06-PANELING& PARTITIONS



PANELLING AND PARTITIONS

A partition wall may be defined as a wall or division made up of bricks, studding, glass or other such material and provided for the purpose of dividing one room or portion of a room from another. It can have additional functions such as load bearing, acoustic insulation, partition of living units, housing distribution channels for machinery, electricity, water supply and other elements.

Depending upon the material used partition walls may be divided into the following types:

a) Brick partitions.

b) Hollow brick partitions of clay, terra-cotta or concrete.

c) Glass partitions.

d) Concrete partitions-plain or reinforced.

e) Ferro-cement partition.

f)Metal lath and plaster partitions.

g) AC sheet or GI sheet partitions.

h) Timber partitions.

Wall panelling is an architectural element that can be installed in residential or commercial buildings. Decorative wall panelling is installed over walls to add aesthetic appeal, while other types of panelling may be added for their functional or structural characteristics.

1. WOODEN PANELLING

1.1 Requirements

  1. Timber panels shall be preferably made of timber of larger width. The minimum width and thickness of a panel shall be 150 mm and 15 mm respectively.
  2. When made from more than one piece, the pieces shall be joined with a continuous tongue and groove joint, glued together and reinforced with metal dowels.
  3. The panels shall be designed such that no single panel exceeds 0.5 m2 in area.

1.2 Quality control tests

The details and requirements of quality control tests for timber shall be as given in Section 700 of this manual.

2. PLYWOOD/PLYWOOD BOARDS

2.1 Requirements

  1. Plywood boards are formed by gluing and pressing three or more layers of veneers with the grains of adjacent veneers running at right angles to each other.
  2. Plywood shall be of BWP grade or BWR grade as per IS: 303.

2.2 Quality control tests

  1. One sample for every 100 m2 or part thereof shall be taken and testing done as per IS: 303. However, testing may not be done if the total requirement of plywood boards is less than 30 m2. All the samples tested shall meet the requirements of physical and mechanical properties of plywood boards specified in table.
  2. Moisture  content  of  the  plywood  boards  when  tested  in  accordance  with  IS:1734 (Part 1) shall not be less than 5% and not more than 15%.
  3. Procedure for edge straightness test: The straightness of the edge and ends of plywood shall be verified against a straight edge not less than the full length of the plywood. If the edge on the end of the plywood is convex, it shall be held against the straight edge in such a way as to give approximately equal gap at each end. The largest gap between the straight edge and the edge shall be measured to the nearest millimetre and recorded.

3. MARINE PLYWOOD

  1. Marine plywood shall be generally conforming to IS: 710. Selection of timber species for manufacture of plywood used shall be as prescribed in IS: 710. As far as possible, plywood manufactured from a single species of timber shall be used.
  2. Each plywood board shall be legibly marked or stamped with following particulars along with such other marks as the purchaser may stipulate at the time of placing order.
  1. Manufacturer’s name, initials or recognized trade mark, if any.
  2. Year of manufacturing.
  3. Abbreviation indicating the species of timber used in each ply as indicated incolumn 3 of tables 1 and 2 of IS: 710.
  4. Batch number
  5. The plywood board shall also be marked with the standard mark, governed by the BIS Act 1986.

3.1 Tests for Marine Plywood

  1. The method of drawing representative samples and criteria for conformity shall be as prescribed in IS: 7638.
  2. Test pieces cut from each board shall be subjected to following tests.
  3. These tests shall be carried out as specified in IS: 710.
  1. Moisture content.
  2. Glue adhesive in dry state.
  3. Water resistance test.
  4. Tensile strength.
  5. Mycological test
  6. Retention of preservative.

4. Veneered Decorative Plywood

  1. Decorative plywood shall be of two grades namely BWR and MR Decorative. Plywood shall be of two types, Type I and type 2 and shall conform to IS: 1328.
  2. The dimensions of plywood boards shall be as follows:
  1. 2400 mm x 1200 mm.
  2. 2100 mm x 900 mm.
  3. 2100 mm x 1200 mm.
  4. 1800 mm x 900 mm.
  5. 1800 mm x 1200 mm.
  1. The thickness of plywood board shall be 3 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 9 mm, 12 mm, 19 mm and 25 mm.
  2. Any other dimensions (length, width and thickness), if required by the Engineer may also be used.
  3. Each plywood board shall be legibly marked or stamped with the following on the face of board near one corner.
  1. Indication of the source of manufacture.
  2. Year of manufacture.
  3. Batch number.
  4. Type of plywood.
  5. Criteria for which the plywood has been labelled as ECO mark.
  6. The decorative veneered plywood may also be marked with standard mark, governed by the BIS Act 1986.

4.1 Tests for veneered decorative plywood

Boards shall be subjected to following tests:

  1. Moisture content: Decorative veneered plywood of either type when tested in accordance with IS: 1734 (Part 1) shall have a moisture content not less than 5% and not more than 15%.
  2. Water resistance: Three test specimen of size 250 mm x 100 mm shall be prepared for each of the boards selected and submerged in water at 62±2°C for a period of 3 hours and dried for 8 hours at a temperature of 65±2°C and then followed by two more cycles of soaking and drying under same conditions described above. Decorative veneered plywood of either type shall not show delamination or blister formation.

5. FIRE RETARDANT PLYWOOD

  1. Fire retardant plywood shall generally conform to IS: 5509.
  2. The plywood to be given fire retardant treatment shall conform to BWR grade of    IS: 303 to be able to stand pressure impregnation.
  3. Plywood for treatment shall be clean, free from oil or dirt patches on the surface and at a moisture content not exceeding 15%.
  4. In case of veneered decorative plywood, care shall be taken that colour of the solution does not spoil the decorative surface.
  5. For Ecomark, the plywood shall conform to the requirements of Ecomark specified in IS: 303.
  6. Dimension and tolerances shall conform to IS: 2049. The tolerance for thickness shall conform to IS: 303.
  7. Each board shall be legibly and indelibly marked near the edge with the following:
  1. Manufacturer’s name or recognized trade mark, if any.
  2. Year of manufacture.
  3. Type of treatment.
  4. Criteria for which the plywood has been labelled as Ecomark.
  5. Each board may also be marked with standard mark governed by the BIS Act 1986.

5.1 Sampling for Tests

  1. The method of drawing representative sample and the criteria of conformity shall be as prescribed in IS: 7638.
  2. From each of fire retardant plywood selected as above, following test specimens shall be cut from portions 150 mm away from the edges for tests specified below:
  1. Flammability: Six test specimens 125 mm x 125 mm in full thickness of material from each sample.
  2. Flame Penetration: Three test specimens 125 mm x 125 mm in full thickness of material from each sample.
  3. Rate of Burning: Three test specimen 100 mm x 12.5 mm in full thickness of material from each sample.

5.2 Tests for fire Retardant Plywood

  1. Moisture content: Shall not exceed 20%.
  2. Flammability: When tested as per IS: 1734, time taken for second ignition shall not be less than 30 minutes.
  3. Flame penetration: When tested as per IS: 1734, time taken for flame penetration shall not be less than 15 minutes for every 6 mm thickness.
  4. Rate of burning: When tested as per IS: 1734, the time taken to lose weight from 30 % to 70 % shall not be less than 20 minutes.

6. Particle Boards

  1. Particle boards shall be of medium density and manufactured from particles of agro waste, wood or lignocellulose i.e. material blended with adhesive and formed into solid panels under the influence of heat, moisture, pressure etc.
  2. The particle boards shall be flat pressed three layered or graded and of grade-I as per table 1 of IS: 3087. Both surfaces of the boards shall be sanded to obtain a smooth finish and shall conform to IS: 3087.

6.1 Tests for Particle Board

  1. One sample for every 100 m2 or part thereof shall be taken and testing done as per IS: 3087.
  2. However, testing need not be done if the total requirement of particle boards in a work is less than 30 m2.
  3. All the samples tested shall meet the requirement of physical and mechanical properties of particle boards specified in table.

Table: Physical and mechanical properties of FPT or graded particle board

Sl.No

Properties

Flat pressed three layer multi-and graded

1

Density variation (%)

±10

±10

2

Water absorption (%):

  1. 2 hours soaking
  2. 24 hours soaking

10

20

40

80

 

*Cyclic test: Specimens are immersed in water at 27±2°C for a period of 72hours, followed by drying in air at 27±2°C for 24 hours and then heating in dryair at 70°C for 72 hours. Three such cycles are to be followed and then thespecimens are tested for tensile strength perpendicular to surface.

**Accelerated water resistance test: Specimens are immersed in water at 27±2°C and water is brought to boiling and kept at boiling temperature for 2 hours.

Specimens are then cooled in water to 27±2°C and then tested for tensilestrength perpendicular to surface.

7. PRE-LAMINATED PARTICLE BOARDS

Pre-laminated particle boards are available in two grades namely grade I and IIas per IS: 12823. Each grade is further classified in four types namely, Type I,II, III and IV.

Edge straightness and squareness shall be tested as per IS: 12823.

The pre-laminated particle boards shall be selected at random as per IS: 4905.

Each pre-laminated particle board shall be legibly marked on any of its edgeswith following :

  1. Indication of source of manufacturer.
  2. Grade and type of pre-laminated particle board.
  3. Thickness.
  4. Batch number and year of manufacture.

8. VENEERED PARTICLE BOARDS

  1. Veneered Particle Boards shall be of two grades namely, grade I and grade II.Each shall be of the following four types as per IS: 3097.
  1. Type I: Veneered particle boards of solid core with faces of veneer ofgeneral purpose type.
  2. Type II: Veneered particle boards of solid core faced with decorativeveneers on one or both side.
  3. Type III: Veneered particle boards with tubular core and faced withveneer of general purpose type.
  4. Type IV: Veneered particle boards with tubular core faced with decorative veneers on one or both side.
  1. One sample for every 100 m2 or part thereof shall be taken and testing done as per IS:3097. However, testing may not be done if the total requirement of veneered particle boards in a work is less than 30 m2.
  2. All the samples tested shall meet the requirements of physical and mechanical properties of veneered particle boards are given in table.

Table: Physical and mechanical properties of veneered particle board

Sl.No

Properties

Requirement

1

Moisture content

5-15%

2

Water absorption:

a) 2 hours soaking

b) 24 hours soaking

 

Not more than 25%

Not more than 50%

3

Water resistance

No sign of disintegration Or delamination after 3 hours boiling in water.

4

Swelling in water:

a) General absorption for 2 hours immersion.

b) Surface absorption for 2 hours

 

Not more than 70%

 

Not more than 5%

5

Adhesion of pipes

Knife test.

9. NON-ASBESTOS FIBRE BOARDS

Fibre board’s shall be of medium density cement board reinforced with wood fibre, produced by fiberizing steamed wood under pressure, blended with adhesive and waxand formed into solid panels under controlled conditions of heat and pressure as per IS: 14862.

10. WIRE CLOTH (WIRE GAUZE)

Wire cloth which shall generally conform to IS:1568 shall be regularly woven with equally spaced galvanised mild steel wires in both warp and weft directions. The wire cloth shall be properly selvedged by one or more wires ineach edge.

Width of aperture and diameter of wire cloth shall be as specified. Unless otherwise stated, wire cloth of 1.40 mm average aperture width woven with0.63 mm nominal diameter galvanised mild steel wire shall be used.

Fly-proof wire cloth (Aperture 1.40 mm) is generally provided in kitchen anddining areas while wire cloth of smaller aperture is used in mosquito proofshutters.

11. COIR VENEER BOARD

  1. Coir veneer board is manufactured with a combination of coconut fibre needled felt, veneer and jute fibres with kraft paper coconut fibre. Needled felt can beused as core cross bands or as outer skin formed with jute fibres and kraft paper. However, the composite ply should be a balanced construction on eitherside of central ply. The blended mass of glued fibres is laid to form a mat whichis pre needled.
  2. Coir veneer board generally shall conform to IS: 14842.
  3. Coir veneer board shall be of uniform thickness and density throughout the length and width of board.
  4. The squareness and edge straightness of the board shall be as per of IS: 14842.
  5. Each coir veneer board shall be legibly and indelibly marked or stamped with the following near a corner.
  1. Identification of source.
  2. Year of manufacturing.
  3. Batch number.
  4. The grade and type as boiling water resistant (BWR) and moisture resistant(MR).
  5. Coir veneer board may also be marked with the standard mark governedby the BIS Act 1986.

11.1 Quality Control Tests

  1. The tests shall be carried out as specified in IS: 14842.
  2. Coir veneer board when tested in accordance with IS: 3734 (Part 1) shall havea moisture content not less than 5% and not more than 15%.
  3. Procedure for edge straightness: The straightness of the edges and ends of coirveneer board shall be verified against a straight edge not less than the fulllength of the coir veneer board. If the edge on the end of coir veneer board is convex, it shall be held against the straight edge in such a way as to give approximately equal gap at each end. The largest gap between the straightness and the edge shall be measured to the nearest millimeter and recorded.
  4. Procedure for squareness: The squareness of coir veneer board shall bechecked with a 1200 mm x 1200 mm square, by applying one arm of the square to the coir veneer board. The maximum width of the gap shall be recorded.

12. DECORATIVE THERMOSETTING SYNTHETIC RESIN BONDED LAMINATEDSHEETS

1. Decorative thermosetting synthetic resin bonded laminated sheets shall generally conform to IS: 2046. 

2. This material is intended for interior use and is not intended for load bearing applications.

13. ALUMINIUM PARTITIONS

13.1 Aluminium Sections

  1. Aluminium sections used for fixed/openable windows, ventilators, partitions, frame work & doors etc. shall meet the proposed architectural designs.
  2. Engineer shall approve the sections for technical, structural, functional andvisual considerations.
  3. The aluminium extruded sections shall conform to IS: 733 and IS: 1285 forchemical composition and mechanical properties. The stainless steel screwsshall be of grade AISI 304.
  4. The permissible dimensional tolerances of the extruded sections shall be as per      IS: 6477 and shall be such as not to impair the proper and smooth functioning/ operation and appearance of door and windows.
  5. Standard aluminium extrusion sections, in various sizes and shapes in widerange of solid and hollow profiles with different functional shapes for architectural, structural glazing, curtain walls, doors, window and ventilators and various other purposes shall be anodized/electro coated in uniform colourand shades. The anodized extrusions are tested regularly under strict qualitycontrol adhering to BIS.
  6. Each lot and type of aluminium extrusions shall be accompanied with the certificate from the manufacturer along with the test report of the followingtests carried out at the manufacturer’s test facility or an independent approved laboratory:
  1. Certificate of mechanical properties and chemical composition.
  2. Certificate of dimensional tolerance to DIN standard.
  3. Certificate of temper.
  1. The Contractor shall certify minimum anodizing thickness for each lot and type of aluminium extrusions.
  2. Aluminium extruded sections (Anodized or powder coated) are also used for providing louvers in aluminium door, window and partition for ventilation. Thelouvers shall be fixed at inclination and spacing as per the item description and Drawings. Louver blades shall be visibly straight and shall be storm resistant.The louvers shall not deflect or sag under self-weight, therefore adequate aluminium structural framing shall be designed and provided.
  3. The powder used for powder coating shall be epoxy/polyester powder of make approved by the Engineer. The contractor shall give detailed program for powder coating in advance, to facilitate the inspection by Engineer or his authorized representative. The powder coating shall be applied as per the specification approved by the Engineer.
  4. The finish on significant surfaces shall show no scratches when illuminatedand is examined at an oblique angle, no blisters, craters, pinholes or scratches shall be visible from a distance of about 1 m.
  5. There shall not be any visible variation in the colour of finished surfaces of different sections and between the colours of different surfaces of same section.
  6. When a coated test piece is tested using a spacing of 2 mm between each of the six parallel cuts (the cut is made through the full depth of powder coating so that metal surface is visible) and a piece of adhesive tape, approximately 25mm x 150 mm approved by the Engineer is applied firmly to the cut area andthen removed rapidly by pulling at right angles to the test area, no pieces of the finish other than debris from the cutting operation shall be removed from the surface of the finish.
  7. It is mandatory that all aluminium members shall be wrapped with self-adhesive non-staining PVC tape, approved by the Engineer.

13.2 Aluminium Sheet

  1. Aluminium sheets for use as panels shall be 1.25 mm thick aluminium alloy sheet conforming to IS: 737.
  2. Aluminium alloy sheet for use in general panelling work shall be of types and thickness as specified and conforming to the requirement of IS: 737.
  3. Aluminium sheets shall be of approved make and manufacture. Aluminium panel may be pre fabricated units manufactured on modular or non-modulardimension.

13.3 Float Glass

  1. The glass shall be clear float glass and should be approved by the Engineer. It shall be clear, float transparent and free from cracks subject to allow able defects. The float glass shall conform to IS: 14900.
  2. The thickness of float glass shall depend on the size of panel.
  3. The allowable defects shall be as per table.

Table: Permissible defects of float glass

Sl.No

Nature of defects

Central

Outer

Remarks

1

Gaseous inclusion

(Max. size in mm)

3.0

6.0

Separated by at least 30 cm

2

Opaque gaseous inclusion

(Max. size in mm)

3.0

6.0

Separated by at least 60cm

3

Knots, dirt and stones

(Max size in mm)

1.0

1.0

Separated by at least 30cm

4

Scratches, rubs and crush

Faint

Light

Separated by at least 30cm

5

Waviness

Nil

Nil

-

6

Sulphur stains

Nil

Nil

-

7

Corner breakage and chip

Not more than nominal thickness of float glass

-

  1. The allowable cluster of defects mentioned under Sl. Nos. 1, 2 and 3 of table shall be as per IS: 14900.
  2. The thickness of float glass shall be measured with micrometers or a caliper which is graduated to 0.01 mm or with a measuring instrument having an equivalent capacity.

13.4 EPDM Gaskets

  1. The EPDM gaskets shall be of size and profile as shown in Drawings and ascalled for, to render the glazing, doors, windows, ventilators etc. air and water tight.
  2. Samples of gaskets shall be submitted for approval and the EPDM gasket approved by the Engineer shall only be used.
  3. The Contractor shall submit documentary proof of using the above material inthe work to the entire satisfaction of the Engineer.
  4. The EPDM gasket shall meet the requirements given in table.

              Table:  Requirements of EPDM gasket

Sl. No

Property

Code

Requirement

1

 

ASTM D412

70 (Min)

2

Elongation at break (%)

ASTM D412

250 (Min)

3

 

ASTM D412

22 (Min)

4

Compression set at 00C for22 hours (%)

ASTM D395

50 (Max)

5

Ozone resistance

ASTM D1149

No visible cracks.

13.5 Sealant

  1. The sealants of approved grade and colour shall only be used. The silicone for perimeter joints (Between aluminium section and RCC/stone masonry) shall be of make approved by the Engineer.
  2. A tolerance of +3 mm shall be allowed in the width of silicone joints. The depth of the joints at throat shall not be less than 6 mm.

13.6 Reflective glass

  1. This is an ordinary float glass with a metallic coat to reduce solar heat. Clear glass transmits most of the sunlight that shines upon it, and most of the solar heat as well; the metallic coated glass i.e. reflective glass has better shading coefficients because they reflect rather than absorb infrared energy. However, most of reflective glazing blocks day light more than solar heat.
  2. The reflective glass shall be tested for the following parameter specified in table.

Sl. No

Parameter

Threshold ratio (%)

1

Visible light;

- Transmittance (%)

- Reflectance (%)

 

15-46

12-24

2

Total Solar Energy;

- Transmittance (%)

- Reflectance (%)

 

16-24

8-12

3

Ultra violet rays:

- Transmittance (%)

 

2-10

4

U – value:

- Summer

- Winter

 

0.58

0.45

14. Quality Control Tests

The composite aluminium panel cladding material shall satisfy the mechanical properties, coating properties and fire codes requirements.

  1. Each lot and type of aluminium composite panel cladding material shall be accompanied with the certificate from the manufacturer along with the test report, in conformance with BS 476 of the following tests carried out at the manufacturer’s test facility or an independent approved laboratory:

Mechanical Properties:

  1. Tensile strength and yield strength of composite panels.
  2. Tensile and yield strength of aluminium skin.
  3. Elongation.
  4. Punching shear resistance.
  5. Impact test for denting (DUPONT)(0.5 kg and 1kg steel balls at 500 mmheight).

Fire Resistance Properties:

  1. Flame spread and smoke developed indices.
  2. UBC26-9 & NFPA for 30 minutes intermediate scale multistory apparatustest to prove no flame spread beyond area exposed directly to fire source. 
  • Coating properties satisfying:
  1. Corrosion resistance.
  2. Salt spray resistance.
  3. Weathering.
  4. Colour retention.
  5. Chalking resistance.
  6. Gloss retention.
  7. Resistance to abrasion.
  8. Hardness, adhesion and formability.
  9. The coating agency shall certify the minimum thickness of PVDF/lumiflon based fluro polymer resin coating.
  • The Contractor shall also arrange forchecking the thickness of PVDF/lumiflon based fluro polymer resin coating inan independent laboratory/manufacturer’s test facilities and shall submit testreports to the Engineer. 

15.  ALUMINIUM FABRICATION

The following points shall be given attention while carrying out aluminium fabrication works. 

  1.  All works shall be performed by skilled workmen, specially trained and experienced in the applicable trades and in full conformity with the specifications and approved Drawings.
  2. All works shall be carefully fabricated and assembled with proper and approved provisions for thermal expansion and contraction, other building movements, fabrication and installation tolerances and design criteria etc.
  3. All forming and welding operations shall be done prior to finishing, unless otherwise noted.
  4. All works shall be true to detail with sharp, clean profiles, straight and freefrom defects, dents, marks, waves or flaws of any nature impairing strength or appearance; fitted with proper joints and inter sections and with specified finishes.
  5. All works shall be erected true to plumb, level, square to line, securely anchored, in proper alignment and relationship to work of other trades andfree from waves, sags or other defects.
  6. The Contractor shall obtain and submit to the department the manufacturer’s certificate for compliance of the various materials to be used in the work, asper the manufacturer’s specifications and also copy of the manufacturer’s test report for the record.
  7. The Contractor shall adequately protect all aluminium sections, glazing, cladding sheets, components and accessories from damage during shipment, storage, erection and till date of completion of work and handing over the building to the department by use of protective coverings of approved non-staining quality.
  8. At such time as may be directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall remove all protective coverings and clean the surfaces. All cleaning agents to be used shall not cause any damage to the aluminium, glass, aluminium composite panel and coatings etc. Any defective material shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own cost.

RELATED CODES :

1.IS: 303-Specification for plywood for general purposes.

2.IS: 710-Specifications for marine plywood.

3.IS: 733-Wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys, bars, rods and sections.

4.IS: 737-Wrought Engineering aluminium-Specification and strip for general engineering purposes –specification.

5.IS:1285-Wrought aluminium and aluminium alloy, extruded round tube and  hollow sections (For general engineering purposes )– specification.

6.IS:1734-Methods of test for plywood.

  (Part 1)-Determination of density and moisture content.

 7.9Part1568-Specification for wire cloth for general purpose.

8.IS: 2046-Decorative thermosetting synthetic resin bonded laminated sheet.

9.IS: 2049-Colour code for the identification of wrought steel for general engineering purposes.

10.IS: 3087-Specification for wood particle boards (Medium density) for general purpose.

11.IS: 3097-Specification for veneered particle board.

13.IS: 3828-Specification for ventilator chain.

14.IS: 4905-Method of random sampling.

15.IS: 5509-Specification for fire retardant plywood.

16.IS: 6477-Dimensions of extruded hollow section and tolerances.

17.IS: 7638-Wood/lingo cellulosic based panel products –Methods of sampling

18.IS: 12823-Specification for wood products -prelaminated particle boards.

19.IS: 14842-Specification for coir veneer board for general purposes.

20.IS: 14862-Fibre cement flat sheets – specification.

21.IS: 14900-Specifications for transparent float glass.

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