04.GENERAL REQUIREMENTS



GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS AND SERVICES  

4.1 General

This part sets out the standard space requirements of various parts of a building (for all types of buildings – low/ high rise).

Table 4.1 Occupant Load

Sl.No. Type of Occupancy Occupant Load per 100 sq m. of Plinth or Covered Area 
1 Residential 8.0
2 Educational 25.0
3 Institutional  6.60
4 Assembly 
with fixed or loose seats and dance floor  166.6
without seating facilities including dining rooms  66.6
5 Mercantile
street floor and sales basement 33.3
upper sale floor 16.6
6 Business and industrial 10.0
7 Storage 3.3
8 Hazardous 10.0

* The occupant load in dormitory portions of homes for the aged, orphanages or mental hospitals etc. where sleeping accommodation is provided shall be calculated at not less than 13.3 persons per 100 sq.m.  

** The plinth or covered area shall include, in addition to the main assembly room or space, any occupied connecting room or space in the same storey or in the storeys above or below where entrance is common to such rooms and space and the area available for use by the occupants of the assembly place. No deduction shall be made in the plinth/covered area for corridors, closets and other sub-divisions; that area shall include all space serving the particular assembly occupancy. 

4.2 Requirements for  Parts of Buildings 

4.2.1 Plinth 

4.2.1.1 Main Buildings 

The plinth or any part of a building or outhouse shall be so located with respect to the surrounding ground level that adequate drainage of the site is assured. The height of the plinth shall be not less than 450 mm from the surrounding ground level. 

4.2.1.2 Interior Courtyards and Covered Parking

Every interior courtyard shall be raised at least 150 mm above the determining ground level and shall be satisfactorily drained.

4.3 Habitable Rooms 

4.3.1 Height 

The height of all rooms for human habitation shall not be less than 2.75 m measured from the surface of the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab) provided that the minimum clear headway under any beam shall not be less than 2.4 m. In the case of pitched roof, the average height of rooms shall not be less than 2.75 m. The minimum clear head room under a beam, folded plates or eaves shall be 2.4 m. In the case of air-conditioned rooms, a height of not less than 2.4 m measured from the surface of the floor to the lowest point of air-conditioning duct or the false ceiling shall be provided

4.3.1.1 The requirements of clause 4.3.1 apply to residential, business and mercantile buildings. For educational and industrial buildings, the following minimum requirements apply: 

Table 4.2 Minimum height requirement for educational and industrial buildings 

Sl.No Types of building Ceiling height
1 Educational Buildings Ceiling height 3.6 m for all  regions; in cold regions, 3 m
2 Industrial Buildings Ceiling height 3.6 m, except when air-conditioned, 3 m (Factory Act 1948 and Rules therein shall govern such heights, where applicable). 

4.3.1.2  Size 

The area of habitable room shall not be less than 9.5 m2, where there is only one room with a minimum width of 2.4 m. Where there are two rooms, one of these shall not be less than 9.5 m2 and the other not less than 7.5 m2, with a minimum width of 2.1 m. 

4.4 Kitchen

4.4.1 Height

The height of a kitchen measured from the surface of the floor to the lowest point in the ceiling (bottom of slab) shall not be less than 2.75 m, except for the portion to accommodate floor trap of the upper floor.

4.4.2 Size

The area of a kitchen where separate dining area is provided, shall be not less than 5.0 m2 with a minimum width of 1.8 m. Where there is a separate store, the area of the kitchen may be reduced to 4.5 m2. A kitchen, which is intended for use as a dining area also, shall have a floor area of not less than 7.5 m2 with a minimum width of 2.1 m.

4.4.3 Other Requirements

Every room to be used as kitchen shall have:

a) unless separately provided in a pantry, means for the washing of kitchen utensils which shall lead directly or through a sink to a grated and trapped connection to the waste pipe;

b) an impermeable floor;

c) a flue, if found necessary; and

d) a window or ventilator or opening of size not less than as specified in clause 4.31.1 subject to increase in area of opening in accordance with Note 3.

4.5 Bathrooms and Water-Closets

4.5.1 Height

The height of a bathroom or water-closet measured from the surface of the floor to the lowest point in the ceiling (bottom of slab) shall not be less than 2.1 m.

4.5.2 Size

The area of a bathroom shall not be less than 1.8 m2 with a minimum width of 1.2 m. The floor area of water-closet shall be 1.1 m2 with a minimum width of 0.9 m. If bath and water-closet are combined, its floor area shall not be less than 2.8 m2 with a minimum width of 1.2 m

4.5.3 Other Requirements

Every bathroom or water-closet shall:

a) be so situated that at least one of its walls shall open to external air;  

b)  not be directly over or under any room other than another water-closet, washing place, bath or terrace, unless it has a water-tight floor;

c) have the platform or seat made of water-tight non-absorbent material;

d) be enclosed by walls or partitions and the surface of every such wall or partition shall be finished with a smooth impervious material to a height of not less than 1 m above the floor of such a room;

e) be provided with an impervious floor covering, sloping towards the drain with a suitable grade and not towards VERANDAH or any other room; and

f) have a window or ventilator, opening to a shaft or open space, of area not less than 0.3 m2 with side not less than 0.3 m.

4.5.4 No room containing water-closets shall be used for any purpose except as a lavatory and no such room shall open directly into any kitchen or cooking space by a door, window or other opening. Every room containing water-closet shall have a door completely closing the entrance to it.

4.6 Ledge or Tand/Loft

4.6.1 Height

The minimum head-room of ledge or TAND/loft shall be 2.2 m. The maximum height of loft shall be 1.5 m.

4.6.2 Size

A ledge or TAND/loft in a habitable room shall not cover more than 25 percent of the area of the floor on which it is constructed and shall not interfere with the ventilation of the room under any circumstances.

4.7 Mezzanine Floor

4.7.1 Height

It shall have a minimum height of 2.2 m.

4.7.2 Size

The minimum size of the mezzanine floor, if it is to be used as a living room, shall not be less than 9.5 m2.

The aggregate area of such mezzanine floor in a building shall in no case exceed onethird the plinth area of the building.

4.7.3 Other Requirements

A mezzanine floor may be permitted over a room or a compartment provided:

a) it conform to the standard of living rooms as regards lighting and ventilation in case the size of mezzanine floor is 9.5 m2 or more (see 4.31.1);

b) it is so constructed as not to interfere under any circumstances with the ventilation of the space over and under it;

c) such mezzanine floor is not sub-divided into smaller compartments;

d) such mezzanine floor or any part of it shall not be used as a kitchen; and

e) in no case shall a mezzanine floor be closed so as to make it liable to be converted into unventilated compartments. 

4.8 Store Room

4.8.1 Height

The height of a store room shall be not less than 2.2 m.

4.8.2 Size

The size of a store room, where provided in a residential building, shall be not less than 3 m2.

4.9 Garage

4.9.1 Height

The height of a garage shall be not less than 2.4 m.

4.9.2 Size

The size of garages shall be as below:

a) Private Garage - 3.0 m × 6.0 m, minimum; and

b) Public Garage - Based on the number of vehicles parked by ECU.(Appendix ‘A-1’)

4.10 Basement

4.10.1 The basement shall not be used for residential purposes.

4.10.2 The construction of the basement shall be allowed by the Authority in accordance with the land use and other provisions specified under the Development Control Rules.

4.10.3 The basement to be constructed within the building envelope and subject to maximum coverage on floor 1 (entrance floor) may be put to only the following uses:

a) Storage of household or other goods of ordinarily non-combustible material;

b) Strong rooms, bank cellars, etc;

c) Air-conditioning equipment and other machines used for services and utilities of the building; and

d)  Parking spaces.

4.10.4 The basement shall have the following requirements:

a) Every basement shall be in every part at least 2.4 m in height from the floor to the underside of the roof slab or ceiling;

b) Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the basement. The ventilation requirements shall be the same as required by the particular occupancy according to byelaws. Any deficiency may be met by providing adequate mechanical ventilation in the form of blowers, exhaust fans, air-conditioning systems, etc;

c) The minimum height of the ceiling of any basement shall be 0.9m and the maximum, 1.2 m above the average surrounding ground level;

d) Adequate arrangements shall be made such that surface drainage does not enter the basement;

e) The walls and floors of the basement shall be watertight and be so designed that the effects of the surrounding soil and moisture, if any, are taken into account in design and adequate damp proofing treatment is given; and  

f) The access to the basement shall be separate from the main and alternative staircase providing access and exit from higher floors.

g) Where the staircase is continuous in the case of buildings served by more than one staircase, the same shall be of enclosed type serving as a fire separation from the basement floor and higher floors. Open ramps shall be permitted if they are constructed within the building line subject to the provision of (d). The exist requirements in basements shall comply with the provisions of Part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’

4.11 Chimneys

The chimneys shall be built at least 0.9 m above flat roofs, provided the top of the chimneys is not below the top of the adjacent parapet wall. In the case of sloping roofs, the chimney top shall not be less than 0.6 m above the ridge of the roof in which the chimney penetrates.

4.12 Parapet

Parapet walls and handrails provided on the edges of roof terraces, balcony, verandah, etc shall not be less than 1.0 m and not more than 1.2 m in height from the finished floor level.

Note:  

i. The above shall not apply where roof terrace is not accessible by a staircase.

ii. However on terrace floor in the portion where installations like DG Set, Water Tank and other, screening parapet of a suitable height may be constructed to hide such equipment’s etc and there is no need to have uniformly increased the height of the parapet.

4.13 Cabin

The size of cabins shall not be less than 3.0 m2 with a minimum width of 1.0 m. The clear passages within the divided space of any floor shall not be less than 0.75 m and the distance from the farthest space in a cabin to any exit shall not be more than 18.5 m. In case the sub-divided cabin does not derive direct lighting and ventilation from any open spaces/ mechanical means, the maximum height of the cabin shall be 2.2 m.

4.14 Boundary Wall

The requirements of the boundary wall shall be as follows:

a) Except with the special permission of the Authority, the maximum height of the compound wall shall be 1.5 m above the centre line of the front street. Compound wall up to 2.4 m height may be permitted if the top 0.9 m is of open type construction of a design to be approved by the Authority.

b) In the case of a corner plot, the height of the boundary wall shall be restricted to 0.75 m for a length of 10 m on the front and side of the inter-sections and the balance height of 0.75 m if required in accordance with (a) may be made up of open type construction (through railings) and of design to be approved by the Authority.

c) However, the provisions of (a) and (b) are not applicable to boundary walls of jails. In industrial buildings, electric sub-stations, transformer stations, institutional buildings like sanitoria, hospitals, industrial buildings like workshops, factories and educational buildings like schools, colleges, including hostels, and other uses of public utility undertakings and strategically sensitive buildings, a height up to 2.4 m may be permitted by the Authority.  

4.15 Septic Tanks

Where a septic tank is used for sewage disposal, the location, design and construction of septic tank shall conform to requirements of Part 9 ‘Plumbing Services, Section 1 Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation (Including Solid Waste Management)’ of NBC, 2005.  

4.15.1 Location of the Septic Tanks and Subsurface Absorption Systems

A sub-soil dispersion system shall not be closer than 18 m from any source of drinking water, such as well, to mitigate the possibility of bacterial pollution of subsurface water. It shall also be as far removed from the nearest habitable building as economically feasible but not closer than 6 m, to avoid damage to the structures.

4.15.2 Requirements

a) Dimensions of septic tanks - Septic tanks shall have a minimum width of 750 mm, a minimum depth of 1 m below the water level and a minimum liquid capacity of 1 m3. The length of tanks shall be 2 to 4 times the width;  

b) Septic tanks may be constructed of brickwork, stone masonry, concrete or other suitable materials as approved by the Authority;

c) Under no circumstances shall effluent from a septic tank be allowed into an open channel drain or body of water without adequate treatment;

d) The minimum nominal diameter of the pipe shall be 100 mm. Further, at junctions of pipes in manholes, direction of flow from a branch connection shall not make an angle exceeding 45° with the direction of flow in the main pipe;

e) The gradients of land drains, under-drainage as well as the bottom of dispersion trenches and soakways shall be between 1:300 and 1:400;

f) Every septic tank shall be provided with ventilating pipe of at least 50 mm diameter. The top of the pipe shall be provided with a suitable cage of mosquitoproof wire mesh. The ventilating pipe shall extend to a height which would cause no smell nuisance to any building in the area. Generally, the ventilating pipe may extend to a height of about 2 m, when the septic tank is at least 15 m away from the nearest building and to a height of 2 m above the top of the building when it is located closer than 15 m;

g) When the disposal of septic tank effluent is to a seepage pit, the seepage pit may be of any suitable shape with the least cross sectional dimension of 0.90 m and not less than 1.00 m in depth below the invert level of the inlet pipe. The pit may be lined with stone, brick or concrete blocks with dry open joints which should be backed with at least 75 mm of clean coarse aggregate. The lining above the inlet level should be finished with mortar. In the case of pits of large dimensions, the top portion may be narrowed to reduce the size of the RCC cover slabs. Where no lining is used, specially near trees, the entire pit should be filled with loose stones. A masonry ring may be constructed at the top of the pit to prevent damage by flooding of the pit by surface runoff. The inlet pipe may be taken down a depth of 0.90 m from the top as an anti-mosquito measure; and

h) When the disposal of the septic tank effluent is to a dispersion trench, the dispersion trench shall be 0.50 m to 1.00 m deep and 0.30 m to 1.00 m wide excavated to a slight gradient and shall be provided with 150 mm to 250 mm of washed gravel or crushed stones. Open jointed pipes placed inside the trench shall be made of unglazed earthenware clay or concrete and shall have a minimum internal diameter of 75 mm to 100 mm.  Each dispersion trench shall not be longer than 30 m and trenches shall not be placed closer than 1.8 m.

4.15.3 Office-cum-Letter Box Room

In the case of multi-storeyed multi-family dwelling apartments constructed by existing and proposed Cooperative Housing Societies or Apartment Owners Associations, limited companies and proposed societies, an office-cum-letter box room of dimension 3.6 m × 3 m shall be provided on the ground floor. In case the number of flats is more than 20, the maximum size of the office-cum-letter box room shall be 20 m2.

4.15.4 Business Buildings

Provision shall be made for letter boxes on the entrance floor as per the requirements of the postal department.

4.16 Meter Rooms

For all buildings above 15 m in height and in special occupancies, like educational, assembly, institutional, industrial, storage, hazardous and mixed occupancies with any of the aforesaid occupancies having area more than 500 m2 on each floor, provision shall be made for an independent and ventilated meter (service) room, as per requirements of electric (service) supply undertakings on the ground floor with direct access from outside for the purpose of termination of electric supply from the licensee’s service and alternative supply cables. The door/doors provided for the service room shall have fire resistance of not less than two hours.

4.17 Staircase/Exit Requirements

4.17.1 The minimum clear width, minimum tread width and maximum riser of staircases for buildings shall be as given as below (see also Part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety of NBC 2005).

4.17.2 Minimum width  

The minimum width of staircase shall be as follows: 

A Residential buildings (dwellings)  NOTE — For row housing with 2 storeys, the min. width of shall be 0.75 1.0m
B Residential hotel buildings 1.5m
C Assembly buildings like auditoria, theatres and cinemas 2.0m
D Educational building 1.5m
E Institutional buildings 2.0m
F All other buildings 1.5m

4.17.3 Minimum tread

The minimum width of tread without nosing shall be 250 mm for residential buildings.

The minimum width of tread for other buildings shall be 300 mm.

4.17.4 Maximum riser

4.17.4.1 The maximum height of riser shall be 190 mm for residential buildings and 150 mm for other buildings and these shall be limited to 12 per flight.

4.17.4.2 The minimum head-room in a passage under the landing of a staircase shall be 2.2 m. The minimum clear head-room in any staircase shall be 2.2 m.

4.17.5 Exit Requirements

All aspects of exit requirements for corridors, doors, stair cases, ramps, etc in respect of widths, travel distance shall be as per Part 4 ‘Fire and Life Safety’ of NBC,2005.

4.18 Roofs

4.18.1 The roof of a building shall be so designed and constructed as to effectively drain water by means of sufficient rain-water pipes of adequate size, wherever required, so arranged, jointed and fixed as to ensure that the rain-water is carried away from the building without causing dampness in any part of the walls, roof or foundations of the building or an adjacent building

4.18.1.1 The Authority may require rain-water pipes to be connected to a drain or sewer to a covered channel formed beneath the public footpath to connect the rainwater rainwater pipe to the road gutter or in any other approved manner.

4.18.1.2 Rain-water pipes shall be affixed to the outside of the external walls of the building or in recesses or chases cut or formed in such external walls or in such other manner as may be approved by the Authority.

4.18.1.3 It is desirable to conserve rain water using suitable rain water harvesting techniques including by roof water collection. In this context, reference may be made to Part 9 ‘Plumbing Services, Section 1 Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation (Including Solid Waste Management)’ of NBC, 2005.

4.19 Special Requirements of Low Income Housing

Special requirements of low income housing shall be as given in relevant Section of this Model Building Bye-Law. For detailed information in this regard, reference may be made to the accepted standards.

4.20 Special Requirements for Cluster Planning for Housing

Special requirements for cluster planning for housing shall be as given in relevant sections of the Model Building Bye-Law. 

4.21 Group housing

a) Building requirement in respect of dwelling units upto 45 sq.mt. in size will correspond to Table 3.3 and as applicable to plots upto 50 sq m.  

b) Building requirement in respect of dwelling units above 45 sq m. may be referred from the Table 3.3 applicable to above 50 sq m. plot size.  

c) Projection into Open Spaces without counting towards FAR.  

i) All open spaces provided either in interior or exterior shall be kept free from any erections thereon and shall open to the sky. Nothing except cornice, chhajja or weather shade (not more than 0.75 m. wide) shall overhang or project over the said open space so as to reduce the width to less than minimum required.  

Note:  Such projections shall not be allowed at height less than 2.2 m. from the corresponding finished floor level:  

ii) One canopy per block on the ground floor not exceeding 4.5 m. in length and 2.4 m. in width

iii) Balcony at roof slab level of 1.2 m. width and area not exceeding 3.5 sq m. per bedroom but not exceeding 3 in number per flat.

iv) Balcony having entrance from the toilet/bathroom and width as 1.2 m. for drying clothes.

4.22 Non-residential buildings  

The minimum area for office room/shop or any other space to be used as workspace shall not be less than 6.0 sq m. with a minimum width of 2.1 m. 

4.23 Other general requirements  

4.23.1 Swimming Pool  

1) Definition: A constructed pool or a tank indoor or outside the building, used for the purpose of swimming, bathing, aquatic sports or games, training, treatment (Therapy) or recreation, meant exclusively for human being, having a depth of water not less than that 60 cm. and the surface area exceeding 23.25 sq m. both for the use of public or the institution concerned.  

i)  “Capacity of Pools in Relation to Bathers”: The maximum number of persons in bathing attire within the pool enclosures of the bathing area shall not exceed one person per 20 sq ft. (1.86 sq m.) of pool i.e. the area of the water surface.

2)  “Hand Rail”: A side handrail extending up above and returning to the horizontal surface of the pool deck curb or coping shall be provided at each side of each ladder.

3)  “Depth Markers”: Depth of water shall be clearly marked at or above the water surface on the vertical pool wall and on the edge of the deck or walk-way next to the pool, at maximum points and at the points of break between the deep and shallow portions and at intermediate increments of depth, spaced at not more than 2.5” (7.62 cm) intervals.  Depth markers, contrasting with background shall be on both sides of the pool.

4) “Lighting and Wiring”: Where submarine lightning is used, not less than 0.5 watts shall be employed per sq. ft. of pool area.

5) “Area Lightning”: Where submarine lightning is employed, area lightning shall be provided for the deck areas and directed towards the deck areas and away from the pool surface so far as practicable, in a total capacity of not less than 0.6 watt per sq. ft of deck area.

Where submarine lighting is not provided and night swimming is not permitted combined pool lightning shall be provided in an amount of not less than 2 watts per sq. ft. of total area.  All submarine lightning shall be individually earthed and must be water tight and damp proof.

6) “Over Head Wiring”: No electrical wiring for electrical or power shall be permitted to pass over within 20 feet of the pool enclosure.

7) “Shallow Minimum Depth”: Every swimming pool shall have a minimum depth in the shallow area of the main swimming area of not less then 0.9 mt. (3 feet), but not more than 1.07mt. (3'-6”) from the overflow level to the floor  

8) “Shallow Areas”: In a swimming pool with a diving area, the shallow area of the pool shall be defined as the portion between the shallow end and the break point between the shallow area and the diving area. The slope of the floor shall be uniform from the break point between the diving area and the shallow portion to the outside edge of the shallow portion and shall not be greater than 1 in 2 m.  

9)  “Vertical Wall Depth”: The pool walls shall be vertical at all points for a depth of not less than 2 ft 6" (0. 76 m.) 

4.24  Means of access (including Fire Safety- Ref Chapter 11)

4.24.1 No Building shall be erected as to deprive any other building of its means of access.

4.24.2 Every person who erects a building shall not at any time erect or cause or permit to erect or re- erect any building, which in any way encroaches upon or diminishes the area set apart as means of access.  

4.24.3 For buildings identified in clause 11.1 the following provisions of means of access shall be applicable.

a) The width of the main street on which buildings abut shall not be less than 12.0 m.

b) If there are any bends or curves in the approach road, sufficient width shall be permitted at the curve to enable the fire tenders to turn, the turning circle shall be at least of 9.0 m. radius.  

c) The approach to the building and open spaces on its all sides (see Building ByeLaws 4.8 and 4.9) upto 6.0 m. width and the layout for the same shall be done in consultation with the Chief Fire Officer and the same shall be of hard surface capable of taking the weight of fire tender, weighing upto 22 tones for low rise building and 45 tones for building 15 m., and above in height. The said open space shall be kept free of obstructions and shall be motorable.  

d) Main entrance to the premises shall be of adequate width to allow easy access to the fire tender and in no case it shall measure less than 5 m. The entrance gate shall fold back against the compound wall of the premises, thus leaving the exterior access way within the plot free for movement of the fire service vehicles. Ifarchway is provided over the main entrance, the height of the archway shall not be of height less than 5.0 m.

e) For multi-storeyed group housing schemes on one plot, the approach road shall be 20.0 m. or as per Master Plan/Development Plan provisions and between individual buildings, there shall be 6.0 m. space around.

f) In case of basement extending beyond the building line, it shall be capable of taking load of 45 tones for a building of height 15.0 m. and above and 22 tones for building height less than 15.0 m.

g) The external window shall not be blocked by louvres etc. In such case provisions shall be made so that one can enter the building to be rescued through the window by using hydraulic platform etc.

4.24.4 Number and size of Exits 4

The requisite number and size of various exits shall be provided, based on the occupants in each room and floor based on the occupant load, capacity of exits, travel distance and height of buildings as per provisions of Section 4.2 to 4.12 & 6.1 to 6.9 of Part 4- Fire and Life Safety, NBC 2005. 

4Types of Exits  

a) Exits shall be either horizontal or vertical type. An exit may be doorway, corridor and passage to an internal staircase or external staircase, ramp to a verandah and/or terraces that have access to the street or to roof of a building. An exit may also include horizontal exit leading to an adjoining building at the same level.

b) Lifts escalators and revolving doors shall not be considered as exits.  

At least one primary entrance to each building shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs and shall be indicated by a sign

At least one entrance usable by individuals in wheelchairs shall be on a level that would make the elevators accessible

4.24.5 Arrangement of Exits  

a) Exits shall be so located so that the travel distance on the floor shall not exceed 22.50 m. for residential, educational, institutional and hazardous occupancies and 30.0 m. for assembly, business, mercantile, industrial and storage occupancies. Whenever more than one exit is required for a floor of a building they shall be placed as remote from each other as possible. All the exits shall be accessible from the entire floor area at all floor levels.

b) The travel distance to an exit from the remote point shall not exceed half the distance as stated above except in the case of institutional occupancy in which case it shall not exceed 6.0 m.

4.24.6 Capacity of Exits  

The capacity of exits (staircase, ramps and doorways) indicating the number of persons could be safety evacuated through a unit exit width of 50 cm shall be as given below: 

Table 4.3 Occupants per unit Exit width 

Sl. No. Group of Occupancy Number of Occupants 
Stairways Ramps  Doors 
1 Residential  25 50 75
2 Educational  25 50 75
3 Institutional  25 50 75
4 Assembly  40 50 60
5 Business  50 60 75
6 Mercantile  50 60 75
7 Industrial  50 60 75
8 Storage  50 60 75
9 Hazardous  25 30 40

4.24.7 Minimum Width Provisions for Passageway/Corridors  

The following minimum width provisions shall be made for each passage way/corridor.

a)  Residential buildings, dwelling unit type. 1.00 m.

b) Residential buildings, e.g., hostels, etc. 1.25 m.

c) Assembly buildings like auditorium theatres and cinemas. 2.00 m.

d) All other buildings including hotels. 1.50 m.

e) Hospital, Nursing Homes, etc.  2.40 m.

4.24.7.1 Ramps

a. The ramp to basement and parking floors shall not be less than 7.2m wide for two way traffic and 4 m wide for one way traffic, provided with Gradient of 1:10 for cars and 1:15 for heavy vehicles. At curved portions of the ramp or for circular ramps the slope should not be more than 1:12.  

b. Ramps may also be provided in the setbacks which can be sloped considering unhindered movement of fire engine and in no case the gradient shall be less than 1:10. 

c. All structural design/safety aspects as per latest BIS Codes & NBC, 2005 shall be complied along with consideration of weight of Fire Engine & its maneuverings.  

d. The minimum width of the ramps in hospitals shall be 2.4 m for stretcher and not for vehicular movement

e. In this case Handrails shall be provided on both sides of the ramp.

f. Ramps shall lead directly to outside open space at ground level or courtyards or safe place

Ramps with Gradients

a. Where ramps with gradients are necessary or desired, they shall conform to the following requirements.

b. A ramp when provided should not have a slope greater than 1 in 20 or maximum of 1 in 12 for short distance up to 9 000 mm.

c. A ramp shall have handrails on at least one side, and preferably two sides, that are 900 mm high, measured from the surface of the ramp, that are smooth, and that extend 300 mm beyond the top and bottom of the ramp. Where major traffic is predominantly children, the handrails should be placed 760 mm high. 

Notes  

i. Where handrails are specified to be of heights other than 80 cm, it is recommended that two sets of handrails be installed to serve all people. Where major traffic is predominantly children, particularly physically disabled children, extra care should be exercised in the placement of handrails, in accordance with the nature of the facility and the age group or groups being serviced  

ii. Care should be taken that the extension of the handrails is not in itself a hazard. Extension up to 300 mm may be made on the side of a continuing wall.

iii. A ramp shall have a surface that is non-slip surface and if length is 3 500 mm, the minimum widthshall be 1 500 mm. greatly assists the challenged persons with semi-ambulatory and ambulatory disabilities. Non-slip surfaces are provided by many finishes and materials. The surfaces of the concrete ramps can be made nonskid by brooming the surface or by finishing with an indenting roller.

iv. A ramp shall have a level platform at the top which is at least 1 800 mm long, if a door swings out onto the platform or toward the ramp. This platform shall extend at least 300 mm beyond each side of the doorway.

v. Each ramp shall have at least 1 800 mm of straight clearance at the bottom.

vi. Ramps shall have level platforms at 10 m to 12 m intervals for purposes of rest and safety, and shall have platforms minimum 1.5 m length wherever they turn.

vii. For visually impaired people, ramps may be colour contrasted with landing.

viii. To minimize rise to wheelchair users, ramps should be equipped with herbs approximately 50 mm high at exposed sides.

4.24.7.2 Doorways

a. Every doorway shall open into an enclosed stairway, a horizontal exit, on a corridor or passageway providing continuous and protected means of egress.

b. No exit doorways shall be less than 1m in width except assembly and institutional buildings where Doorway shall not be less than 2 m.

c. Exit doorways shall open outwards, that is away from the room but shall not obstruct the travel along any exit. No door when opened shall reduce the required width of stairway or landing to less than 0.90 m Overhead or sliding door shall not be installed.

Note: In the case of buildings where there is a central corridor, the doors of rooms shall open inwards to permit smooth flow of traffic in the corridor

d. Exit door shall not open immediately upon a flight of stairs. A landing equal to at least, the width of the door shall be provided in the stairway at each doorway. Level of landings shall be the same as that of the floor, which it serves.

e. Exit doorways shall be openable from the side, which they serve without the use of a key.

f. Revolving doors shall not to be provided as means of fire exit.

g. Mirrors shall not be placed in exit ways or exit doors to avoid confusion regarding the direction of exit.

4.25 Provision of exterior open spaces and height limitation around the building

4.25.1 The open spaces / setbacks covered area, FAR shall be as per Master Plan/Zonal Plan requirements as given in the development controls of Master Plan. (Building Bye Laws-Annexure VI)/ NBC, 2005

4.25.2 Every room that is intended for human habitation shall abut on an interior or exterior open space or on to a verandah open to such interior or exterior open space.

4.25.3 In case of High rise the exterior open spaces around a building as in Building Bye Laws No. shall be of green or hard surface capable of taking load of fire engine weighing up to 45 tonnes.

4.25.4 In case, kitchen and toilets do not abut either interior or exterior open spaces, mechanical ventilation would be accepted.

4.25.5 Up to 25% of the total setback area can be sunk for light, ventilation and access to basement, provided fire tender movement is not hindered.

4.26 Interior Open Space for Light and Ventilation

4.26.1 The whole or part of one side of one or more rooms intended for human habitation and not abutting on either the front, rear or side open spaces shall abut on an interior open space whose minimum width in all directions shall be 3.0 m in case of buildings not more than 15 m/ 17.5 m (with stilts) in height, and in case of buildings above 15 m/ 17.5 m (with stilts) it shall have mandatory mechanical ventilation in addition.

4.26.2 Sunken Courtyard:  

Sunken courtyard up to 3mt in depth from the ground level as ‘light well’ within building envelop shall be permitted for light and ventilation for basement area.

4.26.3 Skylight:  

Skylight in interior open space (courtyard) shall be permitted subject to the fact that it may not act as a covered space on the ground floor and does not violate the maximum/ minimum ground coverage rules.

4.27 Joint Open Air Space  

4.27.1 Every interior or exterior or air space, unless the latter is a street, shall be maintained for the benefit of such building exclusively and shall be entirely within the owner's own premises.  If such interior or exterior open air space is intended to be used for the benefit of more than one building belonging to the same owner; then the width of such open air space shall be the one specified for the tallest building as specified in clause 4.10.3 and 4.10.4 abutting on such open air space

Table 4.4 Provision of Exterior Open Spaces around the Buildings 

Sl. No. Height of the Building (m.)  Exterior open spaces to be left on all sides in m. (front rear and sides in each plot) As per prescribed set backs 
1 10 3
2 15 5
3 18 6
4 21 7
5 24 8
6 27 9
7 30 10
8 35 11
9 40 12
10 45 13
11 50 14
12 55 and above 16

Note:  On sides where no habitable rooms face, a minimum space of 9.0 m. shall be left for heights above 27.0 m.  

c) In case of multi storeyed buildings the exterior open space around a building shall be of hard surface capable to taking load of fire engine weighting upto 45 tonnes. 

4.28 Provision of Podium for parking and landscaping

In case the buildings are to be constructed with stilt floor on individual plot for providing parking space and where basement could not be approached for parking, in such cases a podium may be constructed on ground floor in continuation of the stilt floor having access from the front for the parking after leaving minimum 3m setback from the plot line. The terrace of podium may be used for plantation & landscaping. For low rise development, the maximum height permitted is 15mts. However where the stilt floor is to be constructed for parking the height may be increased to 17.5 mtr.  

4.29 Exemption to Open Spaces/Covered area  

The following exemption to open space shall be permitted.

4.29.1 Projections into Open Spaces  

a) Every interior or exterior open space shall be kept, free from any erection thereon and shall be open to the sky.  Nothing except cornice, chajja or weather shade (not more than 0.75 m. wide) shall overhang or project over the said open spaces so as to reduce the width to less than the minimum required.  

Note: Such projections shall not be allowed at a height less than 2.20 m. from the corresponding finished floor level  

b) A canopy or canopies each not exceeding 4.50 m. in length and 2.40 m. in width in the form of cantilever or cantilevers, over the main entrance/entrances, providing a minimum clear height of 2.2 m. below the canopy.  In single storeyed residential building, only one such canopy shall be permitted for each individual detached block. In more than one storeyed residential building, two canopies shall be permitted over ground floor/higher floor entrances.  In buildings of other occupancies, the permissibility of canopy, canopies shall be as decided by the Authority on its merits

c) In case of residential building only, a balcony or balconies at roof level of a width of 1.20 m. overhanging in set-backs within one’s own land and courtyards provided the minimum area required shall not be reduced by more than 30% of such open spaces.

d) The projections (cantilever) of cupboards and shelves shall be permitted and are exempted from covered area calculations in case of residential buildings only. Such projection shall be upto 0.75 m. depth provided.  

i) That no cupboard shall project in the side set back on the ground floor.  

ii) That outer length of cupboard overhanging in the set-backs shall not exceed 2.0 m. per habitable room. In addition to this, cupboard under the above and windows can be provided.  

Note:  Cupboard means a space used for storage of household goods/clothes, having shelves/partitions not more than 1.5 m. apart.  

iii) Only one pergola on each floor shall be permitted in a residential building if constructed in the exterior open spaces or terrace.  Such pergola shall not exceed 3.50 sq m. in area on which 40% shall be void and shall have a clear height 2.20 m.

4.29.1.1 In addition to above, the following shall not be included in covered area for FAR calculations.  

a) Machine room for lift on top floor as required for the lift machine installation (see Appendix ‘Ll’ and ‘L2’).  

Note: The shaft provided for lift shall be taken for covered area calculations only on one floor.  

b) Rockery, well and well structures, plant nursery, water pool, swimming pool (if uncovered), platform round a tree, tank, fountain, bench, chabutara with open top and / or unenclosed sides by walls, open ramps, compound wall, gate, slide swing door, uncovered staircase (uncovered and unclosed on three sides except for a 0.90 m. high railing/wall, overhead water tank on top of building/open shafts.  

c) A mumty over staircase on top floor.

d) Culvert on Municipal drains.

4.29.2 Height Limit  

The Height and number of storeys shall be related to provisions of FAR as given in Chapter-3 and the provisions of open spaces given in Building Bye-Laws and the following:  

a) The maximum height of building shall not exceed 1.5 times the width of road abutting plus the front open spaces.

b) If a building abuts on two or more streets of different width, the building shall be deemed to face upon the street that has the greater width and the height of the building shall be regulated by the width of that street. Height shall however, not exceed the maximum height as provided in the Master Plan.  

c) For buildings in the vicinity of the aerodromes the maximum height of such buildings shall be in accordance with regulations of “critical” and “non-critical” zones as identified by the AAI in its Colour-Coded Zoning Maps (CCZM). The application for Building plan approval shall be processed by the Authority as per the CCZM for ‘non-critical’ areas.  

Note: The location of slaughter house/butcher house and other areas for activities like depositing of garbage dumps which would attract high flying birds like eagles/hawks etc. shall not be permitted within a radius of 10 km. from aerodrome reference point

4.29.3 Height Exemptions  

The following appurtenant structures shall not be included in the height of building covered under Building Bye-Laws 4.9.7.  

Roof tanks and their supports not exceeding 1.0 m. in height,  

Ventilating, air conditioning and lift rooms and similar service equipments,  

Stair covered with Mumty not exceeding 3.00 m. in height.  

Chimneys and parapet wall and architectural features not exceeding 1.50 m. in height, unless the aggregate area of such structures exceeds 1/3 of the roof area of the building on which they are erected. All such appurtenant structures shall be camouflaged to achieve streamlined aesthetics.

4.30 Lighting and ventilation of rooms

4.30.1 Rooms shall have, for the admission of light and air, one or more openings, such as windows and ventilators, opening directly to the external air or into an open VERANDAH.  

Lighting and ventilation requirements of all types of buildings shall be designed and approved in accordance with the provisions of the following two IS Codes –  

i. SP 32 (1986): Hand book on Functional Requirements of Industrial Buildings (Lighting and Ventilation) [CED 12:Functional Requirements in Buildings] and  

ii. SP 41 (1987): Hand book on Functional Requirements of Buildings (Other than Industrial Buildings) [CED 12: Functional Requirements in Buildings]  

Lighting loads of various spaces of –

i. Industrial buildings shall be determined as per Clause 1, Section 1 of SP 32 (1986)

ii. Non-Industrial buildings shall be determined as per Clause 2, Part 4 of SP 41 (1987)

Thermal comfort levels and design requirement of various spaces of –

i. Industrial buildings shall be determined as per Section 2 of SP 32 (1986)

ii. Non-Industrial buildings shall be determined as per Part 2 of SP 41 (1987)

Minimum Fresh Air requirement for –

i. Industrial buildings shall be determined as per Clause 13 of Section 2 of SP 32 (1986)

ii. Non-Industrial buildings shall be determined as per Clause 4 of Part 3 of SP 41 (1987)

4.30.1.1 Notwithstanding the area of openings obtained through the minimum aggregate area (see Notes 1 to 3) of such openings, excluding doors inclusive of frames, shall be not less than:

a) one-tenth of the floor area for dry hot climate;

b) one-sixth of the floor area for wet hot climate;

c) one-eighth of the floor area for intermediate climate; and

d) one-twelfth of the floor area for cold climate.

Notes  

1. If a window is partly fixed, the openable area shall be counted.

2. No portion of a room shall be assumed to be lighted, if it is more than 7.5 m away from the opening assumed for lighting that portion.

3. The area of openings as given in (a) to (d) above shall be increased by 25 percent in the case of a kitchen. 

All habitable rooms shall have for the admission of light and air, one or more apertures, such as window, glazed door and fan lights, opening directly to the external air or into an open verandah not more than 2.40 mt. in width. In case light and ventilation to habitable space area are through an internal courtyard, the minimum dimensions of such courtyard shall not be less than 3.0 m. x 3.0 m. for buildings upto 12.50 m. in height. For buildings with higher heights, the minimum dimensions of the internal courtyard shall be as given in Building Bye-Laws 4.27  

Where the lighting and ventilation requirements are not met through day lighting and natural ventilation, the same shall be ensured through artificial lighting and mechanical ventilation as given in part-VII building services Section-1 lighting and Ventilation of National Building Code of India published by the Bureau of Indian Standards. The latest version of the National Building Code of India shall be taken into account at the time of enforcement of the Building Bye-Laws.

4.30.1.2 Notwithstanding the above, the minimum aggregate area of openings of habitable rooms and kitchens excluding doors shall be not less than 1/10 of the floor area.

4.30.1.3 No portion of a room shall be assumed to be lighted if it is more than 7.50 m. from the opening assumed for lighting that portion.

4.30.2 Ventilation Shaft

For ventilating the spaces for water closets and bathrooms, if not opening on the front side, rear and interior open spaces, shall open on the ventilation shaft, the size, of which shall not be less than the values given below:  

Table 4.5  Size of Ventilation Shaft

Height of Building (m) Size of ventilation shaft (sq m)  Minimum size of shaft (m) 
Upto 10.0 1.2 0.9
Upto 12.0 2.8 1.2
Upto 18.0 4.0 1.5
Upto 24.0 5.4 1.8
Upto 30.0 8.0 2.4
Above 30.0 9.0 3.0

Notes:

i. For buildings above 30.0 m. height, mechanical ventilation system shall be installed besides the provision of minimum ventilation shaft.

ii. For fully air-conditioned residential buildings for lodging purposes, the ventilation shaft need not be insisted upon, provided the air-conditioning system works in an uninterrupted manner, also, provided there is an alternative source of power supply. However, it is not mandatory in case of buildings where ventilation is mechanized.  

4.31 Building Services

4.31.1 The Planning design and installation of electrical installations, air conditioning installation of lifts and escalators can be carried out in accordance with Part-VIII Building Services, section–2 electrical installation, section–3 air conditioning and heating, section-5 installation of lifts and escalators of National Building Code of India. However deviations from National Building Code may be done as per good Engineering practices.

4.31.2 The number and type of lifts to be provided in different buildings sha1l be as given in Appendix-‘D’ & ‘D-1’.  

4.31.3 The requirements of electric sub-station are given in Appendix-‘D2’. The provision of electric sub-station shall also require approval from Electricity Board concerned.

4.32 Plumbing and Sanitary Services

4.32.1 The planning, design, construction and installation of water supply, drainage and sanitation and gas supply system shall be in accordance with Part-9: Plumbing Services, Section-l Water supply, Drainage and sanitation (including Solid Waste Management) and Section-2 Gas supply of NBC, 2005.

4.32.2 Requirement of water supply for various occupancies in buildings shall be as given in Table 4.6, 4.7, and 4.8.

4.32.3 Requirement of sanitary fittings and installations for different occupancies in buildings shall be as given in Table 4.9 to 4.22 for calculation of occupancy.

4.32.4 Sewage treatment plant of capacity of treating 100% waste water to be installed. (Ref Table 14)

4.33 Segregated sanitation for Visitors in Public Buildings

4.33.1 Special requirement of segregated sanitation for Visitors in Public Buildings (Government Buildings, Hospitals, Educational Institutions, Commercial Building etc). Provisions and occupancies shall be referred at Table 4.15

** This section is provided for Segregated toilet facilities for visitors in Public Buildings (within the premises of the building, but outside the building block).

Public toilets are meant for floating population, usually located near railway stations, bus stands, market places, government hospitals, religious centers etc. These toilets have a greater demand for urinals than community toilets.

The key considerations for siting such facilities on the site are-

i. Size of the toilet block (i.e. number of seats) and

ii. Location of the toilet block with respect to the main building block.

iii. Convenience of the visitors in accessing and using the facility.

4.33.2 Surveys conducted by the central government show that people, especially women and aged, are unlikely to use the facility if it beyond 500 meters. The preferable location shall be within 200-500 mt from the main entry of the building.  

4.33.3 The site shall be earmarked on Site Plan or a Layout plan. The Authority shall clearly state advantages and disadvantages of the location for the owner/ engaged Competent Professional for building plan design (as per Appendix ‘E’) to make an informed decision on the siting.

4.33.4 It must be accessible to visitors and general public during the operational hours of the building. However, fiscal generation for maintenance may be planned w.r.t user charges from visitors and general public.  (Experience in sample cities has shown that toilet blocks are more likely to remain clean if they are centrally located; those on periphery sooner fall into disrepair.)  

4.33.5 Other factors to be considered:

a) Wastewater conveyance/treatment and prevention of contamination-  

Since sewers may not be available in many cities, in most cases the toilet blocks will have on-site sanitation, which would require periodic cleaning of tanks / pits. Location on site should allow easy and hygienic emptying of the pits / tanks and ensure that ground water table is not contaminated by wastewater percolation.

b) Adequacy in provision-

The size of the block (i.e. on number of seats) must meet visitors’ need. Inadequacy results in long queues and encourages open urination. Care is to be taken for balancing problems and other special needs of children and the elderly.

c) Design considerations-

i. Adequate Ventilation.

ii. Door Design / Direction of swing of the door (preferred outwards),  

iii. Adequate Waiting area and  

iv. Adequate volumes of water storage.

d) The facilities should include:  

i. Separate toilet blocks for men and women with separate entries.

ii. Seats for children to be provided in both sections for men and women.

iii. Waiting / Holding area.

iv. Space for Facility caretaker and maintenance staff – from where they can monitor and maintain both facilities for men and women.

v. Urinal facilities for men  

vi. Waste water disposal system

vii. Janitor / Store room for cleaning material / equipments.

Note: Table 4.17 may be referred for number of seats / urinals for this section.  

4.33.6 Norms for differently-abled within segregated toilets:

i. One special W.C. in a set of toilet shall be provided for the use of differently abled persons, with essential provision of wash basin near the entrance.

ii. Minimum clear opening of the door shall be 900 mm. and the door shall swing out.

iii. Suitable arrangement of vertical/horizontal handrails with 50 mm. clearance from wall shall be made in the toilet.

iv. The W.C. seat shall be 500 mm. from the floor. 

4.33.7 Water requirement and facilities:

Water requirement for the facility may be worked out and enough storage for ½ day operation is to be kept in storage. If municipal water supply is reliable, the toilet blocks may have underground sump that can store half a day’s requirement and overhead tanks for another half. If municipal water supply is not available, toilet block may have its own bore well and pump with no underground sump. Alternatively a hand tube well can be used for storing water in an elevated (not overhead) tank. To minimize the wastage of water, self-closing water taps should be used.  

The pans must be of Pour Flush (PF) design i.e. with a steep slope. Traps should be of a 20 mm water seal. (Use of 50 mm water seal traps will require more water for flushing.) If toilet is to be linked to city sewer, a master trap has to be provided at the sewer connection.

Urinals may not be fitted with urinal pots as their replacement is expensive.

** The proposed norms are based on Guidelines on Community & Public toilets Government of Odisha Housing and Guidelines for Community Toilets, 1995; Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment (However, they shall be further refined, once comments and suggestions are received from the State Governments after the circulation of Draft Model Building Bye-laws 2014).

Table 4.6 Per Capita water requirement for various Occupancies/Uses 

S.N Type of Occupancy Consumption per head per day (in lt.) 
1 Residential 
a) In living units 135
b) Hostels  135
c) Hotels with lodging accommodation (per bed)  180
d) Hotels (5 star and above)  340
2 Educational 
a) Day schools 45
b) Boarding Schools  135
3 Institutional (Medical Hospitals) 
a) No. of beds not exceeding      100  340
b) No. of beds exceeding            100 450
c) Medical quarters and hostels  135
4 Assembly- Cinema theatres, auditoria, etc. (per seat accommodation)  15
5 Government or Semi public business  45
6 Segregated toilet facilities for Visitors in Public Buildings 
a) Each use of toilet (including washing hands and floors)  7
b) Flushing urinals  0.20
7 Mercantile (Commercial)  
a) Restaurants (per seat) 70
b) Other business building  45
8 Industrial 
a) Factories where bath-rooms are to be provided  45
b) Factories where bath-rooms are not to be provided  30
9 Storage ( including Warehouses )  30
10 Hazardous  30
11 Intermediate Stations (excluding mail and express stops).  45(25)*
12 Junction Station  70(45)*
13 Terminal Stations  45
14 International and Domestic Airports 70

*  The values in parenthesis are for such stations, where bathing facilities are not provided.

 Note: The number of persons for Sl. No. 11 to 14 shall be determined by the average number of passenger handled by the station daily with due consideration given to the staff and workers likely to use the facilities.  

Table 4.7 Flushing Storage Capacities 

Sl. No. Classification of Building Storage Capacity
1 For tenements having common convenience 900 lt. net per w.c. seat
2 For residential premises other than tenement having common conveniences  270 lt. net for one w.c. seat each and 180 lt. for each additional seat in the same flat.
3 For factories and workshops 900 lt. per w.c. seat and 180 lt. per urinal. 
4 For cinemas, public assembly hall, etc. 900 lt. per w.c. seat and 350 lt. per urinal. 

Table 4.8 Domestic Storage Capacities 

Sl. No. No. of Floors Storage Capacity Remarks 
For premise occupied tenements with common conveniences: 
1 Ground floor Nil Provided down take fittings are installed 
2 Floors 2, 3, 4, 5 and upper floors 500 litre per tenement  
For premises occupied as flats or blocks 
1 Ground floor Nil Provided down take fittings are installed 
2 Floors 2, 3, 4, 5 and upper floors 500 litre per tenement  

Note:

1.    If the premises are situated at a place higher than the road level in front of the premises, storage at ground level shall be provided on the same lines as on floors.  

2.   The above storage may be permitted to be installed provided that the total domestic storage  calculated  on the above basis is not less than the storage calculated on the number of down take fittings according to scale given below:  

Down take taps     70 l. each

Showers      135 l. each

Bathtubs      200 l. each Table

4.9 Sanitation requirements for Shops and Commercial Offices 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit / Fittings For Personnel 
1 Water closet One for every 25 persons or part thereof exceeding 15 (including employees and customers).  For female personnel 1 for every 15 persons or part thereof exceeding 10
2 Drinking Water Fountain One for every 100 person with a minimum of one on each floor
3 Wash Basin One for every 25 persons or part thereof. 
4 Urinals Same as Sl. No. 3 of Table 4.14 
5 Cleaners’ Sink One per floor minimum, preferably in or adjacent to sanitary rooms. 

Note:    Number of customers for the purpose of the above calculation shall be the average number of persons in the premises for a time interval of one hour during the peak period. For male-female calculation a ratio of 1: 1 may be assumed.   

Table 4.10 Sanitary Requirements for Hotels 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For Residential Public staff  For non residential Staff 
For male For Female
1 Water Closet (W.C.)  One per 8 Persons omitting occupants of the attached water closet minimum of 2 if both sexes are lodged 

1 for 1-15 persons

2 for 16-35 persons

3 for 36-65 persons

4 for 66-100 persons 

2 for 1-12 persons

4 for 13-25 persons

6 for 26-40 persons

8 for 41-57 persons

10for 58-77 persons

12for78-100 persons

Add 1 for every 6 persons or part thereof. 

2 Ablution Taps  One in each W.C One in each W.C One in each W.C
3 Urinals  Nil

Nil upto 6 persons  

1 for 7-20 persons

2 for 21-45 persons

3 for 40-70 persons

4 for 71-100 persons 

Nil
4 Wash Basins  One per 10 persons omitting each basin installed in the room / suite

1 for 15 persons

2 for 16-35 persons

3 for 36-65 persons

4 for 66-100 persons

1 for 1-12

2 for 13-25

3 for 26-40

4 for 41-57 

5 Baths One per 10 persons, less occupants of room with bath in suit Nil Nil
6 Cleaner’s Sinks One per 30 Bed rooms (one per floor minimum) Nil Nil
7 Kitchen Sink  One in each Kitchen  One in each Kitchen  One in each Kitchen 

Table 4.10 contd: For Public Rooms 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For male For Female
1 ater Closet One per 100 persons upto 400 persons; for over 400 add at the rate of one per 250 persons or part thereof Two for 100 persons upto 200 persons; over 200 add at the rate of one per 100 persons or part thereof
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C. 
3 Urinals One for 50 persons or part thereof. 

Nil, upto 6 persons

1 for 7-20 persons

2 for 21-45 persons

3 for 46-70 persons

4 for 71-100 persons

4 Washbasins One per WC/Urinal One per WC 
5 Kitchen Sink One in each Kitchen One in each Kitchen
6 Baths (showers) One per 10 persons 
7 Cleaner’s Sinks One per 30 Bed rooms (one per floor minimum)

Note:      

i)    It may be assumed that the two-thirds of the number are males and one- third females.  

ii)    One water tap with drainage arrangements shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof   in the vicinity of water closet and urinals

Table 4.11 Sanitation Requirements for Educational Occupancy 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit Boarding Institution Other Educational Institution 
For Boys For Girls For Boys For Girls
1 Water Closet (W.C.) One for 8 boys or part thereof  One for 6 girls or part thereof  One for 40 boys or part thereof  One for 25 girls or part thereo
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C.  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 
3 Urinals  One per every 25 pupils or part thereof  - One per every 20 pupils or part thereof  -
4 Wash Basins One for every 8 pupils or part thereo One for every 6 pupils or part thereof One for every 60 pupils or part thereof  One for every 40 pupils or part thereof 
5 Baths  One for every 8 pupils or part thereof  One for every 6 pupils or part thereof  - -
6 Drinking Water Fountains  One for every 50 pupils or part thereof  One for every 50 pupils or part thereof  One for every 50 pupils or part thereof  One for every 50 pupils or part thereof 
7 Cleaner’s Sink  One per Floor minimum One per Floor minimum One per Floor minimum One per Floor minimum

Table 4.11 Contd: Nursery Schools

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit Requirement
1 Water Closet One for 15 boys, one for 6 girls
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C.
3 Urinals One for 12 boys 
4 Wash Basins One for every 15 pupils or part thereof 
5 Baths One bath per 40 pupils 
6 Drinking Water Fountains One for every 50 pupils or part thereof 
7 Cleaner’s Sink  One per Floor minimum

Note:  

1. One water tap with draining arrangements shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof, in the vicinity of water closets and urinal.  

2. For teaching staff, the schedule of sanitary units to be provided shall be the same as in case of office buildings (Table 5.10). 

Table 4.12 Sanitation Requirements for Institutional (Medical) Occupancy- Hospital 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit Hospitals With indoor Patient Ward For Males & females  Hospitals With outdoor Patient Wards 
For males For Females
1 Toilet Suite (1WC+1Washbasin+ 1shower) Private room upto 4 persons For upto 4 patients
2 Water Closet (W.C.)  One for every 8 beds or part thereof  One for every 100 persons or part thereof One for every 25 persons or part thereof 
3 Ablution taps  One in each W.C. One in each W.C. One in each W.C.
4 Wash Basins  Two upto 30 bed;  add one for every additional 30 beds; or part thereof 
One for every 100 persons or part thereof 
One for every 25 persons or part thereof.
5 Baths with Shower  One bath with shower for every 8 beds or part thereof.  - -
6 Bed pan washing sink  One for each ward  - -
7 Cleaner’ Sinks  One for each ward One per floor minimum One per floor minimum
8 Kitchen sinks & dish Washers (where Kitchen is provided) One for each ward - -
9 Urinals  One for  30 beds (male wards)  One for every 50 persons or part thereof  -
10 Drinking water fountain  One for each ward  One for 500 persons or part thereof 

Table 4.12 contd.  Administrative Buildings 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For males For Females
1 Toilet Suite (1WC+1Washbasin+ 1shower For individual doctor’s/officer’s rooms 
2 Water Closet (W.C.) One for every 25 persons or part  thereof   
3 Ablution Taps One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 
4 Wash Basins One for every 25 persons or part thereof   
5 Baths with Shower One on each floor  One on each floor 
6 Cleaner’s Sink One per floor minimum  One per floor minimum 
7 Kitchen sinks & dish Washers (where Kitchen is provided) One on each floor  One on each floor 
8  

Nil upto 6 persons

1 for 7-20 persons

2 for 21-45 persons

3 for 46-70 persons

4 for 71-100 persons

From 101 to 200 persons add at the rate of 3%; for over 200 persons add at the rate of 2.5%. 

-
9 Drinking water fountain One for 100 persons or part thereof 

Table 4.13 Sanitation Requirements for Institutional (Medical) Occupancy- (staff quarters and Hostels)

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit Doctor’s Dormitories Nurses Hostel
For male staff  For female staff 
1 Water Closet One for 4 Persons One for 2 persons One for 2 persons or part thereof Two for 13-25
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C One in each W.C One in each W.C
3 Wash Basins  One for every 8 persons or part thereof  One for every 8 persons or part thereof  One for every 8 persons or part thereof 
4 Bath (with shower)  One for every 4 persons or part thereof  One for every 4 persons or part thereof  One for every 4 persons or part thereof 
5 Cleaner’s Sink  One per floor minimum  One per floor minimum  One per floor minimum 
6 Drinking water fountain  One for 100 persons or part thereof One for 100 persons or part thereof

Table 4.14 Sanitation Requirements for Governmental and Public Business Occupancy and Offices 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For male Personnel  For Female Personnel 
1 Water Closet (W.C.) One for 25 persons or part thereof Two for 15 persons or part thereof 
2 Ablution taps One in each W.C. One in each W.C.
3 Urinals

Nil upto 6 persons

1 for 7-20 persons

2 for 21-45 persons

3 for 46-70 persons

4 for 71-100 persons

From 101 to 200 add @  3%;  

For over 200 persons add @ 2.5%

-
4 Wash Basins One for every 25 persons or part thereof One for every 25 persons or part thereof 
5 Drinking water fountains One for every 100 persons with a minimum of one on each floor One for every 100 persons with a minimum of 1 on each floor
6 Cleaner’s Sinks One per floor minimum; preferably in or adjacent to sanitary rooms.  -
7 Executive Room / Conference Halls  Toilet Suite (1 WC, 1 washbasin, optional shower for 24 hr usages) Unit could be common for Male/Female or separate depending on the number of user of each facilit

Note:  One water tap with drainage arrangements shall be provided / 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity.  

Table 4.15 Segregated sanitation facilities for Visitors in Public Buildings 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For male Personnel  For Female Personnel 
1 Public toilet near Railway Stations (24x7)
Water Closet(W.C) One for 100 users  One for 50 users
Urinals  One unit per 300-500 users -
Ablution taps One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 
2 Public Toilet near market  place/offices (for working hours)
Water Closet One for 100 users  One for 50 users
Urinals One unit per 200-300 users -
Ablution taps One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 
3 Public toilets near Public Buildings
Water Closet One for 100 users  One for 50 users
Urinals One unit per 200-300 users -
Ablution taps One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 

Per Capita Volume of Water required may be referred at item 6, Table 4.6

Area and sizes of seats/units may be referred at Table 4.16 

Table 4.16 The recommended enclosure-sizes for different facilities at visitors’ toilets 

Sl. No. Description Optimum (mm) Minimum (mm)* 
1 Water Closet enclosures 900x1200 750x900 
2 Urinals  (divided by partition walls)  575x675 500x600

  *In case of space constraint, the minimum sizes may be adopted  

Table 4.17 The recommended areas for different facilities at visitors’ toilets

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit Dwelling with individual conveniences  Dwelling without individual conveniences 
1 Bath Room One provided with water tap One for every two tenement
2 Water Closet (W.C.) One  One for every two tenement
3 Sink (or Nahani) in the Floo One  -
4 Water Tap One 

One with drainage arrangement in each tenement

One in common bath rooms and common water closet.

Note:  Where only one water closet is provided in a dwelling, the bath and water closet shall be separately accommodated.

Table 4.18 Sanitation Requirements for Assembly Occupancy Buildings (Cinema, Theaters, Auditoria. Etc.) 

Sl. No.

Sanitary

Unit

For Public  For Staff 
male  Female  male  Female 
1

Water

Closet

One for 100 persons upto 400 persons. For over 400 persons,  add at the rate of 1 per 250 persons or part thereof Four for 100 persons upto 200 persons. For over 200 persons  add at the rate of 1 per 50 persons or part thereof One for 15 persons.  
Two for 16-35 persons
Two for 1-12 persons.  
Four for 13-25 persons add at the rate of 1 per 6 persons or part thereof 
2

Ablution

Taps

One in each W.C.  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 
3 Urinals  One for 50 persons or part thereof  - Nil upto  6 persons  One for 7-20 persons  Two for 21-45 persons   -
4

Wash

Basins

  One for every 200 persons or  part thereof    One for every 200 persons or  part thereof  One for 1-15 persons  Two for 16-35  One for 1-12 persons  Two for 13-25 persons 
5

Drinking

Water  Fountain 

One per 100 persons or part thereof 
6

Cleaner’s

sink

One per floor 
7

Shower/

Bathing

As per trade requirements 

Note:  

i) One water tap with draining arrangements shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity of water closets and urinals.  

ii) It may be assumed that two thirds of the number is males and one third females.

Table 4.19 Sanitation Requirements for Assembly Buildings (Art, Galleries, Libraries and Museums) 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For Public  For Staff 
male  Female  male  Female 
1 Water Closet (W.C) One for 200 persons upto 400 persons.  For over 400 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 250 persons or part thereof  Four for 100 persons upto 200 persons.  For over 200 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 50 persons or part thereof One for 1-15 persons.  Two for 16-35 persons Two for 1-12 persons.  
Four for 13-25 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 6 persons
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C.  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 
3 Urinals  One for 50 persons or part thereof  - Nil upto  6 persons  One for 7-20 persons  Two for 21-45 persons  -
4 Wash Basins  One for every 200 persons or part thereof.  For over 400 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 250 persons or part thereof One for every 200 persons or part thereof.  For over 200 persons, add at the rate of 1 per 150 persons or part thereof  One for 1-15 persons  Two for 16-35  One for 1-12 persons  Two for 13-25 persons 
5 Cleaner’s Sink One per floor, minimum 
6 Drinking Water  Fountain One per 100 persons or part thereof 
7 Shower/Bath As per trade requirements 

Note: It may be assumed that two thirds of the numbers are males and one third females.

Table 4.20 Sanitation Requirements for Restaurants 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For Public  For Staff 
male  Female  male  Female 
1 Water Closet (W.C.)  One per 50 seats upto 200 seats.  For over 200 seats, add at the rate of 1 per 100 seats or part thereoF One per 25seats upto 200 seats.  For over 200 seats, add at the rate of 1 per 50 seats or part thereOF 1 for 15 persond 2 for 16-35 persons.   3 for 36-65 persons.   4 for 66-100 persons 2 per 1-12 persons. 4 for 13-25 persons.    6 for 26-40 persons.   8 for 41-57 persons.   10 for 58-77 persons.   12 for 78-100 person
2 Ablution Taps One in each W.C.  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 
3 Urinals  One for 50 persons or part thereof - Nil upto 6 persons.  1 for 7-20 persons.  2 for 21-45 persons.     3 for 46-70 persons.     4 for 71-100 persons.   -
4 Wash Basins One for every water closet 
5 Kitchen Sinks & Dish Washer  One per each kitechen
6 Service Sink One in the restaurant 

Note:    

 i) It may be assumed that two thirds of the numbers are males and one-third females.  

ii) One water tap with draining arrangements shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity of water closets and urinal

Table 4.21 Sanitation Requirements for Factories 

Sl. No. Sanitary Unit For Male Personnel For female Personnel
1 Water Closet  1 for 15 persons 2 for 16-35 persons 3 for 36-65 persons.   4 for 66-100 persons.   For 101 to 200 persons add at rate of 3%.  From over 200 persons, add at the rate of 2.5%.  2 for 1-12 persons 4 for 13-25 persons.   6 for 26-40 persons.   8 for 41-57 persons.   10 for 58-77 persons.   12 for 78-100 persons.   For 101 to 200 persons, add at the rate of 3%.  From over 200 persons add at the rate of 2%.
2 Ablution Taps  One in each W.C.  One in each W.C. 
3 Urinals  Nil upto 6 persons 1 for 7-20 persons 2 for 21-45 persons 3 for 46-70 persons 4 for 71-100 persons From 101 to 200 persons add at the rate of 3%; for over 200 persons add at the rate of 2.5%.  -
4 Washing Taps with draining arrangement  One for every 25 persons or part thereof 
5 Drinking Water Fountains  One for every 100 persons with a minimum of one on each floor
6 Baths Preferably Showers  As required for particular trade or occupation
7 Emergency shower and eye wash fountain 1 per every shop floor per 500 persons

Note:  

i) For many trades of a dirty or dangerous character, more extensive provisions are required.  

ii) One water tap with draining arrangement shall be provided for every 50 persons or part thereof in the vicinity of water closet and urinal

iii) Creche where provided shall be fitted with water closets (One for 10 persons or part thereof), wash basins (1 for 15 persons or part thereof) and drinking water tap with drinking arrangement for every 50 persons or part thereof 

Table 4.22 Sanitary Requirements for Large Stations and Airports 

Sl. No. Place  W.C. for Males  W.C. for Females  Urinals for Males only 
1 Junction Stations, Intermediate Stations and Substations  3 for first 1000 persons, add 1 for subsequent 1000 persons or part thereof.  8 for first 1000 persons, add 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof 4 for every 1000 person, add 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof.
2 Terminal Stations and Bus Terminals 4 for first 1000 persons and 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof. 10 for every 1000 person and 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof. 6 for every 1000 person and 1 for every additional 1000 persons or part thereof.
3 Domestic Airports  Minimum. 2* 4* 1 per 40 persons or part thereof
For 200 persons 5 16
For 400 persons 9 30
For 600 persons 12 40
For 800 persons 16 52
For 1000 persons 18 58
4 International Airports 1 per 40 persons or part thereof
For 200 persons 6 20
For 600 persons 12 40
For 1000 persons 18 58

Note:  

i) Provision for wash basins, baths including shower stalls, shall be in accordance with part ix section 2- Drainage and Sanitation of National Building Code of India.  

*  At least one Indian style water closet shall be provided in each toilet. Assume 60 % males and   40 % females in any area.  

* At least 50 % of female WCs may be Indian pan and 50% EWC.

Table 4.23 General Standards/Guidelines for Public Toilets in Public Area 

Public Toilet On roads and for open areas: At every 1 km, including in parks, plaza, open air theatre, swimming area, car parks, fuel stations. Toilets shall be disabled-friendly and in 50-50 ratio (M/F). Provision may be made as for Public Rooms (Table 4.10 Contd) 
Signage Signboards on main streets shall give directions and mention the distance to reach the nearest public convenience. Toilets shall have multi-lingual signage for the convenience of visitors. Helpline number shall be pasted on all toilets for complaints/queries
Modes  Pay and use or free. In pay and use toilets entry is allowed on payment to the attendant or by inserting coin and user gets 15 minutes
Maintenance/ Cleaning  The toilet should have both men and women attendants. Alternatively automatic cleaning cycle covering flush, toilet bowl, seat, hand wash basin, disinfecting of floor and complete drying after each use can be adopted, which takes 40 seconds. Public toilet shall be open 24 hours

4.34 Construction Site

1. At construction job sites, one toilet must be provided per 20 employees. In a work zone with between 21 and 199 employees, a toilet seat and one urinal must be provided for every 40 employees. For 200 or more workers, regulations call for a toilet seat and a urinal per 50 workers. The toilet must be located within 200 m or 5 minute walk.

2. Job sites that are not equipped with a sanitary sewer must, unless prohibited by local codes, provide privies, in locations where their use will not contaminate either ground or surface water. Other alternatives to a privy could be chemical toilets, re-circulating toilets, or combustion toilets.

3. Toilets should be cleaned regularly and maintained in good order, running water, must be provided along with soap and individual hand towels.

4.35 Temporary Camp Toilets

Toilet facilities shall be provided within 60 m of the, site, which shall not be closer than 15 m of dining area or kitchen. Make sure that toilet area is cleaned at least once per day, it is sanitary, adequately lighted and is employee safe.

4.36 Special / Contingency Toilets  

A) For Special events like open air theater, religious/political gatherings, mela, etc. for which there are no permanent toilet facilities, contingency toilets/PSUs shall be provided. The following considerations shall determine the number of toilets to be provided for particular event:

i) Duration of the event

ii) Type of crowd

iii) Weather conditions

iv) Whether finishing times are staggered if the event has multi-functions and the following guidelines shall be applied with minimum 50 percent female toilets. 

Table 4.24 Contingency Toilet facilities for Special Events 

Sl.No Patrons For Males  For Females 
Toilets  Urinals  Sinks  Toilets  Sinks 
1 <100 1 2 2 6 2
2 <1000 2 4 4 9 4
3 <2000 4 8 6 12 6
4 <3000 6 15 10 18 10
5 <5000 8 25 17 30 17

Source:  

i)    FEMA “Special Events Contingency Planning”, Toilets Page 39

ii) Jain. AK, “Spatio Economic Development Record”, Clauses 5.16-5.20

iii) “Public Toilets for Women in India”, Volume 18 No 5, September-October, 2011  

B) Special Purpose Toilets: Special toilet facilities shall be adequately provided in public projects (transport terminals/ healthcare and other public spaces) in million plus cities for the Third gender with appropriate cleanliness arrangements.

4.37 General guidance for water supply arrangements  

1. For new construction: Provision shall be made for underground tank for the storage of water, having capacity at 200 l. per person with adequate pumping arrangements to supply water to upper floors. Filtered water connection will be allowed only for use of drinking and bathing needs. For other purposes i.e. flushing and gardening etc., the individual shall be required to have own arrangements of tube well water within the premises. While according sanction to Layout Plan, the Authority shall make a special mention that provision for space shall be kept for the construction of underground reservoir of adequate capacity along with booster pumping station.

2. Arrangements as given in 1 above shall also be provided in Group Housing Societies.

3. The plumbing arrangement in case of new constructions shall be made in a way that the potable water shall be used for drinking, cooking & bathing only and for rest of the uses, provision for ground water can be made with dual piping system.

4. Low capacity cistern should preferably be provided instead of normal 12.5 L capacity.

5. Provisions for sustainable methods of Water and Wastewater management, and Water harvesting may be referred from Section 9.2 in the Bye-Laws

*****