SPECIAL STRUCTURES



REGULATIONS FOR SPECIAL STRUCTURES

18.1 SPECIAL STRUCTURE

Regulations for  Cinemas,  theatres,  meeting  halls, lecture halls and town-halls: In  addition  to  the  requirements  specified  under  Building Regulations, the following  regulations shall also be applicable.

(a)  Location:  The  building for the above  purpose  shall  be  located  directly on a road of 18 mts. or more in width  either existing or proposed subject to other regulations.

(b)  Open  Spaces: In case of above uses, open spaces  shall  be provided as under:

(i) Front open space of 12 mts. width from the side abutting on the   road shall be provided. Such open spaces may be   permitted to   be   covered   up to 6mts. from the   building   line   with a projected  cantilever structure at a height of not  less   than  3.00 mts. from the ground level. Sides   and rear open spaces of 6 mts. width shall be   provided. In   addition to the above, the Bombay Cinema Rules  adopted  by   the State Govt. for cinemas and Janta theatres as amended from time to time, will also be applicable.

(c)  Minimum Requirements: The following requirement  shall  be provided:

(i)  The  aggregate area of foyer exclusive of  all  passages shall  be  provided at every sitting-level at the rate  of  0.1 sq.mt.per seat at that level, subject to minimum foyer width of 4.5 mts.

(ii) Entry and exit passages of minimum 3 meters width  shall be provided. (iii)Water-room and snack-bar shall be provided.

(iv)The  booking-office shall always be  so  located    that intending  purchasers of tickets have not to queue up  in  open space.

(d)  Plinth:   The plinth   shall  be measured at the foyer level and it shall not be less than   45 cms.

(e) Corridor: No landing, lobby, corridor or passage, not being an   internal   passage   between and/or across  rows  of   seats, intended  for use as an exit; shall be less than 3  meters  in width and there shall be no recess or projections in the   walls of such passages or corridors within 1.8mts. of the ground.

(f)   Doors: The auditorium doors shall be provided at the  rate of not less than one door of a dimension of 1.5 meters in width and   2.1   meters in clear height for every 150   seats   or   part thereof. All outside doors for the use of the public shall    be made to open outwards and in such manner that when opened, they shall  not obstruct any gangway, passage, stairway or  landing. These doors shall be  provided  in  such  a    way  that  they  open    in  aisles    or  cross-aisles  provided  under    these Regulations .

(g)  Balcony,  its  height,   floor  of  an  auditorium   and    arrangement of seats :

(i)   The height of the bottom balcony of the gallery shall not be less than 3 meters from the floor of the auditorium.

(ii)   The clear distance between the backs of two   successive rows shall not be less than 100 cms. but for seats with  rocking backs it may be 90 cms.

(iii)The   minimum width of balcony steps shall be   80   cms. provided that for the front and rear steps this distance  shall be 90 cms.

(iv)The  minimum  height  of  the  roof  or  ceiling  at  the  highest  steps   of  the  balcony  shall  be  3.0 meters and at no   place   the distance between the nodding and lowest projection ray shall   be less than 2.4 meters.

(v)   The minimum width of the seat shall be 50 cms.   provided   that 25 percent of the total seats may permitted upto the width of 45 cms. to adjust the staggering of the seats. The width   of the seats shall be measured from centre to centre of hand rails or arm rests.

(h)  Aisles:  Clear aisles not less than 1.2  meters  in  width shall be formed at right angles to the line of seating in   such number   and manner that no seat shall be more than   3.8   meters away from any ailses measured in the line of seating. Where all these aisles do not directly meet the exit doors,

cross  aisles  shall  be  provided in such number and manner that  no  row  of seats  shall be more than 7 meters away from cross-aisles.  The width of cross aisles shall be 1.2 meters.
Provided further that in computing the number of cross-aisles , the  door connecting the aisles with foyer shall be  considered as cross-aisles.
Explanation:  The  first cross-aisles in such a case  shall  be  provided after the fourteen rows from the door.

(i)      Sanitary Accommodations :

(i)   Water closet at the rate of one for 100 seats  or  part thereof  and  urinals at the rate of two for 75 seats  or  part thereof, at each seating level shall be provided.

(ii)  One  wash-basin for every 200 seats  or  part  thereof shall be provided.

(iii) The above  conveniences  shall be suitably apportioned between two sexes.

(iv) Such water-closet and urinals shall be  in  accessible location  and shall be provided with signs plainly   indicating   their purpose and the sex for which they are meant.

(j) Visibility Requirement:

(1)   The   seat  nearest  to  the  screen  shall  not   be     nearer  than  the  effective  width  of  the  normal picture (ratio   1:1.33).This distance shall be 3/4 in case of cinema scope   and   other   wide angles  techniques  and  one  half  in  case  of  70   mm presentations.

(2)  The elevation of the balcony seats shall be such  that line of sight is not inclined more than 30o to the horizontal.

(3)   The  seats  should  preferably  be  staggered  side-ways   in  relation  to  those  in  front,  so  that  a spectator in any rows  is not looking directly over the head of the person immediately in front of him.

(4)  The position and height of the screen shall be regulated  in such a way that the maximum angle of the line of vision from the front seat to the top of the screen shall  not  exceed 50.

(k)   Ventilation:   Every   auditorium  shall     be   lighted      and   ventilated   by   doors,  ventilators  and windows abutting  on  an   interior  or  exterior open air space which shall not  be  less than 1/5th of the total floor area provided that if exhaust fans are installed or if  the  auditorium is air-conditioned, the requirement of this clause may be suitably relaxed by competent authority.

(l)  Minimum Requirement of Stairs:

(i)   Except  where   otherwise  provided     under     these  Regulations/bye-laws the minimum clear width of all the  stairs   shall be 1.5 Mts.

(ii)  No  stair-case shall have a flight of more  than  15  steps  or  less than 3 steps and width of the landing  between  such  flights shall be of the same width of the stair-case. The  tread    of the step  shall not  be less than 30 cms. The  riser shall not be higher than 10 cms.

(iii)No  space  less  than 2.4 Mts. in  height  shall  be allowed under the floor of auditorium.

(iv) Except  for a double-decker-cinema  or  theater,  the  access to the auditorium from the ground floor, if it is on upper   floor   or   on stilts shall be provided by not less   than   three        stairs; two of which shall be exit stairs. The clear width   of these next stairs shall not be less than 2 meters.

(v) The access to balcony floor from auditorium floor shall   be   provided   by   not less than three stairs,  two  of   which  shall be exit stairs.Provided   that if one exit stair is to be provided   instead   of two, its minimum width shall be 2.4 Mts.

(vi)  In case of double-decker-cinema or theater:

(a)  The  access  to upper class  auditorium   from  ground  floor  shall be provided by at least three stairs out  of  which   two shall be exit stairs with minimum clear width of 2 Mts.

(b) The access to lower class auditorium from   ground floor   shall    be   provided   by at least two  stairs,  one   of   which   shall be exit stair.

(m) No permission shall be given for converting existing  air-conditioned  cinema  theatre into   non-air- conditioned   cinema   theater.

(n)    AIR- CONDITION

The auditorium or the cinema should  be air conditioned as per following general specifications:-

[1]  Temperature range- 720 F to 800 F

[2]  Change of Air per hour-approximate 10 times.

[3]  Relative Humidity 50 p.c. to 60 p.c.

[4]  Fresh air requirements. 7.5  C.F.M. per person approximately.

18.2 FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

(1)   GENERAL   :- The planning design and   construction   of   any building shall be such as to ensure safety from fire. For  this   purpose,  unless otherwise specified in these Regulations,  the  provisions of   Part   IV:   Fire   Protection   Chapter,   National   Building Code, shall apply. For   multi-storied, high-rise and   special   building, additional   provisions relating to fire protection    shall also apply. The approach to the building  and  open spaces  on  all sides upto 6 m. width and  their  layout  shall conform  to the requirements of the  Chief Fire  Officer.  They shall be capable to taking the weight of a fire engine weighing upto   18   tones.   These   open spaces   shall   be   free   of   any obstruction and shall be motorable.

(2)  EXITS  :-  Every  building  meant  for  human  occupancy  shall   be  provided   with  exits  sufficient  to permit safe escape   of  its  occupants  in  case of fire or other emergency  for  which  the exits shall conform to the following .

(i)  TYPES  :-  Exits  should be  horizontal  or  vertical.    A  horizontal exit may be a door-way a corridor,  a  passage-way   to     an  internal  or  external  stairway  or  to  an  adjoining  building,  a ramp, averandah or a terrace which has access to the street  or    to  the roof of a building. A vertical exit may be a  staircase  or a ramp, but not a lift.

(ii)  GENERAL  REQUIREMENTS :- Exits from all the part  of  the building,  except those not accessible for general public  use, shall-

(a)   provide  continuous  egress  to  the  exterior  of  the  building   or  to  an  exterior  open  space leading to the street;

(b)  be so arranged that, except in a residential  building, they can be reached without having to cross another occupied unit;

(c)  be free of obstruction;

(d)  be adequately illuminated;

(e)   be clearly visible with the routes reaching them clearly marked  and  signs posted to guide any person to  the  floor concerned;

(f)   be  fitted if necessary, with fire  fighting  equipment suitably located but not as to obstruct the passage, clearly marked and with its location clearly indicated on both sides of the exit way;

(g)   be fitted with a fire alarm device, if it is   either   a multi-storied,   high-rise   or a special building  so  as  to  ensure its prompt evacuation;

(h)  remain unaffected by any alteration of any part of  the building  so  far  as  their  number, width,  capacity  and     protection thereof is concerned;

(i)  be  so located that the travel distance  on  the  floor  does not exceed the following limits :

(i) Residential, educational institutional and  hazardous occupancies : 22.5 m.

(ii) Assembly,  business,  mercantile,  industrial  and storage buildings : 30 m.

NOTE:- The travel distance to an exit from the dead end   of   a   corridor shall not exceed half the distance specified above.When more than one exit is required on a floor, the exits shall   be as remote from each other as possible.Provided  that  for all multi-storied /high  rise  and  special buildings,  a minimum of two enclosed type staircases shall   be provided, at least one of them opening directly to the exterior to an interior, open space or to any open place of safety.

18.3 REQUIREMENTS  OF INDIVIDUAL EXITS AT EACH FLOOR :

The detailed requirements of individual exits at each floor are  given below :-

(1) CORRIDORS :-

(a)   Exit   corridors shall be of a width not less  than   the total required width of exit doorways leading from them in  the   direction of travel to the exterior/stairway.

(b)  Where stairways discharge through corridors, the height  of the corridors shall not be less than 2.4 m.

(c)  Where  there  is  more  than  one  staircase  serving  a   building,  there   shall  be  at  least  one smoke-stop door  in  the   between the staircases.

(2) DOORWAYS :-

(a) Every exit doorway shall open into an enclosed stairway, a  horizontal   exit  or  a  corridor or   passageway   providing continuous and protected means of egress;

(b)  An  exit doorway shall open outwards i.e. away  from  the room,  but  shall not obstruct the travel along   any   exit.   No door,   when   opened,   shall   reduce the   required   width   of   a stairway or landing to less than 90 cm.

(c)  An exit door shall not open immediately upon a  fight  or stairs; a landing equal to at least the width of the door   shall be provided in the stairway at each doorway; the level of    the landing shall be the same as that of the floor which is serves.

(d) Exit   doorways shall be openable   from   the   side    which they serve, without the use of a key.

(3) REVOLVING DOORS :-

(a) Revolving   doors   shall not be used    as   required   exits except in residential, business and mercantile occupancies; they  shall  not  constitute more than half the total  required  door width.

(b) When   revolving  doors  are  considered   as    required  exit ways-

(i)  The  multiplier  in Table 18.1 shall  be  increased   by 33.1/3 percent, and; revolving doors shall not be located at the foot of  a discharge through a lobby or foyer.

(4) INTERNAL STAIRWAYS :-

(a)  Stairways  shall be   constructed   of    non-combustible materials throughout.

(b) Any interior staircase shall be constructed as a   self-contained unit with at least one side adjacent to an external  wall and shall be completely closed.

(c)  A  staircase shall not be arranged around  a  lift   unless  the  later is entirely enclosed by a material   of   fire      resistance   rating  as  that  for  type  of  construction  itself.   For   multi- storied, high rise and special buildings, the  staircase location shall be to the satisfaction of the Chief Fire Officer.

(d)   In   multi-storied/high rise    and    special    building, access   to   main   staircases shall be gained  through  at least  half-an-hour  fire-resisting automatic closing doors placed  in  the enclosing walls of the staircases. They shall  swing  type  doors opening in the direction of the escape.

(e)   No   living  space,  store  or  other   space,   involving   fire   risk,  shall  open  directly  into  a staircase.

(f) The external exit door of a staircase enclosure   at ground level shall open directly to the open space or should be accessible   without  passing through any door other  than  a   door provided to form a draught lobby.

(g) In multi-storied high rise and   special   buildings,   exit   signs   with   arrows   indicating the escape  route   shall   be  provided at a height of 1.5 m. from the floor level on the  wall and shall be painted with fluorescent paint. All exit way signs should  be  flush  with  the  wall and  so  designed  that  no mechanical  damage  to  them  can result  from  the  moving  of furniture or other heavy equipment.

(h) Where  a  building has a single    staircase,    it    shall terminate  at  the ground floor level, and the   access   to   the   basement   shall be by a separate staircase. Where the   building is served by more than one staircase, one of the staircases may  lead  to the basement level by either  a  ventilated  lobby    or    a    cut-off    screen  wall  without  opening,  having  a  fire resistance of not less than 2 hours with discharge point at two   different   ends   or through enclosures. It shall also be cut-off from  the  basement  area  at various basement levels by a protected  and ventilated lobby/lobbies.

(5) FIRE ESCAPE OR EXTERNAL STAIRS :-

Multi-storied/high  rise  and  special  buildings  shall  be provided with fire escape stairs, which will be free of F.S.I., and they should conform to the following :-

(a) They shall not be taken into account in  calculating  the  evacuation time of a building.

(b) All of them shall be directly connected to the ground.

(c) Entrance to them shall be separate and remote  from   the internal stair-case.

(d) Routes to the fire escape shall be free of obstruction   at all   times,   except for a doorway leading to the  fire  escape, which shall have the required fire resistance.

(e) They shall be constructed of non-combustible materials.

(f) They  shall have a straight flight not less than  75  cm. wide  with 15 cm. treads and risers. not more than 19  cm.  The  number of risers shall be limited to 16 per flight.

(g) They  shall be provided with handrails at a   height  not less than 90 cm. above the tread.

(6) RAMP :-

(a) All the requirements of sub regulation (4) of this Regulation shall apply to any ramps as they apply to a staircase.

(b) Ramps  shall lead directly to outside  open   spaces   at ground level or courtyards or other safe places.

(c) In   a multistoried, high rise and   special   building, access to ramps from any floor shall be through  a   smoke-stop  door.

(7) REFUGE AREA

(a) In multi-storied and high-rise buildings, at least one refuge area shall be provided on the floor immediately above every 18 mts. of building height.

(b) Such space should abut on external walls.

(c) It shall have a minimum area of 1.5 sq. mts. and a minimum width of 0.75 mt.

18.4   STRUCTURAL SAFETY AND SERVICES

(1) STRUCTURAL DESIGN

The  structural  design  of  foundations,  elements  made  of  masonry,  timber,  plain  concrete, reinforced concrete, pre-stressed concrete and structural steel shall conform to the provisions of part  VI  Structural  Design  Section-1  Loads,  Section-2  Foundation,  Section-3  Wood,  Section-4 Masonry,  Section-5  Concrete,  Section-6  Steel,  National  Building  Code  of  India,  taking  into consideration the Indian Standards and Guidelines for hazard safety as given below:

a)    For Earthquake Protection

1. IS:1893-1984 "Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (Fourth Revision)"

2. IS:13920-1993   "Ductile   Detailing   of   Reinforced   Concrete   Structures   subjected   to Seismic Forces - Code of Practice"

3. IS:4326-1993  "Earthquake  Resistant  Design  and  Construction  of  Buildings  -  Code  of Practice (Second Revision)"

4.IS:13828-1993 "Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength Masonry Buildings - Guidelines"

5.IS:13827-1993 "Improving Earthquake Resistance of Earthen Buildings - Guidelines",

6.IS:13935-1993 "Repair and Seismic Strengthening of Buildings - Guidelines"

7."Improving   Earthquake   Resistance   of   Buildings   -   Guideline",   by   Expert   Group, Government of India, Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment, published by Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, 1998.

b) For Cyclone/Wind Storm Protection

8. IS  875  (3)-1987  "Code  of  Practice  for  Design  Loads  (other  than  Earthquake)  for Buildings and Structures, Part 3, Wind Loads"

9."Improving  Wind/Cyclone  Resistance  of  Buildings  -  Guideline",  by  Expert  Group, Government of India, Ministry of Urban Affairs & Employment, published by Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, 1998.
Note:  Wherever  an  Indian  Standard  including  those  referred  in  the  National  Building Code or the National Building Code is referred, the latest version of the same shall be followed.

(2) In pursuance of the above, a certificate as indicated in Form-2(C) shall be submitted along with building plans/drawings and other building information schedule annexed thereto.

(2) QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

(i)   The quality of all materials and workmanship shall   conform to   accepted standards and Indian Standard  Specifications  and Codes  as  included in Part V Building Materials and Part  VII Constructional Practices and Safety, National Building Code  of India.

(ii)  All  borrow  pits  dug  in  the  course  of  construction  and  repair  of  Buildings, embankments   etc.   shall   be   deep   and connected with each other in the formation of a drain  directed towards  the  lowest level and properly stepped  for  discharge into  a  river,

stream,  channel  or  drain,  and  no   person   shall  create  any  isolated  borrow  pit  which  is likely to cause  accumulation of water that may breed mosquitoes.

(iii) Alternative materials, method of design and  construction and tests:-
The provisions of the Regulations are not  intended to  prevent  the use of any material or method  of   design  of construction  not specifically prescribed in them provided  any such alternative has been approved. Nothing of the   provisions of  these Regulations is intended to prevent the   adoption  or architectural planning and layout conceived as  an   integrated development scheme.  The  Competent authority  may  approve  any  such alternative  if it conforms  to  the  provisions  of  the      relevant  parts    of    the  National  Building    Code, regarding   material, design  and  construction, and the material, method,  or   work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least  equivalent    to that  prescribed  in these Regulations in  quality,  strength, compatibility,  effectiveness,  fire  and  water    resistance, durability and safety.

(iv) All buildings shall be constructed on a quality control requirements.
(v)  In  case  of  existing  building  under  construction  based  on  approved  building  permission, structural safety requirements shall have to be observed. However, due to such structural work  of  strengthening/retrofitting  if  certain  setbacks  and  margin  get  reduced,  special permission may be granted on case to case basis.

(3)TESTS :

Whenever  there  is  insufficient  evidence  of  compliance  with     the  provisions  of  the Regulations or evidence that any material  or   method  of  design or construction does not conform   to   the requirements  of  the  Regulations, in  order  to  substantiate   claims   for alternative  materials, design  or  methods   of  construction, the Competent Authority may require tests,  sufficiently  in  advance, as proof of compliance. These tests shall be  made by an approved agency at the expense of the owner as follows :-

(i)TEST METHODS:- Test methods shall be as specified   by   the Regulations   for   the materials  or  design  or   construction     in   question.  If  there  are  no  appropriate  test methods specified in  the  Regulations,  the Competent Authority shall  determine  the test  procedure.  For  methods  or  tests  for  building    materials, reference  shall  be made to the relevant Indian   Standards   as   given   in the National Building Code of India published by  the  Bureau of Indian Standards.

(ii)  TEST RESULT TO BE PRESERVED:- Copies of the result of  all such tests shall be retained  by  the  Competent  Authority  for  not      less  then    two    years    after    the acceptance  of  the   alternative  material
The  testing  of  the  materials  as  per  Indian  Standards  shall  be  carried  out  by laboratories approved by the competent authority on this behalf.
The laboratory/agency shall work out in consultation with the construction agency a testing  programme  of  materials  such  as  cement,  steel  and  quality  of  concrete including its mixing, laying and strength at site as well as in the laboratory.
This should cover various stages of construction from foundation to completion as per Regulation.  The  laboratory  shall  maintain  a  duly  authenticated  report  in  a  bound register, copy of which will be submitted to the construction agency, which will in turn forward the testing report to the competent authority.

(5) Structural Stability and Fire Safety of Existing Buildings

i.The  Competent  Authority  shall  have  the  assessment  of  structural  and/or  fire safety  of  an  existing  building/structure  damaged/undamaged  carried  out  at stipulated periodical intervals through expert(s) chosen from a panel of experts

(b) MAINTENANCE :

(i)  The  lift  installation  should    receive      regular    cleaning,  lubrication      adjustment  and adequate  servicing  by   authorised   competent  persons  at such intervals as  the  type   of equipment    and  frequency  of  service  demand.  In  order    that  the    lift    installation    is maintained   at   all   times   in   a   safe   condition,   a proper maintenance schedule shall be drawn up   in consultation with the lift manufacturer and rigidly followed.   A log book to record  all  items  relating  to  general  servicing  and  inspection  shall  be  maintained.  The electrical  circuit   diagram   of   the   lift   with  the  sequence   of   operation   of   different components    and    parts    shall  be    kept    readily    available    for  reference    by    persons responsible  for  the  maintenance  and replacement,  where  necessary,  to  the  satisfaction of  the   competent  authority.

(ii) Any accident arising out of operation of  maintenance  of the  lifts shall be duly reported to the  competent  authority.

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