shall have a fire resistance of  not less than one hour.  

(d) The number of lifts in one lift bank shall not exceed four. A  wall of two hours fire rating shall separate individual shafts in a  bank.  

(e) Lift car door shall have a fire resistance rating of 1 hour.  

(f) For buildings 12 m. and above in height, collapsible gates shall  not be permitted for lifts and solid doors with fire resistance of  at least one hour shall be provided. 

(g) If the lift shaft and lobby is in the core of the building a positive  pressure between 25 and 30 Pascal9 (pa) shall be maintained in  the lobby and a possible pressure of 50 Pascal (pa) shall be  maintained in the lift shaft. The mechanism for the  pressurization shall act automatically with the fire  alarm/sprinkler system and it shall be possible to operate this  mechanically also. 

(h) Exit from the lift lobby, if located in the core of the building,  shall be through a self-closing fire smoke check door of one hour fire resistance.  

(i) Lift shall not normally communicate with the basement. If  however, lifts are in communication, the lift lobby of the  basement shall be pressurized as in (g) with self closing door as  in (h). 

(j) Grounding switch (es), at ground floor level shall be provided  to enable the fire service to ground the lifts.  

(k) Telephone/talk back communication facilities may be provided  in lift cars for communication system and lifts shall be  connected to the fire control room of the building.  

(l) Suitable arrangements such as providing slope in the floor of the lift lobby shall be made to prevent water used during fire  fighting, etc at any landing from entering the lift shafts.  

7.10.2  Fire Lift 

Following details shall apply for a fire lift in addition to above  requirements

(a)  To enable fire service personnel to reach the upper floors with  the minimum delay, one or more of the lifts shall be so  designed so as to be available for the exclusive use of the  fireman in an emergency and be directly accessible to every  dwelling/lettable floor space on each floor.  

(b) The lift shall have a floor area of not less than 1.4 sq.mt. It shall  have a loading capacity of not less than 545 kg. (8 persons lift)  with automatic closing doors.  

(c) The electric supply shall be on a separate service from electric  supply mains in a building and the cables run in a route safe  from fire that is within a lift shaft. Lights and fans in the  elevator having wooden paneling or sheet steel construction  shall be operated on 24-volt supply.  

(d) In case of failure of normal electric supply, it shall  automatically switchover to the alternate supply. For apartment  houses, this changeover of supply could be done through  manually operated changeover switch. Alternatively, the lift  should be so wired that in case of power failure, it comes down  at the ground level and comes to stand still with door open.  

(e) The operation of a fire lift shall by a  single toggle of two-button switch situated in  a glass-fronted box adjacent to the lift at the  entrance level. When the switch is on landing;  call points will become inoperative and the  lift will be on car control only or on a  priority control device. When the switch is  off, the lift will return to normal working.  This lift can be used by the occupants in  normal times.  

(f) The words 'F1RE LIFT' shall be conspicuously displayed in  fluorescent paint on the lift landing doors at each floor level.  

(m) A sign shall be posted and maintained on every floor at or near  the lift indicating that in case of fire, occupants shall use the  stairs unless instructed otherwise. The sign shall also contain a  plan for each floor showing the location of the stairways. Floor  marking shall be done at each floor on the wall in front of the  lift-landing door. 

(n) Alternate power supply shall be provided in all the lifts.

(g) The speed of the fire lift shall be such that it can reach to the  top floor from ground level within one minute. 

7.11  BASEMENT   

As provided in Chapter- 3 and Building Bye-laws 4.5.5  

7.11.1 Requirements 

(i) The access to the basement shall be either from the  main or alternate staircase providing access and exit from \ higher floors. Where the staircase is continue the same shall be  enclosed type serving as a fire separation from the basement  floor and higher floors. Open ramps shall be permitted if they  are constructed within the building line subject to the provision  of the (iv).  

(ii) In case of basement for office, sufficient number of exit ways  and access ways shall be provided with a travel distance not  more than 15.0 m.  The travel distance in case of dead-end shall  be 7.5 m.  

(iii) The basement shall be partitioned and in no case compartment  shall be more than 500 sq m. and less than 50 sq m. area except  parking. Each compartment shall have ventilation standards as  laid down in Building Bye-laws separately and independently.  The partition shall be made in consultation with Director Fire  service.  

(iv)  The first basement (immediately below  ground level) can be used for  services/parking/other permissible  services. Lower basement, if provided,  shall exclusively be used for car parking  only.     

(v) Each basement shall be separately ventilated. Vents with cross sectional area (aggregate) not less than 2.5 percent of the floor  area spread evenly round the perimeter of the basement shall be  provided in the form of grills or breakable starboard lights or  pavement lights or by way of shafts. Alternatively a system of  air inlets shall be provided at basement floor level and smoke  outlets at basement ceiling level. Inlets and extracts may be  terminated at ground level with starboard or pavement lights as  before. But ducts to convey fresh air to the basement floor level  have to be laid. Starboard and pavement lights should be in  positions easily accessible to the firemen and clearly marked  "SMOKE OUTLET" or AIR INLET" with an indication of area  served at or near the opening.  

(vi) The staircase of basement shall be of enclosed type having fire  resistance of not less than two hours and shall be situated at the  periphery of the basement to be entered at ground level only  from the open air and in such positions that smoke from any  fire in the basement shall not obstruct any exit serving the  ground and upper stories of the building and shall communicate  with basement through a lobby provided with fire resisting self  closing door of one hour rating. In case of basement being used  as car parking only, the travel distance shall be 45 m.  

(vii) In multi-storeyed basements, intake duct may serve all  basements levels, but each basement and basement  compartment shall have separate smoke outlet duct or ducts.   Mechanical extractors for smoke venting system from lower  basement levels shall also be provided. The system shall be of  such design as to operate on actuation of smoke, heat sensitive  detectors/sprinklers, if installed, and shall have a considerably  superior performance compared to the standard units. It shall  also have an arrangement to start it manually.  

(viii) Mechanical extractors shall have an internal locking  arrangement so that extractors shall continue to operate and  supply fans shall stop automatically with the actuation of fire detectors. Mechanical extractors shall be designed to permit 30  air changes per hour in case of fire or distress call.  However,  for normal operation, only 30 air changes or any other  convenient factor can be maintained

(ix) Mechanical extractors shall have an alternate source of power  supply.  

(x) Ventilating ducts shall be integrated with the structure and  made out of brick masonry or RCC as far as possible and when  this duct crosses the transformer area of electrical switchboard,  fire dampers shall be provided. 

(xi) Kitchens working on gas fuel shall not be permitted in  basement/sub-basement.  

(xii) If cutouts are provided from basement to the upper floors or to  the atmosphere, all side cutout openings in the basements shall  be protected by sprinkler heads at closed spacing so as to form  a water curtain in the event of a fire.  

(xiii) Dewatering pump shall be provided in all basements

7.13.1 ELECTRICAL SERVICES  

Electrical Services shall conform to the following:  

(a) The electric distribution cables/wiring shall be laid in a separate  duct which shall be sealed at every floor with non-combustible  material having the same fire resistance as that of the duct. Low  and medium voltage wiring running in shaft and in false ceiling  shall run in separate conduits. 

(b) Water mains, telephone wires, inter-com lines, gas pipes or any  other service lines shall not be laid in ducts for electric cables.  

(c) Separate conduits for water pumps, lifts, staircases and corridor  lighting and blowers for pressuring system shall be directly  from the main switch panel and these circuits shall be laid in  separate conduit pipes, so that fire in one circuit will not affect  the others. Master switches controlling essential service circuits  shall be clearly labeled.  

(d) The inspection panel doors and any other opening in the  shaft shall be provided with airtight fire doors having fire  resistance of not less then 1 hour.  

(e) Medium and low voltage wiring running in shafts and within  false ceiling shall run in metal conduits. Any 230 voltage  wiring for lighting or other services, above false ceiling should  have 660V grade insulation. The false ceiling including all  fixtures used for its suspension shall be of non-combustible  material.  

(f) An independent and well-ventilated service room shall  be provided on the 00ground floor with direct access from  outside or from the corridor for the purpose of termination of  electrical supply from the licenses service and alternative  supply cables. The doors provided for the service room shall  have fire resistance of not less than 1 hour  

(g) Multi-Circuit Breaker (MCB) and Electric line Circuit Breaker  (ELCB) shall be provided for electrical circuit.   

7.15 STAIRCASE AND CORRIDOR LIGHTS  

The staircase and corridor lighting shall be on  separate circuits and shall be independently  connected so that it could be operated by one  switch installation on the ground floor easily  accessible to fire fighting staff at any time 
irrespective of the position of the individual  control of the light points, if any. It should be of  miniature circuit breaker type of switch so as to  avoid replacement of fuse in case of crisis.  

(a)  Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be connected to  alternate source of power supply.  

(b) Suitable arrangement shall be made by installing double throw  switches to ensure that the lighting installed in the staircase and  the corridor does not get connected to two sources of supply  simultaneously. Double throw switch shall be installed in the  service room for terminating the stand by supply.  

(c) Emergency lights shall be provided in the staircase and  corridor.   

7.15 AIR-CONDITIONING   

(a)  Air- conditioning system should be installed and maintained so  as to minimise the danger of spread of fire, smoke or fumes  thereby from one floor of fire area to another or from outside  into any occupied building or structure.  

(b) Air -Conditioning systems circulating air to more than one  floor area should be provided with dampers designed to close  automatically in case of fire and thereby prevent spread of fire  or smoke. Such a system should also be provided with  automatic controls to stop fans in case of fire, unless arranged  to remove smoke from a fire, in which case these should be  designed to remain in operation. 

(c)  Air- conditioning system serving large places of assembly (over  one thousand persons), large departmental stores, or hostels  with over 100 rooms in a single block should be provided with  effective means for preventing circulation of smoke through the  system in the case of fire in air filters or from other sources  drawn into the system even though there is insufficient heat to  actuate heat smoke sensitive devices controlling fans or  dampers. Such means shall consist of approved effective smoke  sensitive controls

7.15.1  Air- Conditioning should conform to the following:  

(a) Escape routes like staircase, common corridors, lift lobbies; etc  should not be used as return air passage. 

(b) The ducting should be constructed of metal in accordance with  BIS 655:1963 

(c) Wherever the ducts pass through fire walls or floor, the opening  around the ducts should be sealed with fire resisting material of  same rating as of walls / floors.  

(d)  Metallic ducts should be used even for the return air  instead of space above the false ceiling. 

(e) The material used for insulating the duct system (inside or outside) should be of flame resistant (IS 4355: 1977) and non-  conductor of heat.  

(f) Area more than 750 sq m. on individual floor should be  segregated by a firewall and automatic fire dampers for  isolation should be provided.  

(g) In case of more than one floor, arrangement by way of  automatic fire dampers for isolating the ducting at every floor  from the floor should be made. Where plenums used for return  air passage, ceiling and its features and air filters of the air  handling units, these should be flame resistant.  Inspection  panels should be provided in the main trenching. No  combustible material should be fixed nearer than 15 cm. to any  duct unless such ducting is properly enclosed and protected  with flame resistant material  

(h) In case of buildings more than 12 m. in height, in non ventilated lobbies, corridors, smoke extraction shaft should be  provided

7.15.2 Fire Dampers  

(a) These shall be located in air ducts and return air  ducts/passages at the following points:  

(i) At the fire separation wall.  

(ii) Where ducts/passages enter the central vertical shaft.  

(iii) Where the ducts pass through floors.  

(iv) At the inlet of supply air duct and the return air duct of  each compartment on every    floor.  

(b) The dampers shall operate automatically and shall  simultaneously switch off the air- handling fans. Manual  operation facilities shall also be provided.  

Note:  For blowers, where extraction system and dust  accumulators are used, dampers shall be provided.  

(c) Fire/smoke dampers (for smoke extraction  shafts) for building more than 24 m. in height.   For apartment houses in non-ventilated lobbies /corridor  operated by detection system and manual control sprinkler  system.  

For other buildings on operation of smoke/ heat detection  system and manual control/sprinkler system.   

(d) Automatic fire dampers shall be so arranged so as to  close by gravity in the direction of air movement and to remain  tightly closed on operation of a fusible link.

7.16 BOILER ROOM 

Provisions of boiler and boiler rooms shall conform to Indian Boiler  Act. Further, the following additional aspects may be taken into  account in the location of boiler/ boiler room  

(a)  The boiler shall not be allowed in sub-basement, but may be  allowed in the basement away from the escape routes.  

(b) The boilers shall be installed in a fire resisting room of 4 hours  fire resistance rating, and this room shall be situated on the  periphery of the basement. Catch pits shall be provided at the  low level.  

(c) Entry to this room shall be provided with  a composite door of 2 hours fire resistance.  

(d) The boiler room shall be provided with  fresh air inlets and smoke exhaust directly to  the atmosphere.  

(e) The furnace oil tank for the boiler if located in the adjoining  room shall be separated by fire resisting wall of 4 hours rating.  The entrance to this room shall be provided with double  composite doors. A curb of suitable height shall be provided at  the entrance in order to prevent the flow of oil into boiler room  in case of tank rupture.  

(f) Foam inlets shall be provided on the external walls of the  building near the ground level to enable the fire services to use  foam in case of fire.  

7.17 ALTERNATE SOURCE OF ELECTRIC SUPPLY 

A stand by electric generator shall be installed to supply power to  staircase and corridor lighting circuits, lifts detection system, fire  pumps, pressurization fans and bowlers, P.A system, exit sign, smoke  extraction system, in case of failure of normal electric supply. The  generator shall be capable of taking starting current of all the machines  and circuits stated above simultaneously.   If the standby pump is driven by diesel engine, the generator supply  need not be connected to the standby pump. The generator shall be  automatic in operation. 

7.18.1 SAFETY MEASURES IN ELECTRIC SUB-STATION  

(1) Clear independent approach to the sub-station from outside the  building shall be made available round the clock  

(2) The approaches/corridors to the sub-station area shall be kept  clear for movement of men and material at all times.  

(3) The sub-station space is required to be provided with proper  internal lighting arrangements.  

(4) In addition to natural ventilation proper ventilation to the sub station area is to be provided by grill shutters and exhaust fans  at suitable places so as to discharge all smoke from the sub station without delay in case of fire so that sub-station  operations can be carried out expeditiously.  

(5) Cable trenches of 0.6 m. X 0.6 m. dummy floor of 0.6 mt.  depth shall be provided to facilitate laying of cable inside the  building for connecting to the equipment.  

(6) Steel shutters of 8’X 8’ with suitable grills shall be provided for  transformers and sub-station room.  

(7) The floor of the sub-station should be capable of carrying 10  tons of transformer weight on wheels.  

(8) Built up substation space is to be  provided free of cost.  

(9) Sub-station space should be clear from any water, sewer, air  conditioning, and gas pipe or telephone services. No other  service should pass through the sub station space or the cable  trenches.  

(10) Proper ramp with suitable slope may be provided for loading  and unloading of the equipment and proper approach will be  provided. 

(11) RCC pipes at suitable places as required will be provided for  the cable entries to the sub station space and making suitable  arrangement for non-ingress of water through these pipes.  

(12) The sub station space is to be provided in  the approved/sanctioned covered area of the  building.  

(13) Any other alteration /modification required while erection of  the equipment will be made by the Owner / builder at site as  per requirement.  

(14) Adequate arrangement for fixing chain pulley block above the  fixing shall be made available for load of 15 tons.  

(15) Provision shall be kept for the sumps so as to accommodate  complete volume of transformer oil, which can spillover in the  event of explosion of the transformer in the basement of the  building. Sufficient arrangement should exist to avoid fire in  the sub-station building from spread of the oil from the sumps.  

(16) Arrangement should be made for the provision of fire retardant  cables so as to avoid chances of spread of fire in the sub-station  building.  

(17) Sufficient pumping arrangement should exist for pumping the  water out, in case of fire so as to ensure minimum loss to the  switchgear and transformer.  

(18) No combustible material should be stacked inside the  substation premises or in the vicinity to avoid chances of fire.  

(19) It should be made mandatory that the promoters of the multi storeyed building should get substation premises inspected  once a year to get their license revalidated for the provision of  electric supply from Electricity Board so that suitable action  can be taken against the Owner / Builder in case of non-  implementation of the Building Bye-laws.  

(20)  The sub-station must not be located below the 1st basement and  above the ground floor.  

(21) The sub station space should be totally segregated from the  other areas of the basement by fire resisting wall. The ramp should have a slope of 1 : 10 with entry from ground level. The  entire Sub-station space including the entrance at ground floor  be handed over to the licensee of electricity free of cost and  rent. 

(22) The sub-station area shall have a clear height of 12 feet  (3.65 m.) below beams. Further the Sub-station area will have  level above the rest of basement level by 2 feet.  

(23) It is to be ensured that the Sub-station area is free of seepage /  leakage of water.  

(24) The licensee of electricity will have the power to  disconnect the supply of the building in case of violation of any  of the above points.  

(25) Electric sub station enclosure must be completely segregated  with 4-hours fire rating wall from remaining part of basement.  

(26) The Sub-station should be located on  periphery /sub basement and (not above ground  floor).  

(27)  Additional exit shall be provided if travel distance from  farthest corner to ramp is more than l5 m. 

(28) Perfect independent vent system 30 air changes per hour linked  with detection as well as automatic high velocity water spray  system shall be provided.  

(29) All the transformers shall be protected with high velocity water  spray system / Nitrogen Injection System, Carbon Dioxide total  flooding system in case of oil filled transformer. In addition to  this, manual control of auto high velocity spray system for  individual transformers shall be located outside the building at  ground floor.  

(30) Suitable arrangement for pump house, water storage tanks with  main electrical pump and a diesel-operated pump shall be made  if no such arrangement is provided in the building. In case the  water pumping facilities are existing in the building for  sprinkler system, the same should however be utilized for high  velocity water spray system. Alternatively automatic CO2 total flooding system shall be provided with manual controls outside  the electric sub-station.

(31) System shall have facility to give an audio  alarm in the basement as well as at the  control room.  

(32) Fire control room shall be manned round  the clock.  

(33) The electric sub station shall have electric supply from alternate  source for operation of vent System lighting arrangements.  

(34) Cable trenches shall be filled with sand  

(35) Party walls shall be provided between two  transformers as per the rules.  

(36) Electric control panels shall be  segregated.  

(37) Exits from basement electric substation shall have self-closing  fire smoke check doors of 2-hours fire rating near entry to  ramp.  

(38) All openings to lower basement or to ground floor shall be  sealed properly.  

(39) Yearly inspection shall be carried out by electrical load  sanctioning Authority.  

(40) Ramp to be designed in a manner that in  case of fire no smoke should enter the main  building.  

(41) Electric sub station transformer shall have clearance on all  sides as per BBL/relevant electric rules.  

(42) Other facility will be as per Building  Bye-laws and relevant electric rules.  

(43) Rising electrical mains shall consist of metal bus bars suitably  protected from safety point of view.  

(44) Oil less transformer shall be preferred

7.19.1. FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS 

Buildings shall be planned, designed and constructed to ensure fire  safety and this sha1l be done in accordance with part IV Fire  Protection of National Building Code of India, unless otherwise  specified in this Building Bye-laws. In the case of buildings (identified  in Building Bye-laws No. 7.1) the building schemes shall also be  cleared by the Director Fire service 

7.19.1 First Aid /Fixed Fire Fighting /Fire Detection Systems and other  Facilities   

Provision of fire safety arrangement for different occupancy from. SI  no. 1 to 23 as indicated below shall be as per Annexure 'A'  'B' & 'C'.  

(1) Access  

(2) Wet Riser  

(3) Down Comer 

(4) Hose Reel 

(5) Automatic Sprinkler System  

(6) Yard Hydrant  

(7) U.G. Tank with Draw off Connection  

(8) Terrace Tanks  

(9) Fire Pump  

(10) Terrace Pump  

(11) First Aid Fire Fighting Appliances  

(12) Auto Detection System  

(13) Manual operated Electrical Fire Alarm System  

(14) P.A System with talk back facility  

(15) Emergency Light  

(16) Auto D.G. Set  

(17) Illuminated Exit Sign  

(18) Means of Escape  

(19) Compartimentation  

(20) MCB /ELCB  

(21) Fire Man Switch in Lift  

(22) Hose Boxes with Delivery Hoses and Branch  

(23) Pipes Refuge Area  

1.1.1.5  

1.1.1.6 Note for Annexure ‘A’ ‘B’ & ‘C’  

(1)  Where more than one riser is required because of large floor  area, the quantity of water and pump capacity recommended in  these Annexures should be finalized in consultation with the  Director Fire service . 

(2) The above quantities of water shall be exclusively for fire  fighting and shall not be utilized for domestic or other use.  

(3)  A facility to boost up water pressure in the riser directly from  the mobile pump shall be provided in the wet riser, down comer  system with suitable fire service inlets (collecting head) with 2  to 4 numbers of 63 mm inlets for 100-200 mm dia main, with  check valve and a gate valve.  

(4)  Internal diameter of rubber hose for reel shall be minimum 20  mm. A shut off branch with nozzle of 5 mm. size shall be  provided.  

(5) Fire pumps shall have positive suctions. The pump house shall  be adequately ventilated by using normal/mechanical means. A  clear space of 1.0 m. shall be kept in between the pumps and  enclosure for easy movement /maintenance. Proper testing  facilities and control panel etc. shall be provided.  

(6) Unless otherwise specified in Building Bye-laws, the fire  fighting equipments /installation shall conform to relevant  Indian Standard Specification.  

(7) In case of mixed occupancy, the fire fighting arrangement shall  be made as per the highest class of occupancy.  

(8) Requirement of water based first aid fire extinguishers shall be  reduced to half if hose reel is provided in the Building. 

7.20 STATIC WATER STORAGE TANK 

(a) A satisfactory supply of water exclusively for the purpose of  fire fighting shall always be available in the form of  underground static storage tank with capacity specified in  Annexure-A with arrangements of replenishment by town's  main or alternative source of supply @ 1000 liters per minute.  The static storage water supply required for the above  mentioned purpose should entirely be accessible to the fire  tenders of the local fire service. Provision of suitable number of  manholes shall be made available for inspection repairs and  insertion of suction hose etc. The covering slab shall be able to  withstand the vehicular load of 45 tonnes in case of high rise  and 22 tonnes in case of low rise buildings. A draw off  connection shall be provided. The slab need not strengthened if  the static tank is not located in mandatory set- back area.

(b) To prevent stagnation of water in the static water tank the  suction tank of the domestic water supply shall be fed only  through an over flow arrangement to maintain the level therein  at the minimum specified capacity.  

(c) The static water storage tank shall be provided with a fire  brigade collecting branching with 4 Nos. 63mm dia  instantaneous male inlets arranged in a valve box with a  suitable fixed pipe not less than 15 cm dia to discharge water  into the tank. This arrangement is not required where down  comer is provided

7.21 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS 

 Automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in the following  buildings:  

(a)  All buildings of 12 m. and above in height.  

(b) Hotels below l2 m. in height and above 1000 sq m. built up  area at each floor and or if basement is existing.  

(c) All hotels, mercantile, and institutional  buildings of 12 m. and above.  

(d) Mercantile building having basement more than one floor but  below 15 m. (floor area not exceeding 750 sq m.)  

(e) Underground Shopping Complex.  

(f) Underground car / scooter parking /enclosed car parking.  

(g) Basement area 200 sq m. and above.  

(h) Any special hazards where the Chief Fire Officer considers it  necessary.  

(i) For buildings up to 24 m. in height where automatic sprinkler  system is not mandatory as per this Building Bye-laws, if  provided with sprinkler installation following relaxation may  be considered.  

(i) Automatic heat/smoke detection system and M.C.P.  need not be insisted upon. 

(ii) The number of Fire Extinguisher required shall be reduced by half. 

7.22 FIXED CARBON DI-OXIDE / FOAM / DCO WATER SPRAY  EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM   

Fixed extinguishing installations shall be provided as per the relevant  specifications in the premises where use of above extinguishing media  is considered necessary by the Director Fire service .   

7.23 FIRE ALARM SYSTEM  

All buildings of 12 m. and above in height shall be equipped with fire  alarm system, and also residential buildings (Dwelling House,  Boarding House and Hostels) above 12 m. height.  

(a)  All residential buildings like dwelling houses (including flats)  boarding houses and hostels shall be equipped with manually  operated electrical fire alarm system with one or more call  boxes located at each floor. The location of the call boxes shall  be decided after taking into consideration their floor without  having to travel more than 22.5 m.  

(b) The call boxes shall be of the break glass type without any  moving parts, where the call is transmitted automatically to the  control room without any other action on the part of the person  operating the call boxes. 

(c) All call boxes shall be wired in a closed circuit to a control  panel in a control room, located as per Building Bye-laws so  that the floor number from where the call box is actuated is  clearly indicated on the control panel. The circuit shall also  include one or more batteries with a capacity of 48 hours  normal working at full load. The battery shall be arranged to be  a continuously trickle charged from the electric mains.  

(d) The call boxes shall be arranged to sound one or more sounders  so as to ensure that all occupants of the floor shall be warned  whenever any call box is actuated.  

(e) The call boxes shall be so installed that they do not obstruct the  exit ways and yet their location can easily be noticed from  either direction. The base of the call box shall be at a height of  1.5 m. from the floor level.  

(f) All buildings other than as indicated above shall, in addition to  the manually operated electrical fire alarm system, be equipped  with an automatic fire alarm system.  

(g) Automatic detection system shall be  installed in accordance with the relevant  standard specifications. In buildings where  automatic sprinkler system is provided, the  automatic detection system may not be insisted  upon unless decided otherwise by the Director  Fire service.  

Note:

Several type of fire detectors are available in the market but the application  of each type is limited and has to be carefully considered in relation to the  type of risk and the structural features of the building where they are to be installed.   

7.24 CONTROL ROOM  

There shall be a control room on the entrance floor of the building with  communication system (suitable public address system) to all floors  and facilities for receiving the message from different floors. Details of  all floor plans along with the details of fire fighting equipment and  installation shall be maintained in the Control Room. The Control  Room shall also have facility to detect the fire on any floor through  indicator boards connecting fire detection and alarm system on all  floors. The staff in charge of the Control Room shall be responsible for  the maintenance of the various services and fire fighting equipment  and installation. The Control Room shall be manned round the clock  by trained fire fighting staff.  

7.25 FIRE DRILLS AND FIRE ORDERS   

The guidelines for fire drill and evacuation etc. for high-rise building may be seen in Appendix  (B) of National Building Code part IV. All such  building shall prepare the fire orders duly  approved by the Director Fire service.  

7.26 A qualified fire officer and trained staff shall be appointed for the 
following buildings.  

(a) All high rise buildings above20 m. in height where covered  area of one floor exceeds 1000 sq m. except apartments / group  housing. 

(b) All hotels, identified under classification three stars and above  category by   Tourism Department and all hotels above 12 m. in height with  150 beds capacity or more without star category. 

(c) All hospital building of 12 m. and above  or having number of  beds exceeding 100.  

(d) Underground shopping complex where covered  area exceeds 1000 sq m.  

(e) All high hazard industries.  

(f) Any other risk which Chief Fire Officer considers necessary.   

7.27 The lightening protection warning light (red) for high-rise buildings  shall be provided in accordance with the relevant standard. The same  shall be checked by electrical department.  

7.28 MATERIAL USED FOR CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING 

(a) The combustible/flammable material shall  not be used for partitioning, wall paneling,  false ceiling etc. Any material giving out  toxic gases/smoke if involved in the fire shall  not be used for partitioning of a floor or wall  paneling or a false ceiling etc. The surface  frames spread of the lining material shall  conform to class-I of the standard  specification. The framework of the entire  false ceiling should be provided with metallic  sections and no wooden framework shall be  allowed for paneling/false ceiling. 

(b) Construction features/elements of structures shall conform to  National Building Code and BIS code   

7.29 LPG  

The use of LPG shall not be permitted in the high-rise building except  residential/hotel/hostel/kitchen/pantry (if any) and shall be located at  the periphery of the building on the ground level.  

7.30  HOUSE KEEPING 

A high standard of house keeping must be insisted upon by all  concerned. There must be no laxity in this respect. It must be borne in  mind that fire safety is dependent to a large extent upon good  housekeeping.   

7.30.1  Good House-Keeping includes the following:- 

(a)  Maintaining the entire premises in neat and clean condition.  

(b)  Ensuring that rubbish and combustible material are not thrown  about or allowed to accumulate, even in small quantity, in any  portion of the building. Particular attention must be paid to  corners and places hidden from view.  

(c) Providing metal receptacles/waste paper basket (of non combustible material) at suitable locations for disposal of  waste. Separate receptacles must be provided for disposal of  cotton rags/waste, wherever it is generated, these must under no  circumstances be left lying around in any portion of the  building.  

(d) Ensuring that receptacles for waste are emptied at regular  intervals and the waste removed immediately for safe disposal  outside the building.  

(e) Ensuring that all doors/fixtures are  maintained in good repairs, particular  attention must be paid to self-closing fire  smoke check doors and automatic  fire/doors/rolling shutters.  

(f) Ensuring that self-closing fire/smoke check doors close  properly and that the doors are not wedged open.  

(g) Ensuring that the entire structure of the building is maintained  in good repairs.  

(h) Ensuring that all electrical and mechanical service equipments  are maintained in good working condition at all times.  

(i) Ensuring that Cars / Scooters etc. are parked systematically in  neat rows. It is advisable to mark parking lines on the ground in  the parking areas near the building and in the parking area on  ground floor and in basement(s); as applicable, inside the building. A parking attendant must ensure that vehicles are  parked in an orderly manner and that the vehicles do not  encroach upon the open space surrounding the building. 

7.30.2. Smoking Restrictions 

(a)  Smoking shall be prohibited throughout the basement(s) and in  all areas where there is a profusion of combustible materials.  Easily readable "NO SMOKING" signs must be conspicuously  posted at locations where they can catch the eye. Each sign  must also include a pictograph. The sign may also be  illuminated.  

(b) In all places where smoking is permitted ashtrays, half filled  with water, must be placed on each table/at each other suitable  locations for safe disposal of spent smoking material. The  design of the ashtrays must be such that they cannot easily  topple over. If, for any reason, this is not practicable a  minimum of one metal bucket or other non-combustible  container half filled with water must be provided in each  compartment for disposal of spent smoking materials.  

7.30.3 Limiting the Occupant Load in Parking and Other Areas of  Basement(s) 

Where parking facility is provided in the basement(s) no person other  than the floor-parking attendant may be allowed to enter and remain in  the parking areas except for parking and removal of Cars/Scooters.  Regular offices must not be maintained in the storage /parking area in  the basement(s). The stores / godowns must be opened for the limited  purpose of keeping or removing stores.  

No person other than those on duty may be permitted in the air conditioning plant room(s), HL/LT switch room, transformer  compartment, control room pump-house, generator room, stores and  records etc.   

7.31 FIRE PREVENTION  

In addition to the measures recommended above, the following fire  prevention measures must be implemented when the building is in  occupation.  

(a)  Storage of flammable substances, such as diesel oil, gasoline,  motor oils, etc must not be allowed anywhere within the  building. The only exception to this rule may be:  

(i)  Storage of diesel oil in a properly installed tank in a  fire-resisting compartment in the generator room;  

(ii)  Diesel oil, gasoline, motor oil etc, filled in the vehicle  tanks.  

(b) Preparation of tea and warming of food must be prohibited  throughout the building.  

(c) Where heaters are used during winters, the following  precautions must be taken.  

(i)  All heaters, except convector heaters, must be fitted  with guards.  

(ii)  Heaters must not be placed in direct contact with or too  close to any combustible material.  

(iii) Heaters must be kept away from curtains to ensure that  the latter do not blow over the heater accidentally.  

(iv) Heaters must not be left unattended while they are  switched on.  

(v) Defective heaters must be immediately removed from  service until they have been repaired and tested for  satisfactory performance.  

(vi) Use of heaters must be prohibited in the entire  basement, fire control room and in all weather maker  rooms throughout the building. Also in all places where  there is profusion of combustible flammable materials.  

(d) Use of candles or other naked light flame  must be forbidden throughout the building,  except in the offices (for sealing letters  only) and kitchen. When candles/ spirit lamps  are used for sealing letters/packets, extreme care must be take to ensure that paper do not  come in direct contact with the naked flame and  the candle/spirit lamp does not topple over  accidentally while still lighted. All  candles/spirit lamps kitchen fires must be  extinguished when no longer required

(e) Fluorescent lights must not be directly above the open file racks  in offices/record rooms. Where this is unavoidable, such lights  must be switched on only for as long as they are needed.  

(f) Filling up of old furniture and other combustible materials such  as scrap paper, rags, etc. must not be permitted anywhere in the  building. These must be promptly removed from the building.  appliance must not be connected to any single  electrical outlet.  

(h) Used stencils, ink smeared combustible materials and empty  ink tubes must not be allowed to accumulate in  rooms/compartments where cyclostyling is done. These must  be removed and disposed off regularly.  

(i) All shutters/doors of main switch panels and  compartments/shafts for electrical cables must be kept locked.  

(j) Aisles in record rooms and stores must have a clear uniform  width of not less than 1.0 m. Racks must not be placed directly  against the wall/partition.  

(k) In record rooms, offices and stores, a clear space of not less  than 30 cm. must be maintained between the top-most stack of  stores/records and the or lighting fittings whichever is lower.  

(l) A similar clearance, and at (k) above must  be maintained from fire detectors.  

(m) Fire detectors must not be painted under any circumstances and  must also be kept free from lime/distemper.  

(n) Records must not be piled/dumped on the  floor.  

(o) Welding or use of blow torch shall not be permitted inside the  building, except when it is done under strict supervision and in  full conformity with the requirements laid down in IS: 3016 1966 code of practice for fire precautions in welding and  cutting operation. 

(p) Printing ink/oil must not be allowed to remain on the floor, the  floor must be maintained in a clean condition at all times. 

7.32    OCCUPANCY RESTRICTIONS  

(a) The premises leased to any party shall be  used strictly for the purpose for which  they are leased. 

(b)  No dangerous trade/practices (including experimenting with  dangerous chemicals) shall be carried on in the leased  premises;  

(c) No dangerous goods shall be stored within the leased premises.  

(d) The common/public corridor shall be maintained free of  obstructions, and the lessee shall not put up any fixtures that  may obstruct the passage in the corridor and/or shall not keep  any wares, furniture or other articles in the corridor.  

(e) The penalty for contravention of the condition laid down above  must be immediate termination of lease and removal of all  offending materials.  

(f) Regular inspection and checks must be carried out at frequent  intervals to ensure compliance with conditions above.  

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