HIGH RISE DEVELOPMENT



CHAPTER - IX (G.O. 119 Conth..)

PROVISIONS FOR HIGH RISE DEVELOPMENT

High Rise Buildings/Complexes

High Rise Building means a building with 18m or more in height.

Chimneys, cooling towers, boiler rooms, lift machine rooms, cold storage and other non-working areas in case of industrial buildings and water tanks and architectural features in respect of other buildings are excluded in including the height.

Note:- High Rise Buildings shall conform to these provisions in addition to the Rules specifically given in CHAPTER-III [Procedural Requirement], CHAPTER-IV [General Space Requirements and Services], CHAPTER-V [Provisions for Structural Safety of Buildings] CHAPTER-VI [Fire Protection and Fire Safety Requirements] and CHAPTER-VII [General Building Requirements] and also those given in other Chapters.

Application

Every application to construct or reconstruct a high rise building or alteration to existing high rise building shall be made in the prescribed form and accompanied by detailed plans, floor plans of all specifications duly certified by a qualified licensed structural engineer.

Such buildings shall be undertaken by owners by engaging registered architect, licensed builders/developers and licensed structural engineers. The designs and building plans shall be countersigned by the owner, licensed developer, registered architect, licensed engineer and a qualified & licensed Structural Engineer who shall be responsible for the supervision, structural safety, fire safety and specifications compliance of such buildings.

The work of the building services like sanitation, plumbing, fire safety requirements, lifts, electrical installations, and other utility services shall be executed under the planning, design and supervision of qualified and competent technical personnel.

Prior Clearance from Airport Authority

For any High Rise Building located in the vicinity of airports as given in the National Building Code, the maximum height of such building shall be decided in consultation with the Airport Authority and shall be regulated by their rules/requirements.

Prior No Objection Certificate (NOC) from the Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Response & Fire Services Department [APSDR&FSD]

For all High Rise Buildings prior No Objection Certificate (NOC) from the Andhra Pradesh State Disasters Response & Fire Services Department shall be obtained and copy of the approved plan and No Objection Certificate (NOC) issued by the said department shall be enclosed along with the building application.

The facilities for providing fire protection and firefighting facilities in such buildings should be in compliance with the stipulations laid down and clearance issued by the Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Response & Fire Services Department as required under Andhra Pradesh Fire Service Act, 1999)/National Building Code of India (NBC)-2005 from time to time.

The designs and installations regarding fire protection and safety measures including exit requirements and smoke containment and smoke management measures shall be undertaken through a fire engineer/fire consultant.

Buildings shall be designed for compliance with earth quake resistance and resisting other natural hazards. The Completion Certificate shall mention that the norms have been followed in the design and construction of buildings for making the buildings resistant to earthquake, compliance with structural safety and fire safety requirements.

The building requirements like size and area requirements of habitable rooms, kitchen, bathrooms and Water closets, other areas, corridor and staircase widths, service ducts, etc. and standards as specified in these rules and in National Building Code-2005 shall be complied with.

Location and Plot Area

High Rise Buildings/Complexes shall be permissible only in areas notified by the Sanctioning Authority with prior approval from the Competent Authority from time to time.

High Rise Buildings/Complexes shall not be permissible in congested areas and in gram kantam areas.

The minimum plot area shall not be less than 2000sq.m.

In respect of sites/plots proposed for high rise buildings and affected in road widening where there is a shortfall of the net plot size, up to 10% of such shortfall in net plot area would be considered with the proposed height and corresponding minimum all round setbacks.

Means of access

A plot/site shall abut on a public road/public street with a minimum width of 12m.

Main entrances to the premises shall be of adequate width to allow easy access to the fire engine and in no case it shall measure less than 6 m. The entrance gate shall fold back against the compound wall of the premises, thus leaving the exterior access way within the plot free for movement of fire service vehicles. If archway is provided over the main entrance the height of the archway shall not be at a height less than 5m.

All round Open Spaces /Set Backs

The minimum abutting road width and all-round open space/setback for High Rise Buildings shall be as follows:

TABLE – 18

Minimum abutting road width and all-round open space / setback for High Rise Buildings

 Sl.No

Height of Building (in meters)

Minimum abutting road width (in meters)

Minimum all-round open space 

(in meters)

Above

Up to

 

 

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

1

-

21

12

7

2

21

24

12

8

3

24

27

18

9

4

27

30

18

10

5

30

35

24

11

6

35

40

24

12

7

40

45

24

13

8

45

50

30

14

9

50

55

30

16

The open space to be left between two blocks shall be equivalent to the open space mentioned in Column – (E) of the above Table and this shall not be considered for organized open space (Tot lot).

In case of high rise buildings up to 30m height, it is permitted to transfer up to 2m of setback from one side to the other side, which needs to be uniform at any given point, subject to maintaining the minimum setback of 7m on all sides and not exceeding the permissible/allowable plinth area.

The balcony projection of up to 2m may be allowed projecting onto the open spaces for upper floors from 6m height onwards.

Where the lighting and ventilation of a building is through the means of a chowk or inner courtyard or interior open space/duct, such open space shall be open to sky and area of at least 25sq.m and no side shall be less than 3m.

In every high rise building site, an organized open space shall be utilized as greenery, tot lot or soft landscaping, etc. and this shall be provided over and above the mandatory setbacks to be left in and around the building. This space shall be at least 10% of total site area at ground level open to sky and shall be a minimum width of 4.5m. This may be provided in one or more pockets with minimum area of 50sq.m at each location.

A minimum of 2m wide green planting strip in the periphery on all sides within the setbacks (All round open spaces) are required to be developed and maintained.

Buildings abutting major road of 30m and above width shall be permitted only after providing black-topped service roads of minimum 7m width with minimum 2 Lane carriageway within the defined right of way. It will be the responsibility of the developer/builder/owner to provide the above service road of the standards fixed by the Sanctioning Authority at his own cost. The Sanctioning Authority may consider sanctioning building permission if the developer/builder/ owner deposits the full cost for laying such service road to the Sanctioning Authority. The amount so levied and collected shall be maintained in a separate exclusive account by the Sanctioning Authority and utilized only for this purpose.

Parking Requirements

The parking requirements shall be in accordance with Rule 6 (30) and Table – 11 of CHAPTER-IV [General Space Requirements and Services-Requirements of Parts of Buildings-Parking Spaces] which is as given below.

Extract of TABLE – 11

Parking Requirements in Buildings

Sl.No

Category of building / Activity

Parking area to be provided

as percentage of total built up area

Municipal

Corporations

&

Selection Grade,

Special Grade

Municipalities

First Grade, Second

Grade Municipalities,

Nagar Panchayats

and

Gram Panchayats

in Master Plan areas

and in Development

Authority Areas

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

1

Multiplexes

60

50

2

Information Technology Enabling Services Complexes, Shopping Malls (above 4000sq. m)

50

40

3

Business buildings, Cinema halls, Hotels, Kalyana Mandapams, Lodges, Offices, Other Commercial buildings, Restaurants & High-Rise Buildings / Complexes of Non Residential Category

30

25

4

Colleges, Godowns, Hospitals, Industrial buildings, Institutional buildings, Residential Apartment Complexes, Schools, Educational

Buildings & Other Buildings

20

20

Building components

Basement

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter IV]

Travel Distance for Occupancy and Type of Construction as given in the Table below shall be followed. If travel distance exceeds that given in the table below, additional staircases shall be provided.

TABLE - 19

Travel Distance for Occupancy and Type of Construction

Sl. No

Group of Occupancy

Maximum Travel Distance Construction (m)

Type 1 & 2

Type 3 & 4

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

1

Residential(A)

30.0

22.5

2

Educational(B)

30.0

22.5

3

Institutional

30.0

22.5

4

Assembly(D)

30.0

30.0

5

Business(E)

30.0

30.0

6

Mercantile(F)

30.0

30.0

7

Industrial(G)

45.0

Construction type 3 and 4 not  permitted

8

Storage(H)

30.0

Construction type 3 and 4 not  permitted

9

Hazardous(J)

22.5

Construction type 3 and 4 not  permitted

Notes:

For fully sprinkled building, the travel distance may be increased by 50% of the values specified above.

Ramps shall be counted as one of the means of escape wherever permitted in National Building Code 2005.

Compartmentation

The building shall be suitably compartmentalized so that fire/smoke remains confined to the area where fire incident has occurred and does not spread to the remaining part of the building.

Compartmentation and Pressurization method shall be adopted (as per clause 4.10 of Part 4 of NBC, 2005) to protect escape routes against ingress of smoke, or toxic gases into the escape routes will be prevented.

Pressurization shall be adopted for high rise buildings and building having mixed occupancy/multiplexes having covered area more than 500 m2.          

Corridors

Exit corridors and passageways shall be of width not less than the aggregate required width of exit doorways leading from them in the direction of travel to the exterior.

The minimum width of a corridor in a residential building shall be 1.2m for single loaded and 2.0m for double loaded and in all other buildings shall be 1.5m.

Where stairways discharge through corridors and passageways, the height of corridors and passageways shall be not less than 2.4m.

All means of exit including staircases, lifts lobbies and corridors shall be ventilated.

Doorways

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter IV]

Glass Façade/Service Ducts/Shafts/ Refuge Area/ Vents

An opening to the glass façade of minimum width 1.5m and height 1.5m shall be provided at every floor at a level of 1.2m from the flooring facing compulsory open space as well as on road side.

Construction that complies with the fire rating of the horizontal segregation and has any gap packed with a non-combustible material to withstand thermal expansion and structural movement of the walling without the loss of seal against fire and smoke.

Mechanism of Opening: The openable glass panel shall be either left or right shall have manual opening mechanism from inside as well as outside. Such openable panels shall be marked conspicuously so as to easily identify the openable panel from outside.

Fire seal to be provided at every floor level between the external glazing and building structure.

The glazing used for the façade shall be of toughened (tempered) safety glass as per I.S.2553.

To avoid fire propagation vertically from one floor to another floor, a continuous glass must be separated internally by a smoke/ fire seal which is of noncombustible material having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

Service ducts and shafts shall be enclosed by walls and doors with fire resistance rating as given in Tables 1 to 18 of Part IV of the NBC 2005. All such ducts/shafts shall be properly sealed and stopped fire ingress at all floor levels.

A vent opening at the top of the service shaft shall be provided having an area between one-fourth and one-half of the area of the shaft.

The openable vent of minimum 2.5% of the floor area shall be provided. The openable vent can be pop out type or bottom hinged provided with fusible link opening mechanism and shall also be integrated with automatic Smoke Detection System.

Alternate vertical glass panels of the façade shall be openable type with the mechanism mentioned above in order to ventilate the smoke.

Refuge areas covered with the glass façade shall have all the panels fully openable (either left or right hinged) both from inside as well as outside.

Glass quality and Practice of use of Glass in buildings shall have to be in conformity with the BIS codes as given in Table below:

TABLE - 20

Glass quality and Use of glass in buildings

Sl.No

IS Code

Specifications

(A)

(B)

(C)

1

2553

(Part 1):1990

Specification for safety glass: Part 1 General purpose

(third revision)

2

2835:1987

Specification for flat transparent sheet glass

(third revision)

3

438:1994

Specification for silvered glass mirrors for general purposes (second revision)

4

5437:1994

Specification for figured rolled and wired glass

(first revision).

5

14900:2000

Specification for transparent float glass.

6

16231 Part 1

General methodology for selection

7

16231 Part 2

Energy and Light

8

16231 Part 3

Fire and Loading

9

16231 Part 4

Safety related to Human Impact

Lifts

General requirements of lifts shall be as follows:

All the floors shall be accessible for 24 hours by the lifts.

The lifts provided in the buildings shall not be considered as a means of escape in case of emergency.

In a dual line arrangement (lifts opposite to each other) the lobby may be between 1.5 times to 2.5 times the depth of one car.

For in-line (single line) arrangements the lobby may be typically half of the above recommendations.

Grounding switch, at ground floor level, to enable the fire service to ground the lift shall also be provided.

The lift machine room shall be separate and no other machinery shall be installed there in.

Walls of lift enclosures and lift lobby shall have fire rating of 2 hour; (as given in Tables 1 to 18 of Part IV of the NBC 2005);

Lifts shall have a vent at the top of area not less than 0.2sq.m.

Lift car door shall have a fire resistance rating of 1 hour.

Lift lobby doors in lift enclosures shall have fire resistance as given in Tables 1 to 18 of Part IV of the NBC 2005;

Collapsible gates shall not be permitted for lifts and shall have solid doors with fire resistance of at least 1 hour.

If the lift shaft and lobby is in the core of the building, a positive pressure between 25 and 30 Pa shall be maintained in the lobby and a positive pressure of 50 Pa shall be maintained in the lift shaft. The mechanism for pressurization shall act automatically with the fire alarm; it shall be possible to operate this mechanically also.

Lifts if communicating with the basement, the lift lobby of the basements shall be pressurized as suggested below:

If the lift shaft and lobby is in the core of the building a positive pressure between 25 and 30 pa shall be maintained in the lobby and a possible pressure of 50 pa shall be maintained in the lift shaft. The mechanism for the pressurization shall act automatically with the fire alarm/sprinkler system and it shall be possible to operate this mechanically also.

Exit from the lift lobby, if located in the core of the building, shall be through a self-closing fire smoke check door of one-hour fire resistance.

Telephone or other communication facilities shall be provided in lift cars and to be connected to fire control room for the building.

Exit from the lift lobby, if located in the core of the building, shall be through a self-closing fire door of half an hour fire resistance.

Suitable arrangements such as providing slope in the floor of lift lobby shall be made to prevent water used during firefighting, etc., at any landing from entering the lift shafts.

A sign shall be posted and maintained on every floor at or near the lift indicating that in case of fire, occupants shall use the stairs unless instructed otherwise.

The sign shall also contain a plan for each floor showing the locations of the stairways.

Alternate source of power supply shall be provided for all the lifts through a manually operated changeover switch.

For Pressurization Specifications of various building components refer NBC Chapter 4 Fire and Life Safety Clause 4.10 Pressurization of Staircases (Protected Escape Routes)

Ramps

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter IV]

Stairways

A staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft.

The staircase shall be ventilated to the atmosphere at each landing and a vent at the top;

The vent openings shall be of 0.5sq.m in the external wall and the top.

If the staircase cannot be ventilated, because of location or other reasons, a positive pressure 50 Pa shall be maintained inside. The mechanism for pressurizing the staircase shall operate automatically with the fire alarm. The roof of the shaft shall be 1m above the surrounding roof.

Glazing or glass bricks if used in staircase, shall have fire resistance rating of minimum 2 hour.

The Minimum width of staircase for different types of high-rise buildings shall be as per the table given below:

TABLE - 21

Minimum width of staircase for different types of high-rise buildings

Sl.No

Types of Building

Width (m)

(A)

(B)

(C)

1

Residential buildings (dwellings)

1.0

2

Residential hotel buildings

1.5

3

Assembly buildings like auditorium, theatres and cinemas

2.0

4

Educational buildings up to 30m in height

1.5

5

Institutional buildings like hospitals

2.0

6

All other buildings

1.5

The minimum width of treads without nosing shall be 0.25m for staircase for residential buildings.

In the case of other buildings the minimum width of tread shall be 0.3m.

The treads shall be constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent slipping.

The maximum height of riser shall be 0.19m in the case of residential buildings

The maximum height of riser shall be 0.15m in the case of other buildings.

The no. of risers shall be limited to 15 per flight.

Handrails shall be provided with a minimum height of 0.9m from the center of the tread.

The minimum headroom in a passage under the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2.2m.

Access to main staircase shall be gained through adequate fire resistance rating as given in Tables 1 to 18 of Part IV of the NBC 2005. Automatic closing doors placed in the enclosing walls of the staircases. It shall be a swing type door opening in the direction of the escape.

No living space, store or other fire risk shall open directly into the staircase or staircases.

External exit door of staircase enclosure at ground level shall open directly to the open spaces or can be reached without passing through any door other than a door provided to form a draught lobby.

The exit sign with arrow indicating the way to the escape route shall be provided at a height of 0.5m from the floor level on the wall and shall be illuminated by electric light connected to corridor circuits. All exit way marking signs should be flushed with the wall and so designed that no mechanical damage shall occur to them due to moving of furniture or other heavy equipment.

All landings of floor shall have floor indication boards indicating the number of floor. The floor indication board shall be placed on the wall immediately facing the flight of stairs and nearest to the landing. It shall be of size not less than 0.5m x 0.5m and it shall be prominently on the wall facing the staircase.

In case of single staircase it shall terminate at the ground floor level and the access to the basement shall be by a separate staircase. However, the second staircase may lead to basement levels provided the same is separated at ground level by either a ventilated lobby with discharge points at two different ends or through enclosures with fire resistance rating door as given in Tables 1 to 18 of Part IV of the NBC 2005 or through a fire protected corridor.

There shall be at least one fire escape staircase and lift.

These staircases and lifts shall be got certified from the manufacturer’s authorized service technical personnel from time to time.                  

Building Services

Air-conditioning

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter VI]

Alternate Source of Electric Supply

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter VI]

Boiler Room

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter VI]

Electrical Services

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter VI]

Gas supply

Town Gas/L.P. Gas Supply Pipes – Where gas pipes are run in buildings, the same shall be run in separate shafts exclusively for this purpose and these shall be on external walls, away from the staircases. There shall be no interconnection of this shaft with the rest of the floors.

LPG distribution pipes shall always be below the false ceiling. The length of these pipes shall be as short as possible. In the case of kitchen cooking range area, apart from providing hood, covering the entire cooking range, the exhaust system should be designed to take care of 30cu.m per minute per sq. m of hood protected area. It should have grease filters using metallic grill to trip oil vapors escaping into the fume hood.

Note: For detailed information on gas pipe installations, reference may be made to Para.9 ‘Plumbing Services, Section 3 Gas Supply’, of National Building Code of India.

For large/commercial kitchens all wiring in fume hoods shall be of fiberglass insulation. Thermal detectors shall be installed into fume hoods of large kitchens for hotels, hospitals and similar areas located in high rise buildings. Arrangements shall be made for automatic tripping of the exhaust fan in case of fire.

If LPG is used, the same shall be shut off. The voltage shall be of 24 V or 100 V DC operated with the external rectifier. The valve shall be of the hand re-set type and shall be located in an area segregated from cooking ranges. Valves shall be easily accessible. The hood shall have manual facility for steam or carbon dioxide gas injection, depending on duty condition; and Gas meters shall be housed in a suitably constructed metal cupboard located in a well-ventilated space, keeping in view the fact that LPG is heavier than air and town gas is lighter than air.

Helipad

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter VI]

Staircase and Corridor Lighting

As provided in these Rules. [See Chapter VI]

Transformers

If transformers are housed in the building below the ground level it shall be necessarily in the first basement in separate fire resistance room of 4 hours rating.

Transformer shall be dry type and shall be kept in an enclosure with walls, doors and cut-outs having fire resistance rating of 4 hour.

The room shall necessarily be at the periphery of the basement having separate and direct access from open area at ground floor through a fire escape staircase.

The entrance to the room shall be provided with a steel door of 2 hours fire rating. A curb of a suitable height shall be provided at the entrance in order to prevent the flow of oil from ruptured, transformer into other parts of the basement.

The switchgears shall be housed in a separate room separated from the transformer bays by a fire-resisting wall with fire resistance not less than 4 hours.

The transformer shall be protected by an automatic foam sprinkler system. When housed at ground floor level it/they shall be cut-off from the other portion of premises by Fire Resisting Walls of 4 hours rating.

A tank of RCC construction of adequate capacity shall be provided at lower basement level, to collect the oil from the catch pit in case of emergency. The pipe connecting the catch-pit to the tank shall be of non-combustible construction and shall be provided with a flame-arrester.

The electric sub-station shall be located in a separate building in accordance to I.E. Rules 68(I) and 64(I) (a).

If this is not possible due to site conditions, the sub-station shall be located on the ground floor.

As far as possible sub-station shall not be installed in a basement, for such situations special provisions like mechanical ventilation, wherever required, cable ducting, cable trays, top/bottom entry of HV/LV cable, hooks on Transformer(s) & HV panels, adequate fire detection and firefighting arrangement, adequate drainage, effective measures to prevent flooding etc. shall be provided.

Adequate precautions shall also be taken for water proofing to prevent seepage of water.

A ramp shall also be provided with a slope, not steeper than 1 in 7, for easy movement of equipment to and from sub-station.

Fire regulations – The installations shall be carried out in conformity with the local regulations and rules there under wherever they are in force. At other places NBC guidelines shall be followed.

Fire Safety / Disaster Management

Refer Chapter-VI [Fire Protection & Fire Safety Requirements of these Rules.

Structural Safety

Refer Chapter-V [Provisions for Structural Safety] of these Rules.

Sustainable Environment and Buildings

Refer Chapter-X-5 [Green Buildings] of these Rules.

General

Architectural elements such as louvers, pergolas, other sunshine materials should be free from FAR.

Any architectural roof top structures would also be permitted out of FAR if not used for habitable or commercial purposes.

Building elements such as sky bridges and landscape terraces which are meant for community purposes only shall be permitted free of FAR

Services can be permitted on roofs with adequate screening for the same.

Atrium/ Atria at any floor will be counted only once in the FAR. Atrium may be enclosed by light roofing or R.C.C.

Scissor staircase would be permitted provided all travel distance and fire norms are adhered to.

Stilts in high-rise will not be restricted to height of 2.4m as long as it is used for parking.

Multilevel car parking with car lifts would be permitted with adequate fire safety.

Special type of High rise buildings

These buildings shall follow the specifications as given below while conforming to all the other provisions as given above:

Tower and Podium Type Building:

Height of the building shall be allowed up to 50m.

For Podium, i.e., Ground plus first floor: all-round setbacks shall be 7m.

For Tower block: The maximum coverage shall be 50 % of the Podium Block i.e. setback area shall be at least 50% of the Podium Block subject to a minimum of 3m on any side.

No projection shall be made into the setback.

The fire safety and fire escape measures for the Tower Block shall be independent of the Podium Block.

 “Stepped Type” or “Pyramidal Type” Building:

Such type of High Rise Building blocks may be allowed for heights above 30m with the following open space requirements:

At Ground level: Minimum 9m all round open space for the first five floors.

At Upper floors: Increase of 2m all round open space or more, for every 5 upper floors or 15m height or part thereof, over and above the ground level open space of minimum 9m.

No projection shall be made into the setback.

*****