39.1. The standard space and service requirements of various parts of a building like light and ventilation, fire safety etc. firstly depends on the number of persons who would normally occupy the building.  The occupant load therefore for any building should be worked out from Table 26.  

Table 26 : Occupant Load 

Sr.No. Type of Occupancy Occupant load persons per 100 sq.m. of
plinth or covered area
1. Residential 6
2. Educational 2.5
3. Institutional 6.6
4. Assembly
(a)        With  fixed  or  loose  seats  and dance floor.
(b)        Without       seating       facilities
including dining rooms.
5. Mercantile:  
  (a)        Street floor and sales  basement 33.3
  (b)        Upper sale floors. 16.6
6. Business and industrial 10.0
7. Storage 3.3
8. Hazardous 10.0

39.2. The occupant load in dormitory portions of homes for the aged, orphanages or mental hospitals etc. where sleeping accommodation is provided shall be calculated at not less than 13.3 persons per 100 sq.m. 

39.3.  Plinth 

The plinth or any part of a building or outhouse shall be so located with respect to the surrounding ground level that adequate drainage of the site is assured.  

(i.) Main Building:  The height of the plinth shall not be less than 30 cm above the surrounding ground level and in areas subject to flooding; the height of the plinth shall be at least 60 cm above the high flood level. 

(ii.) Interior court-yards, covered parking spaces and garages shall be raised at least 1.5 cm above the surrounding ground level and shall be satisfactorily drained. 

39.4. Habitable Rooms 

(i.) Size & Width:

The minimum size and width shall be as given in the  Table 27

(ii.) Height:  The minimum and maximum height of a habitable room shall be  as specified in Table 28

(iii.) In sites and services projects, a room of 5.6 sq.m with a toilet  arrangement may be allowed in the first phase, and in the second phase  another room of 9.3 sq.m may be added, provided further that an  additional bedroom for occupancy of a single person with a size of 5.5  sq.m with a minimum width of 1.8 m may be permitted.   

Table 27 : Minimum Size and Width of Habitable Rooms 

Occupancy Minimum size in Sq.M. Minimum length of one side in Metres
1. Any habitable rooms 9.5 2.4
2. In a two-room tenement:    
  (a)         One of the room 9.6 2.4
  (b)         Other room 7.5 2.4
3. In   a   two-room   tenement services project    
  (a)         One of the room 9.3 2.4
  (b)         Other room 5.6 2.3
4. Single-bedded  room  in  a    Hostel  of  a
recognized Educational Institution
7.5 2.4
5. Shop 6.0 2.4
6. Class Room 38.0 5.5 Or area @0.8 sq.m.
per student
7. Hospital /Clinic building    
  (a)              Special room 9.5 2.5
  (b)              General ward 40.0 5.0

6.00 Metres shall deem to have consumed additional FSI of 50 per cent of relevant floor area.  This condition is exempted for those industries where the machinery height requirement is more than 4.3 m Only in those areas where it is installed, provided that they submit the machinery detail plan showing the height etc. along with the relevant machinery brochures during the time of obtaining construction permission

 (vi.) The total permissible industrial height is exempted for those industries portion where the machinery is more than 15.00mtr only in those areas where it is installed, provided that they submit the machinery detail plan showing the height etc along with the relevant machinery brochures during the time of obtaining construction permission 

Table 28 : Minimum and Maximum Height of Habitable rooms 

Occupancy Minimum height (in m.) Maximum height (in m.)
1. Flat roof –    
  (a)        Any habitable room 2.7 4.3
  (b)        Air-conditioned habitable room  
  (c)        Assembly halls, residential hotel of 3 Star     category     and     above;     rooms     in institutional,         educational,         Industrial, Hazardous   or   storage,   department   stores entrance  halls  and  lobbies  to  departmental stores and assembly hall.


Subject   to   the   written

permission        of        the 

Authority, greater heightcan  

be   permitted   after can 

 be   permitted   after recording   

 reasons     as thereof.


2. Pitched roof-    
  (a)   Any habitable room 2.7 (Average
with  2.1  m  at 
the       lowest
4.3 (average  with  3.2  m.  at
the lowest point)

39.5. Kitchen: 

39.5.1. The area of the Kitchen shall not be less than 5.5 sq.m with a minimum width of 1.8 m but in a two room tenement the minimum area of the room to be used as a Kitchen shall be 7.5 sq.m with minimum width of 2.1m.

The height of a kitchen shall be the same as that of a habitable room as stipulated in Table 28. 

39.5.2. Other Requirements : Every room to be used as a Kitchen shall have:- 

(a) Unless separately provided in a pantry, means for the washing of Kitchen utensils which shall lead directly or through a sink to a grated and trap connection to the waste pipe. (b) on an upper floor, an impermeable floor; (c) At least a window not less than 1 sq.m. in area, opening directly on to an interior or exterior open space, but not into a shaft. 

39.6. Bathroom and Water closets 

39.6.1. The area and floor dimension of a bathroom or water closet shall not be less than the values given in Table 29.

Table 29 : Area and Floor Dimension of Bathroom and Water Closet 

Type Area (in sq.m.) Minimum length of one side
(in m.)
Bathroom 1.5 1.1
Water closet (WC) 1.1 0.9
Combined bathroom & water closet 2.2 1.1

39.6.1. A sanitary block consisting of a bathroom and water closet for each wing of each floor at each staircase level of the building for the use of domestic servants engaged on the premises may be permitted by the Authority. 

39.6.2. The minimum dimensions of an independent bathroom shall be 1.3 m. x 1.1 m. and for combined bathroom and water closet  (WC) the size shall be (2 sq.m.) with minimum width of 1.1 m.  

39.6.3. The height of a bathroom or a water closet measured from the surface of the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab) shall be not less than 2.2 m.  

39.6.4. Every bathroom or water closet shall be so situated that at least one of its walls shall abut to an exterior open space or an interior /exterior chowk with opening area not less than 0.3 sq.m in area or 0.3 m in width. 

39.6.5. No bathroom or water closet shall be situated directly over any room other than another water closet, washing place, bathroom or terrace unless the said floor is made impervious with adequate water-proofing treatment.  However, in no case shall a water closet or bathroom be provided over a kitchen. 

39.6.6. Every bathroom or water closet shall have the platform or seat or flooring made of watertight non-absorbent material. 

39.6.7. It shall be enclosed by walls or partitions and the surface of every such wall or partition shall be finished with a smooth impervious material to a height of not less than 1 m. above the floor of such a room. 

39.6.8. It shall be provided with an impervious floor covering, sloping towards the drain with a suitable grade and not towards a verandah or any other room.

39.6.9. No room containing water closets shall be used for any purpose except as a lavatory. 

39.6.10. Every water closet and/or a set of urinals shall have a flushing cistern of adequate capacity attached to it.  In High Density Housing, however no such flushing cistern need be provided.  

39.6.11. In High Density Housing, pour flush water seal latrines (NEERI type) may be permitted when the sewerage system is not available and the water table in the area is not high. 

39.6.12. All the sewerage outlets shall be connected to the common sewerage system, where no such system exists, a septic tank with soak pit shall be provided within the plot. 

39.7. Loft 

39.7.1. Lofts may be provided over kitchens, habitable rooms, bathrooms, water closets, and corridors within a tenement in residential buildings, over shops, and in industrial buildings, subject to the restrictions imposed in Table 30. 

39.7.2. Lofts in commercial or industrial buildings shall be located at least 3 m. away from the entrance, and the area shall not be counted towards FSI subject to the condition that the clear head-room under a loft shall not be less than 2.2 m and that above it shall not be more than 1.5 m and if exceeded, it shall be counted towards FSI. 

Table 30 : Permissible area of Loft 

(%age to area of room below)
1. Kitchen /Habitable room 25
2. Bathroom, water closet, corridor 100
3. Shops with width upto 3 m 33.3
4. Shops with width exceeding 3 m 50
5. Shops with width exceeding 3 m. industrial 33.3

39.8.  Mezzanine Floor 

39.8.1. The aggregate area of a mezzanine floor in any room shall not exceed 50 per cent of the built up area of that room.  The size of a mezzanine floor shall not be less than 9.5 sq.mtrs if it is used as a living room.  The area of the mezzanine floor shall be counted towards FSI. 

39.8.2. The minimum height/head-room above a mezzanine floor shall be 2.2 m and the Head-room under a mezzanine floor shall not be less than 2.2 m. 

39.8.3. A mezzanine floor may be permitted over a room or a compartment, if 

(i) It conforms to the standards of living rooms in regard to lighting and ventilation in case its size is 9.5 m. or more;

(ii) It is so constructed as not to interfere under any circumstances with the ventilation of the space over and under it;

(iii) No part of it is put to use as a kitchen;

(iv) It is not closed, so that it could be converted into an un-ventilated compartment;

(v) It is at least 1.8 m away from the front wall of such room; (vi) Access to the mezzanine floor is from within the respective room below only. 

39.9. Store Room 

39.9.1. The area of a store room where provided in residential buildings shall not be more than 3 sq.m. 

39.9.2. The store room shall not be less than 2.2 m. high 

39.10. Garage 

39.10.1. The internal size of a private garage shall not be less than 2.5m x 5.5.m or 2.3m x 4.5m.  

39.10.2. The garage may be located if not within the building either at its side or rear, but atleast 7.5 m away from any access road. Any lock-up garages within the building shall be of such construction as will give fire resistance of minimum two hours. 

39.11. Basement 

39.11.1. The total area of any basement shall not exceed twice the plinth area of the plot.  It may be in one level or two and its length /width shall not extend underneath the marginal open space/ setback limits. 

39.11.2. The height of the basement from the floor to the underside of the roof-slab or ceiling or under side of a beam when the basement has a beam shall not be less than 2.4m. 

39.11.3. The extent of ventilation shall be the same as required by the particular occupancy for which the basement is used.  Any deficiency must be made good by resorting to a mechanical system viz. blowers, exhaust fans, airconditioning system, according to the standards in Part VIII, Building Services- Section-I Lighting and Ventilation, National Building Code.   

39.11.4. A basement may be put to the following uses only 

a. Storage of household or other non-hazardous goods; b. Store rooms, bank lockers or safe-deposit vaults; c. air-conditioning equipment and other machine used for services and utilities of the building; d. parking spaces; e. Electric sub-station (which will conform to required safety requirements); f. Provided that use strictly ancillary to the principal uses may also be permitted in a basement. 

39.11.5. Every basement shall meet the following specifications:- 

(a) The ceiling of an upper basement shall be at least 0.9 m & not more than 1.2 m. above the average surrounding ground level. (b) Adequate arrangements shall be made to ensure that surface drainage does not enter the basement. 

(c) The walls and floors of the basement shall be water-tight and the effect of the surrounding soil and moisture, if any, should be taken into account in design and adequate damp proofing treatment shall be given.

(d) Any access to the basement through a staircase or pedestrian ramp shall meet the normal requirements for such access. Open ramps may be permitted in the open spaces except in the front open space subject to (b) above and the fire protection requirements

 (e) Any access to the basement through vehicular ramps shall meet the normal requirements of such access. 

39.12. Cabin 

Where cabins are provided, a clear passage not less than 0.9 m. wide will be maintained.  The size of a cabin shall not be less than 3 sq.m and the distance from the farthest space of a cabin to the nearest exit shall not be more than 18.5 m. If the cabin does not derive direct light and ventilation from any open spaces /mechanical means, its maximum height shall be 2.2 m.  

39.13.  Office room: 

In every residential building, constructed or proposed to be constructed for the use of a co-operative housing society or an apartment owner’s association, an office room will be permitted on the ground floor or first floor.  In an already developed property, it may be on an upper floor. The area of the room shall be limited to 12 sq.m if the number of tenements in the building does not exceed 20, and to 20 sq.m. otherwise. 

39.14. Letter Box 

A letter box of appropriate dimensions shall be provided on the ground floor of residence and commercial buildings to the satisfaction of the Authority. 

39.15. Meter Room: 

An independent and ventilated meter (service) room directly accessible from the outside shall be provided on ground floor and/or on upper floors, according to the requirements of the electric department.  The door to the room shall have fire resistance of not less than two hours. 

39.16. Refuse Chute:  

In all multi-storied residential and/or commercial buildings of more than Ground plus two floors, a refuse chute shall be provided with openings on each floor. 


The minimum width of a common corridor shall be as shown in Table 28, provided that any corridor identified as an exit shall also conform to the requirements therein. 

39.18. Doors: 

Doors shall conform to the following provisions, in addition to satisfy the firefighting requirements, any doorway identified as an exit shall conform to the requirements therein. 

39.19. Width 

The minimum width of a staircase other than a fire escape shall be as given in Table 31  

Table 31 : Minimum width of Common Stairways /Corridors for various Occupancies 

Type of occupancy Minimum width of staircase/stairway /corridor (in
1. Residential Buildings
(a)          General
(b)          Row Housing (2 storeys)
(c)          Hotels
2. Educational Buildings
(a)         Upto 24 m high
(b)         Over 24 m high
3. Institutional buildings (i.e. hospitals)
(a)         Upto 10 beds
(b)         Over 10 beds
4. Assembly buildings 2.0
5. Other  Public  Semi  Public  buildings,  Mercantile, Business,    Industrial,    Storage    and    Hazardous buildings. 1.5

39.20. No flight shall contain more than 12 risers, but in residential buildings in narrow plots and in High density Housing a single flight staircase may be permitted. 

39.21.  Risers: 

The maximum height of a riser shall be 19 cm. in a residential building, and 16 cm in any other occupancy.  However, on an internal stairway within a dwelling unit, a riser may be 25 cm. high. 

39.22. Treads: 

The minimum width of the tread without nosing shall be 25 cm for staircase of a residential building, other than fire escapes.  In other occupancies, the minimum width of the tread shall be 30 cm.  It shall have a non-slippery finish and shall be maintained in that fashion. 

39.23. Floor Indicator: 

The number of each floor shall be conspicuously painted in figures at least 15 cm. large on the wall facing the flights of a stairway or at such suitable place as is distinctly visible from the flights. 

39.24. Hand Rail 

Handrails with a minimum height of 0.9 m from the centre of the treads shall be provided. 

39.25. Ramps: 

(i) Ramps for pedestrians

(a) General:  The provision applicable to stairways shall generally apply to ramps.  A ramp in a hospital shall not be less than 2.25 m. wide and in addition to satisfying the fire fighting requirements, a ramp shall conform to the stipulations related to fire safety rules and GOI guidelines/Notification

(b) Slope:  A ramp shall have a slope of not more than 1 in 10.  It shall be of non-slippery material

(c) Handrail:  A handrail shall be provided on both the sides of the ramp. (ii) Ramps for basement of storied parking: - For parking spaces in a basement and upper floors, at least two ramps of adequate width and slope shall be provided preferably at the opposite ends.  Such ramps may be permitted in the side and rear marginal open spaces after leaving sufficient space for movement of firefighting vehicles. 

39.26. Lifts: 

At least one lift shall be provided in every building more than 4 storey or 16 m. in height (whichever is lesser).  Wherever, it s not possible to provide ramps in public buildings, a lift is compulsory, irrespective of the height of the building. 

39.26.1. The number, type and capacity of lifts shall satisfy the requirement of Sec.5“Installation of Lifts and Escalators” National Building Code of India. 

39.26.2. At ground floor level, a grounding switch shall be provided to enable grounding lift cars in an emergency. 

39.26.3. The lift machine room shall be separated and no other machinery shall be installed therein.  

39.26.4. The number of each floor shall be conspicuously painted in figures at least 15 cm. large on the wall opposite the lift/lifts opening or on other suitable surface so as to be distinctly visible from the lift cage. 

39.27. Porch: A porch, if any, shall be at least 1.5 m. clear of the plot boundary; the area of a porch upto 5.5 m in length (parallel to the main building) shall not be counted towards FSI.  A parapet wall 0.23 m. in height is permissible over a porch.  The Authority may permit larger porches for mercantile, hotel and public buildings. 

39.28. Balcony:  

No balcony shall reduce the minimum marginal open space to less than what is prescribed in the relevant rules except otherwise mentioned in Rule 39.2   The width of the balcony will be measured perpendicular to the building line and reckoned from that line to the balcony’s outermost edge.  Balconies may also be allowed to be enclosed with written permission of the Authority. When balconies are enclosed, one-third of the area of their faces shall have lower glass shutters or grills on the top and the rest of the area except the parapet shall have glazed shutters. 

39.29. Revas Projection: 

39.29.1. A revas projection 1.20 m. in width may be permitted in the front open space when it faces a street 12m. or more in width.  To facilitate the construction of staircase, such revas projection may be permitted in the side or rear open space provided that such open space is at least 4.5m. and the revas projection is limited to a width of 0.75 m. No revas projection shall be at a height less than 2.1 m. above the ground level. 

39.29.2. A revas projection shall not be permissible in the side of rear open spaces of a tower-like structure. 

39.29.3. The areas of all revas projections shall be taken into account for the computation of FSI. 

39.30. Roofs: 

The roof of a building shall be so constructed or framed as to permit effectual drainage of the rain water there from by means of rain water pipes of the scale of at least one pipe of 10 cm. diameter for every 40 Sq.m. of room area.  Such pipes shall be so arranged, jointed and fixed as to ensure that the rain water is carried away from the building without causing dampness in any part of the walls or foundations of the building or those of an adjacent building.  Rain water pipes shall be affixed to the outside of the walls of the building or in recesses or chutes or formed in such walls or in such other manner as may be approved by the Authority. 

39.31. Terrace: 

Terraces shall not be sub-divided and shall be accessible by common staircases. 

39.32. Parapet: 

Parapet walls and hand-rails provided on the edges of the roof terrace, balcony, etc. shall not be less than 1.15 m. from the finished floor level and not more than 1.30 m. in height above the unfinished floor level. 

39.33. Boundary wall and Main Entrance: 

39.33.1. Boundary wall:  Except with the permission of the Authority, the maximum height of a boundary wall shall be 2.0 m. above the level of the centre line of the front street.  A boundary wall upto 2.4 m. height may be permitted if the top 0.9 m. is of open type construction, to facilitate through vision. 

39.33.2. At a corner plot, the height of the boundary wall shall be restricted to 0.75 m. for a length of 10 m. on the front and side of the inter-section and the balance height of 0.75 m. if required in accordance with 39.33.1 above may be made up of open type construction (through railings). 

39.33.3. In electric sub-stations, transformer stations, institutional buildings like sanitariums, hospitals, educational buildings like schools, colleges, including hostels, industrial buildings and other uses of public utility undertakings, a height upto 2.4 m. can be permitted. 

39.33.4. The main entrance to a plot accommodating a multi-storey, high rise or a special building shall be at least 4.5 M. wide and height shall be not less than 5.0 M from road or floor level and shall be so designed as not to obstruct easy movement of a fire-engine or truck.  The entrance gate to it shall open inside and fold back against the compound wall. 

39.34. Wells: 

39.34.1. No wells shall be located less than 12 m. from any soak pit, refuse pit, subsoil dispersion (soak pit) earth closet or privy; or under a tree, unless it has a canopy over it so that leaves and twigs do not fall into it and rot. 

39.34.2. Other Requirements:  The wells should have a minimum internal diameter of 1 m and should be constructed to height not less than 1m. above the surrounding ground level, to form a parapet or curb and to prevent surface water from flowing into it and shall be surrounded with paving constructed of impervious material which shall extend for a distance of not less than 1.8 m. in every direction from the parapet or the curb forming the well head and the upper surface of such a paving shall be sloped away from the well; the wells should be of sound and permanent construction (pucca) throughout.  A temporary or exposed (kutcha) well shall be permitted only in fields or gardens for purposes of irrigation; the wells should have the interior surface of its lining or walls rendered impervious for a depth of not less than 1.8 m. measured from the level of the ground immediately adjoining the well-head. The well should be clearly visible, with a routes reaching them clearly marked and signs posted to guide any person to the floor concerned. 

39.35. Overhead Tank: 

Every overhead water storage tank shall be maintained in a perfectly mosquito proof condition by providing a properly fitted hinged cover and every tank more than 1.5 m  in height shall be provided with a permanently fixed iron ladder to enable inspection by anti –malaria staff. 

39.36. Septic Tanks: 

39.36.1. Location and Sub –Soil dispersion system shall not be closer than 12 m. to any source of drinking water, such as well to mitigate the possibility of bacterial pollution of water supply. It shall also be as far removed fromthe nearest habitable building as economically feasible but not closer than 2 m to avoid damage to the structure. 

39.36.2. The dimensions shall have a minimum inner width of 75 cms, a minimum depth of 1m below the water level and a per capita minimum liquid capacity of 85 litres. The length of the tanks shall be atleast twice the width. 

39.36.3. The septic tanks may be constructed of brick work, stone masonry, concrete or other suitable material as defined in the National Building Code. 

39.36.4. Under no circumstances, should the effluent from the septic tank be allowed in to an open channel drain or a body of water without adequate treatment. 39.36.5. The minimum diameter of the pipe shall be 100 mm. Further, at junctions of pipes in man holes, the direction of flow from a branch, connection should not make an angle exceeding 45 degrees with the direction of flow in the main pipe. 

39.36.6. The gradient of land drains, under drainage as well as the bottom of dispersion trenches and soak ways should be between 1:300 and 1:400. 

39.36.7. Every septic tank shall be provided with a ventilating pipe of at least 50 mm diameter. The top of the pipe shall be provided with a suitable cage of mosquito proof wire mesh.  The ventilating pipe shall be extended to a height which would cause no small or nuisance to any building in the area.  Generally, the ventilating pipe should extend to a height of 2m, when the septic tank is at least 15m away from the nearest building and to a height of 2m above the top of the building when it is located closer than 15 m. 

39.36.8. When the disposal of a septic tank effluent is to a seepage /soak pit, the seepage pit may be of sectional dimension of 90 cm and not less than 100 cm, in depth below the inner level of the inlet pipe.  The pit may be lined with stone, brick and concrete blocks with dry open joint which should be backed with at least 7.5 cm of clean coarse aggregate.  The lining above the inlet level should be finished with mortar.  In the case of pits of large dimensions, the top portion can be narrowed to reduce the size of the RCC cover slabs.  When no lining is used, specially near trees, the entire pit should be filled with loose stones.  A masonry ring should be constructed at the top of the pit to prevent damage by flooring of the pit by surface run off.  The inlet pipe should be taken down to a depth of 90 cm from the top as an anti-mosquito measure. 

39.36.9. When the disposal of the septic tank effluent is to a dispersion trench, the dispersion trench shall be 50 to 100 cm wide excavated to a slight gradient and shall be provided with a layer of washed gravel or crushed stones 15 to 25 cm deep.  Open jointed pipes placed inside the trench shall be made of unglazed earthen ware clay or concrete and shall have a minimum internal diameter of 75 to 100 mm.  Each dispersion trench should not be longer than 30 m and trenches should not be placed closer than 1.8 m of each other. 

39.36.10. Common Antenna for Television Transmission /Reception:  A common conventional antenna for receipt of television transmission shall be provided for every residential building with more than 10 tenements. 

39.37. Requirement of Educational Buildings 

39.37.1. In addition to the classrooms and other areas, every educational building shall be provided with a tiffin room of minimum area of 18.0 sqm for every 800 students or part thereof. 39.37.2. A separate tiffin room for teachers where strength of students exceeds 1000 has to be provided. 

39.37.3. A room with drinking water facilities for every 300 students or less on each of the floors has to be provided. 

39.38. Special Amenities for Physically Handicapped persons:  All provisions mentioned in the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act 1995; has to be reached strictly.  Over and above it, the following provisions are compulsory in any public buildings; 

39.39. A 90 cm hand-rail and an additional one at a height of 75 cms above the finished level of the steps for staircases and for steps to the ground floor plinth even if they have enclosed on their sides by walls.   A ramp with a slope not exceeding 1:12 from the ground level of open spaces or road level to the entrance door or the lift or the staircases.  One of the wash basins in the toilet block on each floor fixed at a height of 80 cm with a tap at 10 cm above the finished floor level.   

39.39.1. All parts of the room would be adequately lighted and ventilated. Every room shall have one or more apertures, excluding doors with area not less than 1/6th of the floor area of the room, with no part of any habitable room being more than 7.5 m away from the source of light and ventilation.  However a staircase shall be deemed to be adequately lighted and ventilated, if it has one or more openings, their area taken together measuring not less than 1 sqm per landing on the external wall. 

39.39.2. All rooms will have an opening with a minimum area of 1 sqm in any habitable room including a kitchen, and 0.3 sqm with one dimension of 0.3 meter for any bathroom, water closet or store. 

39.39.3. All the walls containing the openings for light and ventilations fully exposed to an exterior open space either directly or through a verandah not exceeding 2.4 m in width provided that a room meant for non-residential use shall be considered as adequately lighted and ventilated if its depth from the side abutting the required open space does not exceed 12 m. 

39.39.4. If a bathroom, water closet, staircase or store may abut on the ventilation shaft, the size of which then shall not be less than the values mentioned in Table 32 

Table 32 : Size of Ventilation Shafts 

Height of Building (metres) Cross Section of Ventilation Shaft
Side of Shaft (meters)
Upto 12 m 2.8 1.2
Upto 18 m 4.0 1.5
Upto 24 m 5.4 1.8
Upto 30 m 8.0 2.4
Above 30 m 9.0 3.0

In such ventilation shafts, mechanical ventilation system shall be installed.  Further such ventilation shaft shall be adequately accessible for maintenance

39.39.5. Where lighting and ventilation requirements are not met through day lighting and natural ventilation, they shall be ensured through artificial lighting and ventilation in accordance with the provisions of Part III, Building Service Section I, Lighting and Ventilation, National Building Code.   


The planning, design and construction of any building shall be such as to ensure safety from the fire. For this purpose, unless otherwise specified in these rules, the provisions of Part IV, Fire Protection Chapter, National Building Code of India - 2005 shall apply.   

40.1. Any building for human occupancy shall be provided with exits sufficient to permit safe escape for its occupants in case of fire or other emergencies the exits shall conform to the following: 

a. Exits should be horizontal or vertical.  The horizontal exit may be a door way, a corridor, a passage way to an internal or external stairway or to an adjoining building, ramp, a verandah or terrace which has access to the street or to the roof of a building.  A vertical exit may be a staircase or a ramp, but not a lift.

b. Exit from all the parts form the building except those not accessible for general public use shall provide continuous egress to the exterior of the building or to an exterior open space leading to the street.  The exits will be so arranged that, except for a residential building, they can be reached without having to cross another occupied unit. The exits should be free from any obstruction and should be adequately illuminated. The exits should be clearly visible with the routes reaching them clearly marked and signs posted to guide any person to the floor concerned.

c. They should be fitted, if necessary, with fire fighting equipment suitably locked but not as to obstruct the passage, clearly marked and with its location clearly indicated on both sides of the exit way.

d. They should be fitted with a fire alarm device, if it is either a multi-storey, high rise or a special building so as to ensure its prompt evacuations.

e. They shall remain unaffected by any alteration of any part of the building so far as their number, width, capacity and protection thereof is concerned

 f. They should be so located that the travel distance on the floor does not exceed the following limits:

 (i) Residential, educational, other institutional /PSP and hazardous occupancies : 22.5 m

(ii) Assembly, business, mercantile, industrial and storage godowns : 30 m  

Note:  The travel distance to an exit from the dead end of a corridor shall not exceed half the distance specified above

 g. When more than one exit is required on a floor, the exits shall be as remote from each other as possible.

h. The width of an exit, stairway /corridor and exit door to be provided at each floor in occupancies of various types shall be as shown in Table 33.  Their number shall be calculated by applying to every 100 sq.m. of the plinth or covered area of the occupancy, the relevant multiplier in Columns 4 and 6 of the Table 26, fractions being rounded off upward to the nearest whole number. Apart from fire fighting Equipments, the following devices shall be installed, a. Indoor, Out Door Cameras (CCTV) with proper lighting, Monitors and data recording facility covering all important points especially Entry/Exit, Parking, litterbins and other critical areas b. Door Frame Metal Detector (DFMD) c. Hand Held Metal Detector (HHMD) d. Search tool Kit (Torch, Extension Mirror, Prodder, Screw driver set, Nylon Cord etc.) e. Under vehicle search mirrors f. Search Lights g. X-ray Baggage Scanner h. Automatic/Manual Barrier/Slide Gate i. Emergency Public Address System j. Intercom/Wireless facility at all important points  

Apart from these equipments, the following features shall also be provided.

(a) Stand-off distance Minimum stand-off of the mall buildings from the public roads should be maintained to help in vehicle management during rush hours/any contingency.

(b) Security Control Room.

(c) Safe Room/Cloak Room near the entrance for the deposit of bags

(d) Voice recording capability to monitor threat calls.

(e) Minimum litterbins to be kept and must be clearly covered and monitored by CCTV systems

(f) All the staffs should be provided with Bio-metric identity card to avoid unauthorized access to critical areas

(g) They should prepare Crisis Management Plan (CMP) and conduct periodic mock drills. 

40.2. Corridors  

a. Exit corridors shall be of a width not less than the total required width of exit doorways leading from them in the direction of travel to the exterior /stairway

b. Where stairways discharge through corridors, the height of the corridors shall not be less than 2.4 m. 

c. Where there is more than one staircase serving a building, there shall be at least one smoke-stop door in the space between the staircases.  

Table 33 : Width and Number of Exits for Various Occupancies 

Type of Occupancy Stair /Corridor Door    Min. Width       in mtrs. Exit Multiplier
Width (mtrs.)
1. Residential Dwellings: 1.2 0.145 - 0.053
  Row      houses      upto      two storeyed 0.75 0.213 -  
  Hotels 1.5 0.107 -  
2. Educational – upto 24 m high 1.5 0.333 - 0.667
3. Institutional  i.e.  –over  24.  m
2.0   -  
Upto 10 beds 1.5 0.083 - 0.044
Over 10 beds 2.0 0.67 -  
4. Assembly :        
  Fixed or loose seats and dance
2.0 0.694 1.0 0.926
  No sitting facilities and dining room 2.0 0.278   0.370
5. Mercantile:     -  
  Street Floor and Basement 1.5 0.222 - 0.222
  Upper Sales floor 1.5 0.111 - 0.111
6. Business & Industrial 1.5 0.067 - 0.067
7. Storage 1.5 0.022 - 0.022
8. Hazardous 1.5 0.133   0.125

 Note: for the dormitory portions of homes for the aged, orphanages, mental hospitals etc. these multipliers will be doubled. 

40.3. Doorway 

a. Every exit doorway shall open into an enclosed stairway, a horizontal exit or a corridor or passageway providing continuous and protected means of egress: 

b. An exit doorway shall open outwards i.e. away from the room, but shall not obstruct the travel along any exit.  No door, when opened, shall reduce the required width of a stairway or landing to less than 90 cm. c. An exit door shall not open immediately upon a flight or stairs; a landing equal to at least the width or the door shall be provided in the stairway at each doorway; the level of the landing shall be the same as that of the floor which it serves; d. Exit doorways shall be openable from the side which they serve, without the use of a key. 

40.4. Revolving doors  

a. Revolving doors shall not be used as required exits except in residential, business and mercantile occupancies; and they shall not constitute more than half the total required door width

b. When revolving doors are considered as required exit ways, then the multiplier in Table 33 shall be increased by 33.33 percent, and the revolving doors shall not be located at the foot of stairway.  Any stairway served by a revolving door shall discharge through a lobby or foyer.

40.5. Internal Stairways 

a. Stairways shall be constructed of non-combustible materials throughout.

b. Any interior staircase shall be constructed as a self-contained unit with atleast one side adjacent to an external wall and shall be completely closed.

c. A stair cases shall not be arranged around a lift shaft unless the later is entirely enclosed by a material of fire resistance rating as that for type of construction itself.  For multi-storeyed high rise and special buildings, the staircase location shall be to the satisfaction of the Chief Fire Officer

d. In multi-storeyed, high rise and special buildings, access to main staircases shall be gained through at least half –an-hour fire resisting automatic closing doors, placed in the enclosing walls of the staircases.  They shall be swing type doors opening in the direction of the escape.

e. No living space, store or other space, involving fire risk shall open directly into a staircase.

f. The external door of a staircase enclosure at ground level shall open directly to the open space or should be accessible without passing through any door other than a door provided to form a draught lobby.

g. In multi-storeyed high rise and special buildings, exit signs with arrows indicating the escape route shall be provided at a height of 1.5 m. from the floor level on the wall and shall be painted with fluorescent paint.  All exit way signs should be flush with the wall and so designed that no mechanical damage to them can result from the moving of furniture or other heavy equipment.

h. Where a building has a single staircase, it shall terminate at the ground floor level, and the access to the basement shall be by a separate staircase.  Where the building is served by more than one staircase, one of the staircases may lead to the basement level, by either a ventilated lobby or a cut-off screen wall without opening, having a fire resistance of not less than 2 hours with discharge point at two different ends or through enclosures.  It shall also be out-off from the basement area at various basement levels by a protected and ventilated lobby /lobbies. 

40.6. Fire escape of external stairs: Multi-storeyed, high rise and special buildings shall be provided with fire escape stair, which will be free of FSI, and they should conform to the following: 

a. They shall not be taken into account in calculating the evacuation time of a building.

b. All of them shall be separate and remote from the internal staircase.

c. Entrance to them shall be separate and remote from the internal staircase.

d. Routes to the fire escape shall be free of obstruction at all times, except for a doorway leading to the fire escape, which shall have the required fire resistance

e. They shall be constructed of non-combustible materials.

f. They shall have a straight flight not less than 75 cm. wide with 15 cm. treads and risers not more than 19 cm.  The number of risers shall be limited to 16 per flight.

g. They shall be provided with handrails at a height not less than90 cm. above the tread. 

40.7. Ramp 

a. All the requirements of this Regulation shall apply to any ramps which apply to a staircase.

b. Ramps shall lead directly to outside open spaces at ground level or courtyards of other safe place.

c. In a multi-storey high rise and special buildings, access to ramps from any floor shall be through a smoke-stop door. 

40.8. Refuge Area 

a. In multi-storey and high rise buildings, at least one refuge area shall be provided on the floor immediately above 24 m. b. It shall be on the external walls as a cantilevered projection or in any other manner. 

c. It shall have a minimum area of 15sq.m and a minimum width of 3.0 m. d. It shall not be counted in FAR. 

40.9. Providing Basic security features pertaining to access controls and surveillances: In all commercial buildings such as Multiplex, Cinema Halls, shopping Malls etc with a minimum carpet area of not less than 10,000 sq ft shall have all security systems installed and in specific CCTV and camera surveillance at appropriate places so that there is adequate monitoring of people visiting such places.  

40.10. Security Features, Access Control and Surveillance to Buildings vulnerable to manmade disaster like terrorist attack. This shall be applicable to all such buildings as listed below:

(a) All buildings that have been specifically identified by the Appropriate Authority of the UT Administration.

(b) All Assembly Buildings.

(c) Institutional Buildings of Govt., Semi Govt. Organizations, Prisons, Courts (having built up area exceeding 10,000 or occupancy over 1,000).

(d) Institutional Buildings of Registered Trusts which are used for Medical or other treatments, Hospitals. (having built up area exceeding 10,000 or occupancy over 1,000)

(e) Educational Buildings of Schools/Colleges (having built up areas exceeding 10,000 or occupancy over 1,000).

(f) Buildings which attract or are likely to attract large number of people/public, such as  Shopping Malls, Markets, Religious Buildings, Large Intercontinental Hotels, Monuments, Places of Tourist importance, Exclusive Business Buildings (like World Trade Center, Stock Exchange) etc.

(g) Hazardous Buildings as defined in National Building Code.

(h) Any other Building specifically categorized by UT Administration 

40.10.1. The following provisions shall be made in such buildings: 

i. Electronic Surveillance Systems shall be installed at various locations in and out of the building as may be required and with previous approval of the Police Department having regard to the degree of perceived risk.  A suitable control room shall be provided within the premises for monitoring, as mentioned earlier in 47.12 above

ii. CCTV coverage of all important locations and vital installations shall be done including main gate, reception, utility areas, and common open areas on floors, lifts, lobbies, and the compound.  Perimeter lighting outside the building shall be adequate with focus at critical areas and movable search lights at corners.

iii. All electronic systems, electrical systems, security systems and minimum services to the Control Room shall be provided with three tier system arrangement consisting of (1) main supply, (2) standby generating system, (3) inverter or UPS system, so as to 

have continuous and uninterrupted supply and shall comply with the provisions of IS codes, Indian Electricity Rules, 1956 and National Building Code.

iv. All provisions of National Building Code in respect of electrification shall be applicable.  

v. In addition to the provision in the National Building Code and the Existing Development Control Rules, the following additional requirements has to be provided.

(a) Provisions of automatic dampers to the main fresh air duct at individual floors.

(b) Protection of entire area with sprinkler system.

(c) Provision of micro processor based wireless addressable detector system with connectivity to the nearest Police Station and Fire Station including basements and mezzanine floors.

(d) Florescent signage showing directions of escape routes/staircases.

(e) Wet risers and sprinkler systems shall always be kept on automation mode.

(f) Provisions of 10/15 Kg. capacity water based mist system 300 bar operating pressure portable extinguisher near the staircase or lift lobby on every alternate floor

(g) Cooking below or within the building shall be disallowed and provision only made for heating with oven, hotplate, tea/coffee machine, etc in the pantry.  However, this restriction shall not apply to star hotels, hospitals and other buildings with core functions requiring food service, in which case the kitchen shall be provided with adequate precautions as directed by the Fire officer and designed for 4 hour fire resistance.  It is preferable to carry out cooking in a detached building.

(h) Fire retardant coat shall be applied to all combustible partitions.

(i) Provisions of minimum two openable windows shall be made on each face of the building.

(j) All windows and glazing on outer walls shall be provided with shatter proof protection film

(k) In addition any more stringent provisions in existing Development Control Regulations and the guidelines issued in National Building Code Part 4 Fire and Life Safety shall be followed

vi. For quick Evacuation during emergencies Adequate provision within the building for quick and safe evacuation shall be made in accordance with the standards of National Building Code including number and width of exit doors, passages to be used as escape routes, staircases, longitudinal and cross-aisle and passages in the offices with built up furniture.

vii. All external cladding shall be provided with shatter proof membranes to the glass walls and openable shutters at intervals for access to rescue teams and to release air pressure due to any blast

viii. Maps of exit routes shall be displayed at various spots within the building.

ix. A separate entry and separate exit are to be provided for each wing of a building having different activities i.e. Malls, Multiplexes, Offices, etc.