HORTICULTURE



HORTICULTURE, LAND SCAPING AND MISCELLANEOUS WORKS

27.0. Horticultural work - Horticultural operations shall be started on ground previously levelled and dressed to require formation levels and slopes.

In case whether unsuitable soil is met with, it shall be either removed or replaced or it shall be covered over to a thickness decided by the engineer with good earth.

In the course of excavation or trenching during horticultural operations, any walls, foundations, etc., met with shall not be dismantled without pre-measurement and prior to the written permission of the engineer.

27.1. Material

27.1.1. Grass

  1. Cynodon Dactylon-Doob, Calcutta, Rajghat Bermuda
  2. Improved / hybrid strains of Bermuda grass
  3. Zoyasia grasses.

The grass shall be fresh, free from weed and tank vegetation but having #Rhizome# with sufficient nodes and shall be approved by engineer before planting.

27.1.2. Farm yard manure - It shall be well decayed free from grits and any other unwanted materials.

27.1.3. Good earth - The soil shall be suitable for gardening free from kanker, Moorum, shingle, rocks, stones, brick-bats, building rubbish and any other foreign matter. The earth shall be free from clods or lumps of sizes bigger than 75 mm in any direction.  It shall have PH value ranging between 6 to 8.5.

27.1.4. Oil cake (Neem/Castor) - The cake shall be free from husk, dust, grit and any other foreign matter.

27.1.5. Sludge - It shall be obtained from approved disposal works.

27.2. Supplying & stacking of materials

27.2.1. Farmyard manure - It shall be transported to the site in Lorries.  It shall be stacked at site in stacks of not less than 50 cm height and of volume not less than 3 cum.

27.2.1.1. Measurements - Length, breadth and depth of stacks shall be measured correct to a cm.  The volume of the stacks shall be reduced by 8% for looseness in stacking to arrive at the net quantity for payment.

27.2.1.2. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all the labour and material involved in all the operations described above, including carriage within a lead of one Km. 27.2.2. Good Earth - The earth shall be stacked at site in stacks not less than 50 cm high and of volume not less than 3.0 cum.

27.2.2.1. Measurements - Length, breadth and height of stacks shall be measured correct to a cm. The volume of the stacks shall be reduced by 20% for voids before payment, unless otherwise described.

27.2.2.2. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of excavating the earth from areas lying at distances not exceeding one Km. from the site, transporting the same at site, breaking of clods and stacking at places indicated. 

27.3. SPECIFICATIONS FOR OIL CAKE

27.3.1. (Neem/Castor) - The cake shall be free from grit and any other foreign matter.  It should be un-decorticated and pulverised. The material shall be packed in old serviceable gunny bags of 50 kgs capacity approximately.  The weight of gunny bag shall be deducted @ 1 kg per bag and payment shall be made for net quantity.  The quantity of cake should be got approved by the engineer before supply.

27.3.2. Measurement - The arrangement for weighing shall be made at site of work by the department.  The gunny bags shall be the property of the government.

27.3.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of labour and material involved in all the operations described above, including carriage up to site of work with all leads and lifts, weighing etc.

27.3.4. Sludge - It shall be transported to the site in Lorries with efficient arrangement to prevent enroute.  It shall to stack at site in stacks of. Not less than 50 cm. height and of volume not less than 3 cum.

27.3.4.1. Measurement - Length, breadth and depth of stacks shall be measured correct to a cm.  The volume to the stacks shall be reduced by 8% for looseness in stacking, to arrive at the net quantity for payment.

27.3.4.2. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above including carriage to site up to one Km.

27.4. SPECIFICATIONS FOR EXCAVATION IN DUMPED STONE FOR MALBA, BAJRI PATH AND WATER BOUND MACADAM ROAD

As directed by the engineer, the serviceable and unserviceable material shall be stacked properly where the unserviceable material, is disposed off, it shall be neatly dressed.

27.4.1. Measurement - The relevant portion of earth work shall apply.  Excavation in (I) dumped stone of malba (ii) Bajri path and (iii) water bound macadam road shall be measured separately.

27.4.2. Rate - The rate shall include the work involved in the operations described above.  Nothing extra shall be paid for sorting and stacking the unserviceable and serviceable material, including dressing.

27.5. SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRENCHING IN ORDINARY SOIL

27.5.1  Trenching of soil is done in order to loosen the soil, and turn over and buried the top layer containing weeds etc. in the base and to bring up the lower layers of good earth to form a proper medium for grassing, regrassing, hedging and shrubbery.  Trenching shall be done to the depth ordered by the engineer.  The depth is generally 30 cms for grassing and 60 cms for regrassing in good soil.

27.5.2. The trenched ground shall, after rough dressing, be flooded with water by making small kiaries to enable the soil to settle down.  Any local depression unevenness etc. shall be made good by dressing and / or filling with good soil.

27.5.3. Weeds or other vegetation which appear on the ground are then uprooted and removed and disposed off and paid for separately.  The surface when hard enough is fine dressed.  These operations when carried out are, however, payable separately from trenching.

27.5.4. Trenching - Trenching shall consist of the following operations:

27.5.4.1. The whole plot shall be divided into narrow rectangular strips of about 1.5 m, width or as directed by the engineer.

27.5.4.2. These strips shall be sub-divided lengthwise into about 1 m. long sections.  Such sections shall be excavated serially and excavated soil deposited in the adjacent section preceding it.

27.5.4.3.  In excavation and depositing care shall be taken that the top soil with all previous plant growth including roots, get buried in the bottom layers of trenched area, the dead plant so buried incidentally being formed into humus.

27.5.4.4. The excavated soil shall be straight away dumped into the adjoining sections so that double handling otherwise involved in dumping the excavated stuff outside and in back filling in the trenches with leads is practically eliminated.

27.5.5. Measurements - Length and breadth of the plot shall be taken correct to 0.1m. and depths correct to a cm. Cubical contents shall be calculated in cubic metres, correct to two places of decimal.  No deduction shall be made nor extra paid for removing stones, brick bats and other foreign matter met with during excavation up to initial lead of 50 m. and stacking the same.

27.5.6. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and material involved in the operations described above, with the exceptions noted above. The rates include cost of all precautionary measure to be taken for protections and supporting all services etc. met with during trenching.  It does not include the cost of mixing of earth, sludge / manure.

27.6 SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROUGH DRESSING THE TRENCHED GROUND

27.6.1. Rough dressing the area shall include making kiaries for flooding. The trenched ground shall be levelled and rough dressed and if there are any hollows and depressions resulting from subsidence which cannot be so levelled, these shall be filled properly with earth brought from outside to bring the depressed surface to the level of the adjoining land and to remove discontinuity of slope and then rough dressed again.  The supply and spreading of soil in such depressions is payable separately.  In rough dressing, the soil at the surface and for 75 mm depth below shall be broken down to particle to size not more than 10 mm in any direction.

27.6.2. Measurements - Length and breadth of superficial area shall be measured correct to 0.1 metres. The area shall be calculated in sqm. Correct to two places of decimal.

27.6.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in the operations described above.

27.7. SPECIFICATIONS FOR SPREADING GOOD EARTH

27.7.1. Good earth sludge shall be removed from stacks by head load and spread evenly over the surface to the thickness ordered by the engineer.  It shall be spread with a twisting motion to avoid segregation and to ensure that spreading is uniform over the entire area.

27.7.2. Measurements - The quantity of good earth spread shall be determined by the difference in the volume of good earth in stacks before and after spreading duly reduced for looseness in stacking by 20% of good earth.

27.7.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above, but does not include the cost of the good earth which shall be paid for separately unless specifically described in the item.

27.8. SPECIFICATIONS FOR UPROOTING WEEDS FROM TRENCHED AREAS

27.8.1. After 10 days and within 15 days of flooding the rough dressed trenched ground with water, the weeds appearing on the ground, shall be rooted out carefully and the rubbish disposed off as directed by the engineer.

27.8.2. Measurements - Length and breadth shall be measured correct to 0.1 metre. Superficial area of the weeded ground shall be measured for purpose of payment.

27.8.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above.

27.9. SPECIFICATIONS FOR SPREADING SLUDGE / MANURE

27.9.1. The specifications shall be as described except that the stacks shall be reduced by 8% for looseness.

27.10. SPECIFICATIONS FOR FINE DRESSING THE GROUND

27.10.1 Slight unevenness, ups and downs and shallow depressions resulting from the settlement of the flooded ground, in drying and from the subsequent weeding operations, shall be removed by fine dressing the surface to the formation levels of the adjoining land as directed by the engineer, and by adding suitable quantities of good earth,  brought from outside, if necessary.  Such supply and spreading of good earth stacked at site is however, payable separately.  In fine dressing, the soil at the surface and for 40 mm depth below shall be broken down to particles of size not exceeding 6 mm in any direction.

27.10.2. Measurements - Length and breadth of the dressed ground shall be measured correct to 0.1 metre.  The are shall be calculated in sqm correct to two places of decimal.

27.10.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above, with the exception noted above.

27.11. SPECIFICATIONS FOR EXCAVATION AND TRENCHING FOR PREPARATION OF BEDS FOR HEDGE AND SHRUBBERY:-

27.11.1. Beds for hedges and shrubbery are generally prepared to width of 60 cm. to 125 cm and 2 to 4 metres respectively.

27.11.2. Beds for hedges and shrubbery shall be prepared in the following manner.

The beds shall first be excavated to a depth of 60 cm. and the excavated soil shall be stacked on the sides of the beds.  The surface of the excavated bed shall then be trenched to a further depth of 30 cm in order to loosen the soil, in the manner described above. No flooring will be done at this stage but the top surface shall be rough dressed and levelled.  The excavated soil from the top 60 cm depth of the bed stacked at the site shall then be thoroughly mixed with sludge or manure in the proportion 8:1 by volume (8 parts of stacked volume of earth after reduction by 20% to 1 part of stacked volume of sludge or manure after reduction by 8%) or other proportion as described in the item.  The mixed earth and manure shall be refilled over the trenched bed, levelled neatly and profusely flooded so that the water reaches even the bottom most layers of the trenched depth of the bed.  The surface after full subsidence shall again be refilled with the earth and manure mixture, watered and allowed to settle and finally fine dressed to the level 50 mm to 75 mm below the adjoining ground or as directed by the engineer.  Surplus earth if any shall be disposed off as directed by the engineer.  Any surplus earth if removed beyond initial lead shall be paid for separately.

Stones, brick bats and other foreign matter if met with during excavation or trenching shall be removed and stacked within initial lead and lift, such material as is declared unserviceable by the engineer shall be disposed by spreading and levelling at places ordered by him.   If disposal is outside the initial lead and lift, then the transport for the extra leads will be paid for separately.  If a large proportion of material unsuitable for the hedging and shrubbery operations is met with and earth from outside is required to be brought in for mixing with manure and filling, the supply and stacking of such earth will be paid for separately.

27.11.3. Measurements - Length, breadth and depth of the pit excavated and trenched shall be measured correct to a cm.  The cubical contents shall be calculated in cubic metre to two places of decimal.

27.11.4. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above with the exceptions as noted.  The rate shall not include the cost of supplying and stacking sludge or manure unless the same is specifically included in the description of the item.

27.12. SPECIFICATIONS FOR MIXING OF GOOD EARTH AND SLUDGE / MANURE

27.12.1. The stacked earth shall, before mixing, be broken down to particles of sizes not exceeding 6 mm in any direction.  Good earth shall be thoroughly mixed with sludge or manure in specified proportion as described in the item or as directed by the engineer.  The mixing shall be spread as described to the thickness ordered by the engineer.

27.12.2. Measurements - The quantity of good earth and sludge or manure mixed shall be determined by the difference in the volume of good earth, sludge or manure in stack, before and after spreading duly accounted for voids and looseness in stacks.

27.12.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above, but does not include the cost of good earth sludge or manure which shall be paid for separately, unless otherwise described in the item.

27.13. SPECIFICATIONS FOR UPROOTING RANK VEGETATION AND WEEDS AND PREPARING THE GROUND FOR PLANTING ‘DOOB’ GRASS

27.13.1. Initially the area shall be dug up to a depth of 30 cm and weeds and rank vegetation with roots removed therefrom be repeated forking.  The whole area then shall be retrenched to a depth of 60 cm. in the same manner as described above.

Clods of excavated earth shall then be broken up to the size not more than 75 mm in any direction.  The area shall then be flooded with water and after 10 days and within 15 days of flooding, weeds that re-germinate shall be uprooted carefully.

The rubbish arising from the above operations shall be removed and disposed off in a manner directed by the engineer, away from the site.  The earth shall then be rough dressed and fine dressed as described above.

27.13.2. Measurements - The length and breadth of uprooted area shall be measured correct to 0.1 metre.  The area shall be calculated in sqm correct to two place of decimal.

27.13.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above.

27.14. SPECIFICATIONS FOR GRASSING WITH ‘DOOB GRASS’ 

27.14.1. The area from where the grass roots are to be obtained shall be specified by the engineer at the time of execution of the work and no royalty shall be charged on account from the contractor.

27.14.2. The soil shall be suitably moistened and then the operation of planting grass shall be commenced.  The grass shall be dibbled at 10 cm, 7.5 cm., 5 cm., apart in any direction or other spacing as described in the item.  Dead grass and weeds shall not be planted.  The contractor shall be responsible for watering and maintenance of levels and the lawn for 30 days or till the grass forms a thick lawn free from weeds and fit for moving whichever is later.  Generally planting in either direction at 15 cm. 10 cm. spacing is done in the case of large open spaces, at 7.5 cm. spacing in residential lawns and at 5 cm, spacing for Tennis Courts and sports ground lawns.

27.14.3.  Precautions - During the maintenance period, any irregularities arising in ground levels due to watering or due to trampling by labour, or due to cattle straying thereon, shall be constantly made up to the proper levels with earth as available or brought from outside as necessary.  Constant watch shall be maintained to ensure that dead patches are replanted and weeds are removed.

27.14.4. Measurements - Length and breadth of the lawn grassed shall be measured correct to 0.1 metre and the area shall be calculated in square metre correct to two places of decimal.

27.14.5. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour & materials involved in all the operations described above, excluding supply of the requisite quantity of good earth if so needed for properly maintaining the levels of the lawns.

27.15. SPECIFICATIONS FOR RENOVATING LAWNS

27.15.1. The area shall be first weeded out of all undesirable growth.  The entire grass shall be scrapped (cheeled) without damaging roots and levels of the grounds. Slight irregularities in surface shall be levelled off and the area shall then be forked so as to aerate the roots of the grass without, however, up-rooting them.

Specified quantity of sludge or manure shall then be spread uniformly with wooden straight edge (phatti) as directed by the engineer.  The area shall then be slightly sprinkled with water so as to facilitate proper integration of the manure or sludge with the soil and later flooded.  The contractor shall be responsible for watering, proper maintenance and tending of the lawn for 30 days or till the grass forms a lawn fit for mowing, whichever is later.

During the above operations, all undesirable growths shall be constantly weeded out and all rubbish removed and disposed off as directed by the engineer.

27.15.2. Measurements - Length and breadth of the lawn renovated shall be measured correct to 0.1 m. The area shall be calculated in sqm correct to two places of decimal.

27.15.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and T & P (excluding RH pipe/grass) involved in all the operations described above, including the supply of the requisite quantity of good earth if so needed for proper maintenance of the levels of the lawns.  The cost of the sludge or manure shall be measured and paid for separately, unless its supply is specifically included in the description of the item.

27.16. SPECIFICATIONS FOR DIGGING PITS FOR PLANTING TREES

27.16.1. In ordinary soil, including refilling earth after mixing with oil cake, manure & watering.

27.27.21.1.  Pits of circular shape in ordinary soil shall be excavated to the dimensions described in the items and the excavated soil, broken to clods of sizes not exceeding 75 mm in any direction, shall be stacked outside the pit. Stones, bricks bats, unsuitable earth and other rubbish, all roots and other serviceable growth met with during excavation shall be separated out and unserviceable material removed from the site as directed.  Useful material, if any, shall be stacked properly and separately.  Good earth in quantities as required to replace such discarded stuff shall be brought and stacked at site by the contractor which shall be paid for separately.

27.27.21.2.  The tree pit shall be manured with powdered neam/ castor oil cake at the specified rate along with  farm yard manure or sludge shall be uniformly mixed with the excavated soil after the manure has been broken down to powder (size of particles not to exceed 6 mm in any direction) in the specified proportion.  The mixture shall be filled into the hole up to the level of adjoining ground and then profusely watered to enable the soil to subside.  The refilled soil then be dressed evenly with its surface about 50 to 75 mm below the adjoining ground level or as directed by the engineer.

27.27.21.3. Measurement:  Pits shall be enumerated.

27.27.21.4. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above excluding the cost of supplying and stacking the requisite quantity of manure / sludge and oil cake.

27.16.2. In soil other than ordinary soil

27.27.22.1. Where pits are dug in (a) Hard soil (b) Ordinary rock or (c) Hard rock, the above soils occurring independently or in conjunction with each other and / or ordinary soil in any pit, the different excavated soils shall be stacked separately.  Excavation in hard rock shall be carried out by chiseling only.

27.27.22.2. The stack measurement of ordinary or hard rock shall be reduced by 50% and of hard soil by 20% to arrive at the excavated volume.  These excavations shall be paid for as extras over the rate for pits dug in ordinary soil above, at rates appropriate to the particular soil concerned.

27.27.22.3. Sufficient quantity of good soil to replace the solid volume of stones, brick bats, unsuitable earth and other rubbish, all roots and other undesirable growth, ordinary and hard stacks shall be brought and stacked at site but the supply and stacking of such earth shall be paid for separately.

27.27.22.4. The useless excavated stuff shall be disposed off by spreading at places ordered by the engineer.  If such places are outside initial lead, carriage for the extra lead shall be paid for separately.

27.27.22.5.  The ordinary soil excavated from the pit and the earth brought from outside shall then be mixed with manure screened through sieve of IS designation 16 mm in the proportion specified in the description of the item and filled into the pit and the same watered and finally dressed as described above.

27.27.22.6. Measurements - The pits shall be enumerated. The volume of excavation in soil other than ordinary soil shall be determined by reducing the stack volume of the relevant soil with the respective percentage deductions for voids as specified.

27.27.22.7.  Rate - The rate shall include the cost of labour and material involved in all the operations described above including mixing, refilling, watering dressing, etc. but shall not include (a) cost of manure or sludge (b) cost of supplying and stacking good earth for replacement and (c) the cost of carriage beyond initial lead for disposing off useless materials.  The excavation other than that of ordinary soil shall be paid for extra over and above the rate of excavation in ordinary soil.

27.17. SPECIFICATIOINS FOR TREE GUARDS

27.17.1. Circular brick tree guard (Fig. 1):

27.17.1.1. The internal diameter shall be 1.25 metre, height above ground level 1.20 metre and depth below ground level 0.20 metres walls half brick thick.

27.17.1.2. This shall be built of bricks of class designation 75.  Bricks shall comply with the specifications described above with the exception that they may not be well burnt and may have a reddish yellow colour throughout or may be over burnt.  The first two courses from bottom shall be built dry (without mortar) with the bricks laid close to each other, without honey-comb.  Subsequent courses up to 0.30 metre from top of tree guard shall be built dry in honey-combed patter, using 15 bricks in each course, with equal opening in between.  Thereafter the top three courses shall be built without honey-combing, in lime surkhi mortar 1:2 (1 lime putty : 2 surkhi) or in cement mortar 1:6 (1 cement : 6 fine sand) as directed.  In the bottom most 2 courses and in the top most 3 courses bricks in adjacent courses shall be laid with 10 cm laps.  In the honey-combed portion of the work, the vertical edges of bricks in alternate courses shall be in the same line.  The laps of bricks on either side of openings shall be equal.

27.17.1.3. Measurement: The tree guard shall be enumerated.

Fig 1 Brick tree guard

27.17.1.4. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above.

27.17.2. Ornamental circular steel tree guard with bars (Fig. 2)

      1.  

The tree guard shall be 50 cm in diameter.

27.17.2.2.  The tree guards shall be formed of (I) 3 Nos. 25 x 25 x 3 mm angle steel verticals 2.00 m. long excluding splayed outward at lower end up to an extent of 10 cms. (ii) 3 Nos. 25 x 5 mm MS flat rings fixed as per design (iii) 15 Nos. 1.55 metres long 6 mm dia bars.  Each ring shall be in two parts in the ration of 1: 2 and their ends shall be turned in radially for a length of 4 cm. at which they are bolted together.

The vertical angle steels shall be welded to rings along the circumference with electric plant 15 Nos. bars shall be welded to rings at equal spacing along the circumference of ring.  The lower end of the angle steel verticals shall be splayed outwards up to an extent of 10 cm.  The lower end of the flat of lower ring shall be at a height of 45 cm. and upper end of the flat ring shall be at the height of 2.00 metres. The middle ring shall be in the centre of top and lower ring.  The bars shall be welded to rings as shown in the drawing.  The entire tree guard shall be given two coats of paint of approved brand and of required shade over a priming coat of ready mixed primer of approved brand.  The design of the tree guard shall be as shown in the drawing.

27.17.2.3. Measurements:  The tree guard shall be enumerated.

27.17.2.4. Rate - The rates shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above.

Fig 2

27.17.3. Ornamental circular steel tree guard with welded mesh (Fig. 3):

27.17.3.1. The tree guard shall be 50 cm. in diameter.

27.17.3.2. The tree guard shall be formed of:

  1. 3 Nos. 25 x 25 x 3 mm angle steel verticals 2.00 metres long excluding splayed outwards at lower end up to an extent of 10 cms.
  2. 3 Nos. 25 x 5 mm MS flat rings 50 cm. dia as per design.
  3. 1.55 m high Welded mesh 50x75 mm size of 3 mm thick wire. Each ring of the tree 1.55 high guards shall be in two equal parts and their end shall turn in radially for a length of 4 cms. at which they shall be bolted together with  8 mm dia, 30 mm long MS bolts and nuts.

The vertical angle shall be welded to rings along the circumference with electric plant.  Welded mesh shall be welded to rings in such a way so as to make it sufficiently strong.  The lower and of the angle steel verticals shall be splayed outwards up to an extent of 10 cm.  The lower end of the lower rings shall be at 45 cm. height and upper end of the upper ring shall be at 2.00 metre height, the middle ring shall be given two coats of paint of approved brand and of required shade over a priming coat of ready mixed primer of approved brand and manufacture.  The design of the tree guards shall be as shown in the drawing.

27.17.3.3. Measurement - The tree guard shall be enumerated.

27.17.3.4. Rate - The rates shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations described above.

Fig 3

27.18. SPECIFICATIONS FOR EARTHEN POTS

The earthen parts shall be moulded with good earth.  These shall be thoroughly baked without being vitrified, regular in shape and size.  All the pots shall be free from visible defects such as cracks chips, stones and flaws of any kind.  The pots shall give a clear ringing sound when struck together or with a light stick.

The sizes of the earthen pots are given in table as below:

Size (cms)

Upper dia (cms)

Bottom dia (cms)

Perpendicular height (cms)

30

30

20

30

25

25

15

25

20

20

12

20

15

15

10

15

10

10

6

10

30

30

15

30

25

25

13

25

20

20

10

20

15

15

8

15

10

10

5

10

20

13

8

20

25

20

10

25

30

25

15

30

 

Upper diameter will be taken from inside and bottom dia. and perpendicular height shall be measured from outside.

27.18.1. Tolerance - A margin for variation of 1.5 cm for pots of size 20 cm. and above and a margin of 1 cm. for pots of size 15 cms. And below will be permitted.

The pots shall be stacked properly in a countable manner but not in more than 3 layers. The net quantity for payment will be arrived after deducting the broken pots, unproperly baked or otherwise damaged in any form assessed by physical appearance etc.

27.18.2. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all the labour and material required, including carriage to the site of work or the place specified.

27.19. SPECIFICATIONS FOR FILLING OF POLYTHENE BAGS / EARTHEN POTS WITH MANURE AND GOOD EARTH

27.19.1. Filling of mixture of good earth and sludge or manure in polythene bags or earthen pots / cement mosaic pots or any other containers.

27.19.2. OPERATIONS

27.19.2.1. Mixing - The separately stacked earth and manure or sludge shall before mixing, be broken down to particles or sizes not exceeding 6 mm  in any direction.  Good earth  shall be thoroughly mixed with sludge or manure in specified proportion as directed in the item or as directed by the engineer.

During the process of preparing the mixture as above and before actual filling in bags / containers etc. required quantity or water should be sprinkled to keep mixture cool & damp.

The polythene bags / containers shall be brought to the site of mixture within 50 m lead and filled with the help of jhaba /hand trowel of any other required tool and instruments. Polythene bags / containers thus filled in with mixture should be properly pressed & tapped to consolidate the mixture and final level of the mixture should be about 2.6 cm below the top edge of the polythene bags / containers.

The polythene bags / containers thus filled in, shall be arranged in countable manner in properly prepared beds / ground as directed with in 50 mm lead.

27.19.2.2. Measurement - In numbers.

27.19.2.3.  Rate - The rate shall include the cost of all labour etc. involved in all the operations described above, but do not include the cost of good earth, sludge or manure polythene bags and containers  which shall be paid separately unless specifically described in the item.

27.20. MISCELLANEOUS

27.20.1. Cutting holes in wall upto 30 x 30 cm

27.20.1.0. Square holes of size as specified or as directed by the engineer shall be cut in the masonry. Any damage to the adjoining portion or to any other item shall be made good as directed by the engineer. All dismantled material shall be removed from the site.

27.20.1.1. Masonry work - Brick work etc. shall be made good by using the same class of brick, tile or stone masonry as was cut during the execution of work. The mortar to be used shall be cement mortar 1:4 (1cement: 4 fine sand) or as directed by the engineer.

27.20.1.2. Finishing - Cement mortar in 1:4 mix (1 cement: 4 sand) shall be used for plastering or pointing, as may be required. Sand shall be fine or coarse, as used in the original work. The surface shall be finished with two or more coats of white wash, colour wash, distemper or painting as required but where the surface is not to be white washed, colour washed, distempered or painted, it shall be finished smooth with a floating coat of neat cement or as required to match with the surrounding surfaces.

27.20.1.3. Measurements – The holes shall be enumerated.

27.20.1.4. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of labour and materials required for all the operations described above.

27.20.2. Cutting holes in R.C.C. floors (upto 15 x 15 cm)

27.20.2.0. Square holes of size as specified shall be cut in R.C.C. floor and roofs for passing drain pipe etc. Any damage to the adjoining portion or to any other item shall be made good as directed by the engineer- in-charge. All the dismantled material shall be removed from the site.

27.20.2.1. Cement concrete - After insertion of drain pipe etc. the hole shall be repaired with cement concrete 1:2:4 (1cement: 2 coarse sand: 4 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size) and the surface finished to match with the existing surface. The top and bottom shall be finished properly to make the joint leak proof. The specifications for cement concrete work and finishing etc. shall be the same as detailed under relevant sub-heads.

27.20.2.2. Measurements - Holes shall be enumerated.

27.20.2.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of labour and material required for all the operations described above except the pipe which shall be paid for separately.

27.20.3. Cutting chases in masonry walls

27.20.3.1. Making chases - Chases are made in the walls for housing G.I. Pipes etc.

I. Cutting of chases in one brick thick and above load bearing walls:

(i) As far as possible services should be planned with the help of vertical chases. Horizontal chases should be avoided.

(ii) The depths of vertical chases and horizontal chases shall not exceed one third and one sixth, of the thickness of the masonry respectively.

(iii) When narrow stretches of masonry (or short lengths of walls) such as between doors and windows can not be avoided, they should not be pierced with openings for soil pipes or waste pipes or timber joints, etc. Where there is a possibility of load concentration, such narrow lengths of walls shall be checked for stresses and high strength bricks mortar or concrete walls provided, if required.

(iv) Horizontal chases when unavoidable should be located in the upper or lower one third of height of storey and not more than three chases should be permitted in any stretch of a wall. No continuous horizontal chase shall exceed one metre in length. Where unavoidable, stresses in the affected area should be checked and kept within the permissible limits.

(v) Vertical chases should not be closer than 2 m in any stretch of a wall. These shall be kept away from bearings of beams and lintels. If unavoidable, stresses in the affected area should be checked and kept within permissible limits.

(vi) Masonry directly above a recess, if under than 30 cm (Horizontal dimension) should be supported on lintel. Holes in masonry may be provided up to 30-cm width x 30-cm height without any lintel. In the case of circular holes in masonry, no lintel should be provided upto 40 cm in diameter.

II Cutting of chases in half brick load bearing walls

No chase shall be permitted in a half brick load bearing wall and as such no recessed conduits and concealed pipes shall be provided in half brick thick load bearing walls.

Ill. Cutting of chases in half brick non-loading bearing walls            

In case of non-load bearing half brick walls services should be planned with the help of

vertical chases. Horizontal chases should be provided only when unavoidable.

IV. Cutting of chases in stone masonry walls

The provision (i) to (vi) under SI. No. 1 are equally applicable to stone masonry walls also.

Note: 1. No inclined chase shall be permitted in brick masonry or stone masonry walls. ln case inclined chases are unavoidable these shall be cut with written approval of  the engineer and  shall be  repaired properly to his satisfaction. However, in half brick masonry wall in no inclined chase will be permitted.

2. Chases shall be made by chiseling out the masonry op proper line & depth. Any damage to the adjoining portion or to any other item-shall be made good, as decided by the engineer, for which no extra payment shall be made. All dismantled material shall be removed from site.

27.20.3.2. Filling chases - After G.I. Pipes etc. are fixed in chases, the chases shall be filled with cement concrete 1:3:6 (1 cement: 3 coarse sand: 6 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size) or cement mortar 1:4 (1 cement: 4 coarse sand) as may be specified or otherwise directed by the engineer and made flush with the masonry surface. The concrete surface shall be roughened with wire brushes to provide a key for plastering.

27.20.3.3. Measurements - Chases shall be measured in running meter correct to a cm. 27.20.3.4. Rates - The rate shall include the cost of labour the materials involved in all the operations described above excluding the cost of providing pipes etc. which shall be paid separately.

27.20.4. Embedding pipes in masonry (Upto150mm dia)    

27.20.4.0. Pipe shall be embedded in masonry during construction of the building. A hole of size upto 20 x 20 cm, as directed shall .be kept in the masonry. The pipes, which shall be centrally placed in the hole, shall .be fixed by filling the stacks with cement concrete around. The holes shall be provided at correct positions as shown in the drawing or as directed by the engineer.

27.20.4.1. Embedding pipes - Pipes shall be embedded in masonry with cement concrete 1:3:6 (1 cement: 3 coarse sand: 6 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size). Where the wall thickness is 20 cm the cement concrete shall be made flush with the masonry surface on both sides and the surface roughened with wire brushes to receive plaster. Where the thickness of wall is more than 20 cm, the other side shall be covered with the same class of

brick, tile or stone masonry etc. as provided in the adjoining portion, or the 'main building’. This masonry shall be paid for separately, under the relevant item.

27.20.4.2. Measurements – The embedment shall be measured in running meters correct to a cm.

27.20.4.3. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of labour and material involved in all the operations described above except the cost 5f providing of pipes, which shall be paid for separately.

27.20.5. Dry stone pitching

27.20.5.1. As far as possible it should be ensured that one rainy season has elapsed before pitching or any kind of stone work is commenced, so that the embankment has time to settle, and loose spots in the cutting, if any, show up.

The sides and bottom of the drain or the sides and top of embankrnent, as the case may be, shall be brought to the required profile, slope and gradient and shall be compacted to a firm and even surface. If the situation demands, and where so required by the engineer in consideration of the nature of the surface, the necessary back filling may be done with small broken stone, moorum, gravel or ballast well consolidated to proper profile. In case the soil in unreliable, and if the nature of the work requires it, a 75 mm thick layer of gravel or ballast may be provided over the prepared surface and well consolidated. In the case of embankments of large heights, suitable design of pitching etc. should be worked out and special specifications framed in each individual case.

27.20.5.2. Pitching                             

27.20.5.2.1. Pitching shall be of 27.20.5 cm depth, unless specified otherwise. Profiles shall first, be put up by means of pegs and strings or by placing stones, at interval or not more than 15 meter. Stone shall then be laid closely in position in between the profile and firmly embedded with joints staggered and with exposed faces true to line, gradient and in uniform slope throughout.

27.20.5.2.2. The cross bands of approximately 27.20.5 cm width through bond stones, equal to the full depth of pitching, shall be provided at an interval of approximately 3 m centre to centre both longitudinally and transversely.

27.20.5.2.3. The interstices between adjacent stones shall be filled in with stones of proper size, well driven in with crowbars to ensure tight packing and complete filling of all interstices. Such filling shall be carried on simultaneously with the placing, in-position of the large stones and shall in no cases fee permitted to fall behind. Final wedging shall be done with the largest sized chip particles, each chip being well driven home with a hammer so that no chip is possible of being picked up or removed by hand.

27.20.5.3. Measurements - The exposed finished surface shall be measured after the pitching has been done. The length, width and side slope shall be measured correct to a cm. The area of pitching for drains shall be calculated in sq. m. by multiplying the perimeter (bed width plus side slopes) by the length of the pitching.      

27.20.5.4. Rate -The rate shall include the cost of the materials and labour involved in all the operations described above, except pitching stone which shall be paid for separately. The back filling done, if any except when done with earth as material obtained locally, shall be paid for separately.

27.20.6. Dry brick pitching

27.20.6.1. Preparation of surface shall be as specified in 27.20.5.1.

27.20.6.2. Pitching - Pitching shall behalf brick in depth or in multiples of half bricks, as specified. Profiles shall first be put up by means of pegs and strings or by placing bricks at intervals not more than 15 meter, bricks shall then be laid in parallel rows breaking bond or herringbone bond pattern as directed. In the case of drains bricks shall be laid on bed width in parallel rows breaking bond and on sides in either of the above manner. At the top, and at every 3 m intervals, brick courses of half brick width shall be laid with bricks on ends. All bricks shall be hid closely in position and firmly embedded, true to line, gradient and in uniform slope throughout.

Note: When bricks of nominal size 27.20.9 x 11.4 x 7.0 cms are used, the pitching shall be 11.4 cm in depth or multiples of 11.4 cm as specified.

27.20.6.3. Measurements - The exposed finished surface shall be measured after the pitching has been done. The length, width and side slope shall be measured correct to a cm. The area of pitching for drains shall be calculated in sq. m.  by multiplying the perimeter (bed width plus side slopes) by the length of the pitching. Measurements of the dry pitching half brick deep for the drains shall be taken by adding half brick on either side to the perimeter of the drain so as to allow for the top full courses.

Note – When bricks of nominal size 27.20.9 x 11.4 x 7.0 cms are used above  para shall  apply except  that the measurement of the dry pitching 11.4 cm deep for the drains shall be taken by adding 11.4.cm. on either side to the perimetre of the drain so as to allow for the top 27.20.9 cm courses. In this case the perimeter of the drain (beet width with side slopes) plus 27.20.9 cm multiplied with the length of the pitching shall give the area of the pitching in sq. m.

27.20.6.4. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of materials and labour involved in all the operations described above.

27.20.7. Masonry dust bins (Fig. 1)

27.20.7.0. The masonry dustbins of specified sizes shall be constructed according to the Fig. 1. A 60 cm wide platform shall be provided in front of the opening.

27.20.7.1. Earthwork - Earth excavation for all foundation and dressing of the ground for the bed of the floor shall be carried out exact to the dimensions as shown in the drawing or as specified. The excavated earth shall be refilled when required in the space around the foundation masonry in trenches and surplus disposed off as directed by the engineer.

27.20.7.2. Concrete work - Foundation concrete for walls shall be 15 cm thick cement concrete 1:5:10 (1cement: 5 fine sand: 10 graded stone aggregate 40 mm nominal size).

27.20.7.3. Brick work - The walls shall be one brick thick class designation 75 in cement mortar 1:4 (1 cement: 4 fine sand). The top of the walls shall be given a slope of 10 cm towards the inside.

27.20.7.4. Flooring - The flooring shall consist of 40 mm thick cement concrete 1:2:4 (I1cement: 2 coarse sand: 4 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size) finished with a floating coat of neat cement laid over a bed of 7.5 cm cement concrete 1:5:10(1 cement: 5 fine sand: 10 graded stone aggregate 40 mm nominal size) as shown in the drawing. The entire floor shall slope uniformly towards the longer edge of the platform by 7.5 cm as shown in the drawing.

27.20.7.5. Finishing - The exposed faces of brick work including 10 cm depth below ground level shall be plastered with 12 mm thick cement mortar 1:4 (1 cement: 4 coarse sand) finished with a floating coat of neat cement.

27.20.7.6. Measurements - The masonry dust bins shall be enumerated.

27.20.7.7. Rate - The rate includes the cost of labour and material required for all the operations described above.

27.21. Cement concrete plinth protection

27.21.0 - Plinth protection shall be provided, as specified, to required width. It comprises 5 cm. thick cement concrete 1:3:6(1 cement: 3 coarse sand :6 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size) over 7.5 cm bed of dry- brick aggregate 40 mm nominal size, grouted with fine sand. The outer edge shall be lined with 2nd class bricks laid on edge and joints laid in cement mortar 1: 4 (1 cement : 4 fine sand).

Plinth protection shall be laid with a minimum outward slope of I in 50.

27.21.1. Preparing ground - The ground, where plinth protection is to be laid shall first be prepared to the required slope. The high portions of ground shall be excavated, hollows and depressions filled upto the required level with the excavated earth and watered and rammed to give uniform outward slope. Preparation of any area involving cutting and filling upto a depth of 15 cm shall not be paid for separately. Cutting and filling beyond 15 cm shall be paid for separately. The bed shall be watered adequately and rammed with iron rammers. Surplus earth, if any, obtained shall be disposed of within a lead of 50 metres or as directed by the engineer.

27.21.2. Brick edging - The edging shall be of bricks of class specified -in the item. The specifications of bricks shall be as described in 6.I. Trenches of required depth and width shall first be made along the edge of the plinth protection to receive the bricks t edging. The bed of trenches shall be compacted to a firm and even surface. The brick shall be laid true to line in cement mortar 1:4 (1 cement: 4 fine sand) with length parallel and abutting the plinth protection. The top face of the brick edging shall be in one level, to conform to the finished level or the Plinth protection adjacent to the edging. After the concreting is done, no portion of the brick edging shall project above the adjacent concrete surface. Cement mortar shall conform to the specifications described in 3.2.2.

27.21.3. Sub-grade - The sub-grade shall consist of a brick aggregate 4.1.2(c) of 40 mm nominal aggregate shall be spread evenly over the prepared surface to 7.5 cm depth (unconsolidated) a minimum outward slope of 1 in 50. The brick shall be carefully laid and packed bigger size being placed at the bottom. The brick aggregate shall be consolidated dry with heavy iron rammers. After the brick aggregate has been consolidated the surface shall be checked with a straight edge and any depressions etc. filled up and consolidated. The aggregate shall then be grouted evenly with fine sand @ 0.06 cubic metres/ 10 sq. metre area, adequately watered to ensure filling of the voids by sand and again rammed with heavy iron rammers. The finished surface shall give uniform appearance.

27.21.4. Cement concrete topping - After the subgrade has been compacted and prepared as under 27.21.3.5 cm thick cement concrete 1:3:6 (1 cement: 3 coarse sand : 6 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size as specified in the item) shall be laid in one operation as described in 11.2.4, except that the top shall not be finished with neat cement slurry but shall be finished with only wooden floats. The concrete surface shall not be finished with mortar. The length of each panel shall not be more than 5 m. The finished surface shall have a minimum outward slope of 1 in 50.

27.21.5. Curing - Specification shall be as described in 4.2.9.

27.21.6. Measurements - The length and breadth of cement concrete topping shall be measured correct to a cm and the area calculated in square metre correct to two places of decimal. No deduction shall be made not anything extra paid for any openings for pipes etc. upto 0.1 sq m. Brick edging shall be measured in running metre correct to a cm and paid for separately.

27.21.7. Rate - The rate shall include cost of materials and labour described in all the above operations except for brick edging which will be paid for separately.

27.22.   Brick plinth protection

27.22.0.  Plinth protection shall be provided as specified, to the required width. It shall consist of a layer of bricks of class specified in the item (6.1), in cement mortar 1:6 (1 cement : 6 fine sand) over a bed of dry graded brick aggregate of 40 mm nominal size grouted with fine sand. The top- brick layer shall be finished with pointing in Cement mortar

1:2 (1 cement: 2 fine sand). Plinth protection shall be laid with a minimum outward slope of 1 in 50.

27.22.1. The specifications for 'Preparing ground' and 'Sub-grade' shall be as described in 27.21.1 and 27.21.3 respectively.

27.22.2. Brick topping -  After the sub-grade had been compacted thoroughly, brick flooring with bricks of class designation 75 in cement mortar 1:6 (1 cement : 6 fine sand) shall be laid to the required slope. The bricks shall be laid as described in 11.1.5.

27.22.3. Pointing - The pointing which shall be in 1:2 cement mortars (1 cement: 2 fine sand) shall conform to the specifications given in para 13.24 'Pointing' under sub-head 'Finishing

27.22.4. Curing - Specification for curing shall be as in 6.2.6 and 13.24.5.

27.22.5. Measurements - Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm and area calculated in square metre correct to two places of decimal. No deduction shall be made nor anything extra paid for any openings for pipes etc. upto 0.1 square metre.

27.22.6. Rate: The rate shall include the cost of all materials and labour involved in all the operations described above.

27.23.   Urinal partitions

27.23.1. Reinforced cement concrete partition

27.23.1.0. The partition shall be of precast reinforced cement concrete slap, suitably embedded in the wall and the exposed surfaces finished in terrazo. The size of the slab shall be 105 cm high and 60 cm deep (overall). The thickness of the slab, excluding finishing, shall be 32 mm. The cement concrete for the slab shall be of mix 1:2:4 (1 cement : 2 coarse sand : 4 graded stone aggregate 6 mm nominal size). The slab shall have reinforcement of mild steel bars 6 mm dia at 15 cm centre to centre both ways. The specifications for R.C.C. work shall be as described in Chapter 5.

27.23.1.1. Fixing - The partitions shall be fixed in the wall 60 cm apart between the centres of slabs or as specified in the relevant drawings, with cement concrete 1:2:4 (1cement : 2 coarse sand : 4 graded stone aggregated 6 mm nominal size) in the vertical recesses cut/left for this purpose. The size of the recess shall be 11.5 cm wide and 11.5 cm deep. The slab shall project 50 cm from the face of the wall, unless otherwise specified. The lower edge of the slab shall be kept 45 cm above the standing level unless otherwise specified. The partition slab shall be fixed and set in position true to plumb. The lower edges of all slabs fixed in one wall shall lie in one horizontal plane, similarly the top edges. The front edges shall be in one plane.

27.23.1.2. Finishing - All the exposed surfaces of the slab shall be finished with 6 mm thick terrazo plaster in cement mortar 1 : 2 (1 part of cement and 2 parts of marble chips of 3 mm size and down) over an under coat of 6 mm thick cement plaster in cement 1:3 ( 1 cement : 3 coarse sand). The finishing of all slabs in one lavatory block shall be done at one time to ensure uniform colour of the finished terrazo work and uniform size of marble chips.

The specifications in general shall be as under 13.13 except that the thickness of under coat shall be 6 mm instead of 12 mm. The finished thickness of slab shall be 5.6 cm with a tolerance of ± 3 mm.

27.23.1.3. Curing shall be as specified in 5.4.6 and 13.5.5.

27.23.1.4. Measurements enumerated. The partitions shall be enumerated.

27.23.1.5. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of labour and material involved in all the operations described above, including the leaving/cutting of recess in the wall.

27.23.2. Marble slab partitions

27.23.2.0. The partition shall be of marble slab, embedded in the wall. The size of the marble slab shall be 105 cm high and 60 cm deep (overall), The finished thickness shall be 2.5 cm. The specifications for marble work, in general, shall be as in 8, except that the marble shall be of white Makrana unless otherwise specified. The marble shall be cut into slabs of required thickness and shall be one piece.

27.23.2.1. Finishing - The partition of the slab to be embedded in the masonry shall be rough dressed. Dressing and rubbing of the exposed portion of the slab shall be as described in 8.5.1 The dressed slab shall be of the thickness as specified with a tolerance of ± 1.5 mm. The slab shall be got approved from e engineer-in-Charge before fixing.

27.23.2.2. Fixing shall be as in 27.23.1.1 except that the recess shall be 7.5 cm wide.

27.23.2.3. Measurement shall be as in 27.23.1.4.

27.23.2.4. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of labour and materials involved in all the operations described above including the leaving/cutting of recess in the wall.

27.24.    Cup board

27.24.0. The work shall be carried out as per drawing or as directed by the engineer-in- charge. The timber shall conform to the specifications given in 9.1.

27.24.1. Frame work - Frame work shall be made to the sizes and shape as shown in the drawings, or as specified. The specifications given in 9.3 shall be applicable to frame work.

27.24.2. Shutters - The quality and the thickness of the shutters shall be as specified or as shown in the relevant drawings. The shutters shall be flush/paneled/glazed or paneled and glazed as specified or as shown in the drawings. Specifications for flush shutters shall be as described in 9.7. Specifications for panelled glazed or panelled and glazed shutters shall be as described in 9.6.

27.24.3. Shelves - The number, size and thickness of the shelves shall be as shown in the relevant Swings or as specified. The planks for shelves shall be of specified timber and planed on all faces and edges. The shelves shall rest on wooden Sports, 25 x 25 mm, for their full depth. The wooden supports shall be fixed in the masonry by means of wooden plugs and screws, at suitable Intervals. The shelves shall be fixed to the supports in wood screws of suitable size at 10 cm centre to centre.

The shelves, when fixed, shall be truly horizontal.

27.24.4. Eternal partitions - Where specified or shown in the drawings, the vertical partition of timber of size and thickness shown shall be provided and shall be of one piece. It shall be secured to shelves by means of screws to avoid slipping or lateral movement. The partition, when fixed, shall be truly vertical.

27.24.5. Hanger-rod - The hanger rod, where specified or shown in the drawing, or as directed by the engineer-in-Charge, shall be provided at the top of cup board. The clear gap above the rod shall be not less than 8 cm. The rod shall be of single piece. The diameter of wooden rod shall be 25 mm while that of metal shall be 20 mm, unless otherwise specified. The end supports shall consist of brass or C.P. brass bracket of approved quality fixed to the side masonry of the cup board with suitable plugs and screws.

27.24.6. Fittings - These shall be provided and fixed as per specifications and schedule of fittings given in appendices H unless otherwise specified. Where fittings are stipulated to be supplied by the department free of cost, wood screws for fixing the fittings shall be provided by the contractor.

27.24.7. Finishing: All the wood work shall be painted or finished as specified. After fixing the plugs for supports, the plaster should be neatly repaired with cement mortar 1:4 (1 cement: 4 coarse sand). Where wood lining is not specified, the inside plaster portion shall be finished with two coats of oil bound distemper or flat wall paint of approved colour, as specified. When required, the inside of the cub board shall be lined with wooden planks/ply wood of specified quality where shown on the drawings or specified in the description of the item. Specifications for wood lining shall be as described in 9.14 except that the lining shall be directly fixed without any battens on the masonry surface by means of plugs and screws spaced at not more than 20 cm apart in both directions. The finishing of the exposed surface

of the lining shall be as specified above in this clause.

27.24.8. Measurements - The cup boards shall be measured in numbers.

27.24.9. Rate - Payment will be made at the rate specified in the contract. Separate rates shall be payable for each type of cup board, depending upon the size, the shelves, finishing and other features.

The rate shall include the cost of all materials and labour involved in all the above operations.

However, the rate does not include any brick work, plastering, R.C.C. work, flooring and hold fasts for frames, which shall be paid for separately under relevant items, if executed.

27.25.   Providing and fixing aluminium strip edging to stairs

27.25.1. Aluminium sections - Size and shape of aluminium sections shall be as specified in the relevant items of work/drawings.

27.25.2. Fixing - A suitable recess shall be provided in the step, both in tread and riser portions, to receive the step edging so that, after fixing, the top surface of the edging and the top surface of the tread shall be perfectly in one level. Similarly the outer face of the vertical leg of the edging shall be flush with the finished surface of the riser.

In cases where the finish over the risers and treads consists of plain cement concrete flooring and cement/ lime cement mortar respectively, the edging shall be fixed after the flooring/plastering are competed. Where the finish consists of marble chip flooring marble chips plastering, the edging shall be fixed after the polishing of the flooring/plastering.

The recess shall be thoroughly cleaned of all loose material, mortar droppings etc. before fixing the edging. The surface of the recess shall be given coat of cement slurry and a thin layer of cement mortar 1:3 (1cement: 3 coarse sand). Holes shall be drilled in the leg of the edging coming on the tread to receive the screw of specified size. The edging shall be kept in position, tapped gently to make it sit firmly on the mortar bedding and then fixed in position with necessary 25 mm size wood screws Each edging shall be in one piece only. After the  work is completed and the mortar has set, no hollow sound shall be given when the edging is tapped. Any edging giving hollow sound shall be taken out and re-fixed properly. Wooden plugs of suitable size at approximately 20 cm apart shall be fixed at desired level during laying of cement concrete in steps for fixing the edging. The fixing may be done using rawl plugs/detefix also, instead of wooden plugs,

27.25.3. Measurements - The length of aluminium step edging shall be measured in running metres correct to 3 mm.

27.25.4. Rate -The rate shall including the cost of labour and the material required for all the operations described above including making holes, providing wooden plugs/rawl plugs etc.

27.25.5. Precaution to prevent cracks in buildings Provision in mentioned in section 24 shall apply.

27.26. SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF REFUSE CHUTES IN MULTISTOREYED BUILDINGS

27.26.1. With the increasing number of multistoreyed buildings in major cities in the country, need for developing suitable methods for collection and removal of refuse and garbage from buildings is receiving urgent consideration of the Civic and Public Health Authorities to avoid in sanitary conditions in buildings and public places.  This code of practice has been prepared to give guidance for proper methods of refuse collection from multistoreyed buildings.

27.26.1.1. This covers the requirements of chute system and explains the design, construction and location of the three functionally important components namely the chute, the inlet hopper and the collection chamber.

27.26.1.2 This covers the requirements of the refuse chute system built in multistoreyed residential buildings for transporting and collecting in a sanitary way the refuse from flats at different heights.  The refuse is received from the successive flats through the inlets located on the vertical system of pipes that convey refuse through it and discharges into the collecting chamber from where the refuse is cleared at suitable intervals.

27.26.2. Terminology

27.26.2.1. Chute—-A vertical pipe system passing from floor to floor provided with ventilation and inlet openings for receiving' refuse from successive flats and ending at the ground floor on the top of the collecting chamber.

27.26.2.2. Inlet Hopper- A receptacle fitting for receiving refuse from each flat and dropping it into the chute.

27.26 2.3. Collection chamber - A compartment situated at the lower end of the chute for collecting and housing the refuse during the period between two successive clearings.

27.26 3. Chutes

27.26.3.1. Number of Chutes -The number of chutes depends upon the convenience to the user and the quantity of refuse to be handled between two subsequent clearings. Method of calculation of quantity of refuse from residential buildings is given below

Method of calculations: Quantity of domestic refuse

Quantity of refuse = 680 g/capita/day (average of Bombay survey)

Density of refuse = 240 kg/m3

Volume of refuse/capita/day = 680/1000 x 1000/240

= 2.83 litres

Assuming that a family residing in a flat would consist of an Average of 6 members plus 2 servants, the average volume of refuse per family would be 2.83 x 8 = 22.64 litres/day, or say 0.027 m3/day.

Example: To consider a multistoreyed building of 20 flats with 2 flats per floor. Refuse/flat: 0.027 m3/day. (This is to be ascertained from the local municipality.)

a) No. of Chutes

1) To be decided on convenience to the user; and

2) To be decided on the total number of containers, if used in the collection chamber.

Assuming that individual hopper system will be convenient to the residents, the number of chutes will be two.

To provide for irregularity in municipal refuse cleaning service, collection chamber be designed to accommodate 2 days refuse.

Hence, volume of refuse/clearing = 0.027 m3 20 flats x 2 days

= l.08 m3

As there are two chutes, capacity for each collection chamber will be

1.08/2 = 0.54 m3

However, a chamber of size 1.2 x 1.2 x 2 m will be necessary as a minimum requirement.

b) If containers are to be used in the collection chamber

Container size = 0.9 m dia x 1.3 m high of capacity of 0.826 m3

Volume of refuse/clearing = 0.54 m3

Number of containers/chute = one

The above collection chamber size will be adequate.

27.26 3.2. Individual or Combined System - In continuation to 3.1, if the chute system is designed as individual system, where each flat is served by an independent hopper, it will be to the utmost convenience to the user. However, a common hopper may be provided in each floor for each chute whose number is further decided by the quantity of refuse to be handled.

27.26 3.3. Material of Construction - Chutes may be constructed out of asbestos cement or R.C.C. pipe with smooth inside finish.

27.26 3.4. Diameter of the Pipe - Chutes shall be of a minimum internal diameter of 38 cm in order to avoid any chokage inside the chute and to enable provision of a choke-free inlet hopper connection.

27.26 3.5. Finish - The inside surface of the chute should be finished as smoothly possible so as not to allow any sticking of refuse particle that may cause choking eventually.

27.26 3.6. Location - The chute may be carried through service shafts meant for carrying drainage pipes.  However, the location shall be mostly determined by the position of inlet hopper and the collecting chamber that is most convenient for the user.  It should also be considered to locate the chute away from living rooms in order to avoid noise and smell nuisance.

27.26.3.7. Construction - The chute pipes should be assembled vertically, and properly clamped to the wall. The joints should be of cement mortar and the chute may be squarely embedded into the surrounding walls.  A section through a typical chute installation is given in Fig. 1.

27.26.3.8. Ventilation - The upper end of the chute, that is, beyond the uppermost floor should be provided with a ventilation pipe to the full bore which should rise 2 to 2'5 m above the roof or terrace of the building. An umbrella type cowl with wire mesh at the top will be helpful to prevent rainfall and other external objects of nuisance potential.  For high rise buildings mechanical ventilation of the exhaust type is recommended.

27.26.3.9. Chute maintenance

27.26.3.9.1. Access - Each chute pipe should be provided with an access door at intervals not greater than every third floor.

27.26.3.9.2. Wrapping of refuse - To help preventing spillage and blockage, the residents should be encouraged to wrap their refuse.

27.26.3.9.3. Flushing of chute - Y-connection at terrace level may preferably be provided in order to direct a water hose for cleaning purposes if needed.

27.26.4. INLET HOPPER

27.26.4.1. Location - In individual chute system, the inlet hopper shall be located in the passage near the kitchen and in the common chute system towards the end of the common passage.  Natural ventilation should be- adequate to prevent any possible odour nuisance.  There should be adequate lighting at this. Location.  For ground floor flats the inlet hoppers may be placed at a higher level and a flight of steps may be provided for using the same.

27.26.4.2. Design and construction  - Hopper shall be constructed such that there should be minimum escape of odour or any other vapour when the hopper door is kept open or closed that the inside portion of the hopper does not lodge any refuse while projecting it into the. chute.  The door and the frame should be fire-resistant. 

27.26.4.2.1. Size of the mouth and throat - The mouth shall have a maximum size of 25 cm height and 36 cm width.   The throat should not be less than the size of the mouth.  The diagonal of the mouth should not be larger than the chute size.

27.26.4.2.2. Height of the Hopper - The hopper should be constructed at a height of 75 cm measured from the floor level to the lower edge of the inlet opening.

27.26.4.2.3. Inner Surface - The interior of the hopper should slope towards the main chute at an angle not less than 45o to the horizontal preferably 60o for better performance.  This portion may be specially built or may be had by providing a suitable Y-connection.  If built specially, the insides finish 'should be as smooth as possible. lf provided by the use of Y-connection, it may be of asbestos cement or cast iron or cement concrete pipe

27.26.4.2.4. Door, Head, Frame and Receiving Unit - These should be of mild steel, cast iron or aluminium adequately protected against corrosion.  The door should be designed to be self-closing, to have a latch for closing it securely after use and to have a rubber gasket in. between the door and the frame for ensuring gas tightness and minimizing noise.  The receiving plate should be fitted with two retaining side plates to prevent spillage .

27.26.4.2.5. Counterbalance of Door - The door when not in use, should fly back to its closed position and be firmly closed.

27.26.4.2.6. Hinge - The hinge shall be such as to satisfy the requirements in 4.2.  It should not have sharp edges to harm the user.  It should be fitted such that the door can be taken out for maintenance.

27.26.4.2.7. Handle - There should be a. handle fixed properly to the door for operating the hopper door.

27.26.5. Collection chamber

27.26.5.1. Location - The collection chamber shall be situated at ground level.

27.26.5.2. Capacity - If the refuse is discharged directly on the floor of the collection chamber, the capacity is designed on the quantity of refuse expected from the chute between two consecutive clearings.  It may be recommended to provide a minimum capacity of 0'054m3/family or apartment per day.  In the case of chutes serving small number of apart- ments, the minimum size of the collection chamber shall be l.2 x 1.2 x 1.8 m in order to facilitate providing trolley and easy cleaning- of the chamber.  In case of proposals to collect refuse directly into a wheeled receptacle the capacity of the chamber should be sufficient to accommodate as many containers as would be necessary.  In that case, a mild steel container suitably, protected against corrosion or a container of any other suitable material may be used.  If more than one container is in use, the minimum clearance of 15 cm between the containers will be necessary. Normally the height of chute bottom above the top of the container shall be about 30-cm m order not to allow any refuse to spill on the floor of the chamber.  It will be preferable to provide minimum headroom of 2 m for the collection chamber to facilitate easy entry into it.

27.26.5.3. Construction - The walls and roof of the chamber shall be constructed of brick masonry or any non-combustible material.  The door should be of steel or any fire resistant material.  The door fitting should be properly done with the provision of rebate and reveals in the opening so as not to allow any gas or fume to escape.  The inner surface of the walls, the floor and the ceiling should be plastered with cement mortar in order to provide a smooth finish.  Preferably the chamber may be lined with glazed tiles for better cleaning and up keeping.  The junctions of the walls with each other and with the floor shall be smoothly rounded off to prevent lodging of dust and refuse.

27.26.5.4. Cleaning and Maintenance - Provision of water tap in the vicinity and drainage facility with a trapped gully shall be made in order to arrange for periodic cleaning of the chamber.

27.26.5.5. Shutter - There should be a cut-off plate or shutter at the chute bottom in order to close off the chute at the time of handling refuse in the chamber or while cleaning. The shutter shall be made of sheet iron slid- ing horizontally inside angle-iron rebates.  These should be made non-corrodible with proper painting.

27.26.5.6. Lighting - Adequate artificial light should be provided in the chamber with its control switch located on the outside wall near entrance.

27.26.5.7. Access - There shall be easy access to the chamber for the cleaners and refuse collectors.  There should be a well-paved pathway leading to the collection chamber from the nearest road in order to facilitate easy transport of refuse at site.

Fig 1 Section through typical refuse chute installation

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