WOOD WORK -1



WOOD WORK

9.1. GENERAL specifications for timber used in buildings

Timbers generally used in buildings are either of solid timber or panel products like plywood, particle board, etc. The major use is in door and window frames and their shutters, furniture and the like. It is also used in structures especially in hilly regions where timber is abundantly available and other common building materials like brick are not easy to come by.

9.1.2. India has around two hundred species of commercial timber grown in different parts of the country. For quite sometime timber was transported over long distances for some specific services even when species suitable for the purpose would be secured from nearby sources. The reason apparently appears to be the misconception that in timber there are primary species (teak) and secondary species. No such classification exists and it is a misnomer. All species can be used, only each species has different end use. Some species are even stronger in cumulative properties than teak. IS:  399-1963 classifies commercial timber and their distribution in India along with different end uses. Therefore it is necessary to check locally available timber for building purposes before specifying the species for woodwork.

9.1.3. Moisture content is an important requirement for use of timber in woodwork. Moisture content affects its workability, size, etc. the moisture content of timber changes from season to season depending on atmospheric humidity. The application of a finish (paint or varnish) reduces the change in moisture content with changes in humidity in the atmosphere. IS: 287-1993 governs the recommendations for maximum permissible moisture content for timber used for different purposes.

9.1.4. For actual end use seasoning and treatment of timber are necessary. Seasoning will help in the control of moisture and it should be done as per IS: 1141-1993; and preservation as per IS: 401-1982.

9.1.5. A number of Annexures are enclosed to this section, which are informative and at the same time offer valuable guidance to the engineers in charge of the design and execution of works. They are by no means exhaustive but illustrative of the wealth of information available in the BI standards. The engineers are strongly advised to be not only aware of the various applicable standards but also keep track of the latest amendments, as it is mandatory to execute the works in accordance with the specifications and the latest applicable BI standards.

9.2. Classification of timber

9.2.1. Zonal distribution

IS: 399-1963 details the zonal distribution of common commercial and timber of India, classified according to their various end uses and gives information on availability and on some of the other properties of these timbers. The uses, include

(a)   Constructional purpose, including building construction, piles, bridges, poles, railways sleepers, etc; and  (b)    Furniture and cabinet making.

India is divided into five zones for convenience in tabulating the information on timber. The zones are

Zone 1: Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.

Zone 2: Assam, Manipur, Tripura, West Bengal, Bihar, Orrisa, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Sikkim, Haryana, Bhutan, Andamans.

Zone 3: Madhya Pradesh, Vidharba areas of Maharastra and north east part of Andhra Pradesh (Godavari Delata area).

Zone 4: Maharastra (except Vidharbha area), Gujarat, and North West part of Karnataka.

Zone 5: Tamil Nadu, Pondichery, Andhra Pradesh (except Godhavari Delta area), Kerala and Karnataka (except North West part).

9.2.2. Information on timber

Tables in IS:  399- 1963 give information on the following aspects of timbers available in these zones.

(1). Availability - Availability of commercial timber is categorized under three classes as given below

X - Most common, 1400 cu.m and more per year

Y - Common, 350 – 1400 cu.m per year

Z - Less common. Below 350 cu.m per year.

(2).  Mass per cubic metre– The average mass per cubic metre at 12 percent moisture content for all timbers.

(3).  Durability -  The figures of durability are based on grave yard tests carried out on           60 cm X 5 cm X 5 cm specimens and are categorized as below

High – Timber having, an average life of 120 months and over

Moderate – Timber having an average life between 60 to 120 months.

Low – Timber having an average life less than 120 months.

(4). Treatability – Treatability, reflecting the resistance offered by the heartwood to the penetration of preservation fluid under pressure of 10.5 kg/cm² is classified as below

(a)Heartwood easily treatable(b) Heartwood treatable, but complete penetration of preservative not always obtained (c) Heartwood only partially treatable (d) Heartwood refractory to treatment (e) Heartwood very refractory to treatment, penetration being practically nil from side or end

(5)  Compressive strength coefficient – The compressive strength coefficient is arrived at by grouping the various important mechanical properties of timber that may come into play for any particular use and giving due weightage to the relative important of these properties.

(6). The Handbook SP 33 (S & T) 1986 covers the engineering aspects of use timber.

Timber species is identified by using IS: 4970-1973 [keys for identification of commercial timbers] around 50 cards are available for identifying species. Timber may be graded on the basis of defects as per IS: 6534-1971 which gives guidelines of grading and inspection of timber. Since publication of IS: 399-1963 further work has been done in identifying species of timber suitable for doors and window shutters and frames; and for furniture and cabinets. These are covered in IS: 12896 -1990 for shutters and frames and IS: 13622-1993 for furniture and cabinets. These additional species have been brought in for these end uses.

9.3. Quality of different varieties of timber available in Karnataka state

9.3.1. Teak – It is a moderately hard. The sapwood is white. The heartwood is pale brown or dark golden yellow, darkening with age. On seasoning, the wood turns brown to dark brown or nearly black with long age. When once it is seasoned it does not split, crack, shrinks, or warp or alter its shape. It floats in water. It possesses fragment oil with a strong scent which prevents the white ants from attacking the heartwood and preserves the same from the effects of weather. In buildings, it will for ever and as sleepers for atleast 20 years. It does not corrode iron.

9.3.2. Honne – It grows to great dimensions from 3 to 4.5 meters in girth with bole of 9 to 12 meters and a height of 25 meters. The sapwood is small. Heartwood is yellow to grey brown with dark streaks running the whole length of the tree. It is very hard and close grained, durable, seasons well and is not affected by damp and changes of temperature. It can easily be worked to a good surface and it takes a fine polish.

9.3.3. Nandi or Benteak – This tree grows to a great size attaining a height of 30 meters and over with a girth of 2.5 to 3 meters and a clean bole of 12 to 15 meters and yields one of the best timbers of the reserved trees of Karnataka. It is of dull red or reddish brown colour, straight gained, moderately hard, very elastic and tough, durable especially in salt water. It has to be carefully seasoned.

9.3.4. Rosewood – This grows to large dimensions with a bole of 15 to 25 meters and a girth of 3 to 4 meters or even 5 meters. The sapwood is yellow and small. It is very hard, durable, strong, heavy and cross grained. It is stronger than teak. It takes a fine polish which gives it an extremely handsome appearance.

9.3.5. White Cedar – This is close grained yellowish, hard wood with elastic fibres. The bark is grey hard and covered with white warts. It is strong and durable but sometimes warps even after long seasoning. It has a strong cedar-like smell and a fine satin luster. Takes fine polish.

9.3.6.Karachi or Kamara or Anjan tree – This is fine grained wood, dark red or brown in colour, streaked with black bands often with purplish tinge and does not warp. It splits easily when struck tangentially but very difficult in a radial section. It seasons with difficulty and is subjected to fine cup and heart shakes.

9.3.7. Shivani – The bark of this tree is very pale, smooth and covered with lenticles. The wood is yellowish or reddish white with a glossy lusture, smooth close and even grained. It is strong and durable but light and insects do not attack. It seasons well and evenly and does not warp or shrink. It presents a good appearance like ivory and takes readily paint or varnish.

9.3.8. Jali Mara or Babul – This wood is hard pinkish white turning red or dark reddish brown on exposure to the air, mottles with dark streaks. It is hard, tough, close grained, very durable if seasoned. It is fairly heavy, short fibered and somewhat brittle to work but takes a smooth surface and good polish.

9.3.9. Yettiga Heddi – This wood is moderately hard and even grained. It is lemon yellow in colour when cut, turning yellow grey on exposure. It works very easily and takes a good polish. It seasons well and is durable, but somewhat liable to warp and crack.

9.3.10. Burgaw, Yelagada Mara, Silk Cotton tree – This tree grows 25 to 35 meters in height and to a girth of 4 to 5 meters. The wood is greyish white turning to dark brown and gets discoloured when seasoned. The wood is soft, coarse-grained and porous. It decays rapidly on exposures, but lasts well under water. It seasons quickly and is easily worked. It is easily attacked by white ants.

9.3.11. Karimathi – This grows to height of 25 to 30 meters with a girth of 3 to 4 meters and a bole of 12 to 15 meters. The sapwood is reddish white. The heartwood is freshly cut, turning grey on exposure. This timber is strong, difficult to saw and plane. It splits unless thoroughly seasoned, but somewhat difficult to season. It is durable especially under water.

9.3.12.Hunal – The wood is grey or pale brown, even and close-grained, cutting to a smooth surface, prettily mottled, very hard and fairly durable. The wood is good, but somewhat liable to split and not very difficult to work. It is improved by being kept under water. It is liable to the attack of white ants when burried in the ground.

9.3.13. Thadsal or Dadsal – The wood is red, brown in colour. It is very elastic, moderately hard and straight grained with long fibre. It is smooth, takes a fine polish and can be easily worked. It is durable and seasons fairly well.

9.3.14. Holematti, Bilimatti – The wood is dark brown with darker coloured streaks and very hard. It is apt to split in seasoning and is not easy to work.

9.3.15. Bagemara or Thiruchal or Bellali – The wood is dark brown with paler or dark reddish brown streaks, mottled and shining. The wood is hard, close grained. It is tough and  fairly durable. It seasons well and easy to work.

9.3.16. Jack or Halasu – The wood is bright yellow in colour and mottled when freshly cut, darkening on exposure to orange-brown. It is moderately hard and close grained. It seasons readily and does not warp or split. It works easily and is fairly durable. It takes a good polish. It stands well under water.

9.3.17. Haiga – The wood is brown, hard, close-grained and smooth. It is a valuable timber and is considered as one of the best timbers in Tinnevelly.

9.3.18. Tamarind or Hunse Mara – The tree grows to large dimensions. The stem is seldom straight being mostly short, knotty and thick while the crown is unbraceous. The heartwood forms only a very small portion of the stem. It is dark, purplish brown, hard, close-grained and very durable.

9.3.19. Sadhupa or Dhupada – The tree grows to great height with a clear bole of 20 to 25 meters. The wood is grey to light grey in colour, moderately hard, working freely to a smooth surface and presenting a easy appearance if well planed.

9.3.20. Gandhagarige or Red Cedar Wood – Bright reddish to red, shining, close and even grained, soft and sweet scented with prominent lines on the longitudinal cut, representing the pores. It is lighter and works to a smooth surface. It takes fine polish but requires a considerable filling before polishing and absorbs much of the polish. The timber seasons quickly and is durable under cover. It does not warp or split but shrinks and expands with variations of temperature and moisture. It is not attacked by white ants.

9.3.21. Kadavala or Kadaga – The wood is yellowish or pinkish brown. It is close-grained, moderately hard and durable if not exposed to wet. It is easy to cut and works to a smooth surface. In seasoning, it is liable to fine longitudinal cracks which, however, do not penetrate deep into the log.

9.3.22. Poonspar or Surahonne Tree – The tree attains a height of about 40 meters and more with a girth of 4 to 5 meters. The bark is furrowed with long longitudinal cracks. The wood is of reddish-brown colour and of a streaky and wavy appearance. It is very elastic and seasons fairly well under water. The wood is moderately hard, coarse-grained, strong and fairly durable.

9.3.23.Channangi – The wood is grey-brown in colour very hard, cutting to a smooth shinning surface, durable and not readily attacked by white ants, it is moderately heavy, difficult to work and rather liable to split. It is close-grained, straight and elastic.

9.3.24. Ippe – It attains a height of 30 meters with a girth of 3 to 5 meters. The wood is moderately hard and close-grained. It is heavy, close and straight grained, very flexible and durable.

9.3.25. Jamba (Inga Xylocarpa or Xylia Xylocarpa) – This is also known as the iron wood of Arracan, found throught S.India. Very superior quality wood, heavy, hard, close-grained and durable and of a very dark red colour. Not easily worked and resists nails. Extensively used for bridgework, posts, piles, etc. good for sleepers and paving blocks. Plentiful in Mangalore, Udupi & Karwar districts.

9.3.26. Jambe mara – It grows to a height of 25 meters with a bole 9 meters and a girth of 2.0 to 2.5 meters. The wood is dark brown or reddish brown in colour, annual rings darker but not distinct. It is tough and strong, very hard and difficult to saw especially the seasoned timber. It is cross and coarse-grained and somewhat twisted, cutting to a smooth shinning surface which takes paints or varnish readily and well. It is liable to crack and warp very badly while seasoning.

9.3.27. Nerale - The tree attains a girth of 3 to 4 meters with a clear bole of about 12 meters. The wood is reddish brown in colour, coarse, moderately hard, darker near the centre, but there is no distinct heartwood. It is tough and fairly durable, not attacked by white ants. It is sometimes liable to warp in seasoning.

9.3.28. Surahonne or Kal-Honne – It grows to a girth of 2 meters with a clean bole of 6 to 8 meters. Bark is light brown. Sapwood is small and gray. The wood is grey to greyish brown, mottled handsome, close-grained, very elastic, tough and hard. It takes a good polish. It seasons well and not liable to warp, nor is subject to the attacks of white ants.

9.3.29. Mavu or Mango – The wood in older trees is greyish brown to dark brown in colour, streaks with dark coloured tissues, hard, durable and lasts well in water. It is coarse-gained and twisted in fibre and soft in younger trees, readily eaten by insects. It seasons well and does not warp or shrink when joined.

9.3.30. Mashwal of Satin Wood (Huragalu) – The wood is very hard, lemon yellow or cream coloured. The inner wood is darker than the outer, but no distinct heartwood. It is fragrant and has a fine satiny luster. A planed surface presents a very smooth shining appearance, often handsomely figured. It is durable and hard but is somewhat liable to split. It takes a fine polish. It seasons moderately well and stands immersion in water. It loses its beauty with age unless it is protected by a coat of fine varnish.

9.3.31. Nagasampige – Cultivated in gardens and near temples for the sake of its sweet scent and large flowers. Bark reddish brown, peeling off in thin flat flakes, having a slightly roughened surface. The wood somewhat resembles calophyllum; but much harder and heavier. It is dark red in colour. It is very difficult to work. It should be used well seasoned as it is liable to warp and split.

9.3.32. Bakul, Ranja or Pagademara – The wood is very hard even grained. Sapwood reddish brown and heartwood dark-red. It is strong, durable of good colour and quality, but heavy. It works to a smooth surface, seasons well and takes very fine polish, but is difficult to saw and work.

9.3.33. Malbar Mahoghani, Yennemara – Bark is dark-brown and green, rather rough. The wood is dark or reddish brown to red, straight and even grained, moderately hard and takes a fine polish. From the wood exudes a red sticky resin.

9.3.34. Nirvan Teak or Hole Dasaval – It is called the “pride of India” on account of its beautiful pink flowers. The tree yields an excellent timber but is not known outside its local limits more on account if its very little supply. The wood is light red being brighter when freshly cut, hard, durable and smooth. It lasts well under water and is able to stand rough wear and tear. It works easily and takes a fine polish.

9.3.35. White Siris, Bellatte or Bilewate – The sapwood is large, yellow white, not durable. Heartwood brown shinning with alternate belts of darker and lighter colour, often indistinguishable from that of Bagemara or Thirchal. The wood is straight and even grained, seasons well and the heartwood is durable.

9.3.36.Kendal, Sagade – It is a useful tree as it gets new leaves before the hot season and on this account it is known as forester's friend. It attains a height of 12 to 15 meters and girth of 2 to 3 meters. The wood is extremely hard light pinkish-brown or red and cross-grained. It is tough, strong and durable, season well, though little liable to crack. It is a very heavy timber and possesses considerable power to withstand the attacks of marine bores. It takes a good polish.

9.3.37. Mukarthi – A small tree, preferring clayey soils generally. It is found not to grow more than 1.5 meters in girth. The wood is moderately hard, even and closes grained and light brown, often with a red tinge. The outer wood is white. It takes a good polish. It seasons well and is durable, but thin planks are somewhat liable to warp.

The root is said to be a specific against snake bites and the bark used in native medicine is said to be a virulent poison.

9.3.38. Kadaga, Kadamba or Nirabale – The wood is white with a yellowish tinge, soft and even grained. It has a slight unpleasant smell.

9.3.39. Havalige – It attains a height of 30 to 45 meters with a bole of 30 meters. The wood is light-red and straight-gained. It is moderately hard. Some trees split splendidly into shingles but others are found to be totally unfit for the purpose.

9.3.40. Naihalasu – The tree attains a girth of 3 to 4 meters with a clean bole of 10 to 15 meters. The wood is hard red and very handsome. The medullar rays are regular, very broad and prominent forming a handsome silver grain. The wood seasons well, and takes a very fine polish.

9.3.41. Bilvapatre, Bilpatre – The wood is yellowish greyish white in colour with a strong aromatic scent when freshly cut. It is hard but not very durable.

9.3.42.Ebony, Karimara, Balemara – It grows on attaining a girth up 4.5 meters on well drained soils and found chiefly in company with other species “Diospyros” but the heartwood is more than 1.5 meters in girth. One of the reserved trees of Mysore. The wood is very hard and durable, jet black, close and even grained. The wood produces the true ebony of commerce being the only tree of this order that has absolutely black heartwood.

9.3.43. Kadjuka, Jiraka – The wood is dark greyish-brown very hard and close-grained.

9.3.44. Bilvara – This is known as the raiyats’ tree and the wood is useful for nearly every purpose in his domestic economy. The pods are smaller, thinner and darker.  The wood is dark in color than those of Bage   brown, shining with paler streaks, straight grained, even smooth and long fibred. It is harder than Siris and seasons and works well and takes fine polish and is fairingly durable. It is liable to split if not carefully and slowly seasoned.

9.3.45. Padri, Kaladri – The tree attains a height of 10 to 15 meters and a girth 1.5 to 2 meters and more. The wood is greyish brown with patches of brighter brown coarse and hard. It has no heartwood. It is scented and moderately durable, strong and elastic. It stands well under water.

9.3.46. Sampige Mara – This is a fragrant flower tree.  The wood is olive-brown in colour beautifully mottled. It is light, soft, close and grained, very durable especially underground and contains a bitter ingredient which prevents rot. It seasons well and takes a fine polish.

9.3.47. Dindiga – It grows 1 to 1.5 meters in girth with a clean bole of 9 meters and more. The bark is pale-brown or white-grey and smooth with shallow depressions of account of its peeling off in small flakes. The wood in older trees is yellowish-grey, hard, shining, and coarse with a very hard dark, purple centre of small size and irregular shape. It is strong, tough, and elastic and difficult to saw in green state. It is fairly durable under cover, though somewhat liable to split in seasoning.

9.3.48. Kanagalu Mara – The wood is reddish-grey in colour. It is rough and moderately hard, heavy strong and durable, even when buried underground. It is apt to split, warp, and crack.

9.3.49. Massimara – The wood is greyish brown or olivered grey, moderately hard, shining, close and even grained, seasons well, durable and is not attacked by while ants,

9.3.50. Godda – The tree generally attains a girth of 2 meters and even a little more and is capable of yielding good sized logs. The wood is like that of Boswellia (Maddi) when grown into a big tree. It gives handsome reddish brown heartwood of good quality, even grained and smooth. It seasons well.

9.3.51. Hadaga – The tree does not attain much grith. The wood is light brown in colour beautifully mottled with darker veins, even grained and very hard. It is durable and stronger than teak.

9.3.52. Tare Mara – The wood is yellowish grey, straight grained, rather coarse and hard with no heartwood. It is not durable as it is readily attacked by insects.

9.3.53. Myrabolam Tree or Alale – The wood is brownish grey with a greenish or yellowish tinge, close grained and fairly durable. The timber is cross grained and difficult to work, but takes a good polish.

9.3.54. Genasu – The tree is generally crooked and is not capable of attaining more than 1.5 meters in girth. However lengths of 3 to 4 meters can be secured. The wood is very hard, reddish brown and resembles teak. It is smooth, straight grained and even. The wood is tough, elastic and takes a good polish.

9.3.55. Camboge Tree Guragi, Arsina-Guragi  Kankutaka – The wood is yellow, hard, mottled with numerous wavy concentric bends of soft texture.

9.3.56. Jagalaganti – The stem of this tree is generally fluted or furrowed. The wood is grey, dirty white when cut, turning yellow or brown on exposure and streaked with patches of darker colour, especially towards the centre, but there is no regular ebony heartwood. It is fine grained and durable. It is moderately hard and difficult to cut with the axe.

9.3.57. Noviladi or Bharanige – Bark is yellowish grey or greyish brown and rough. The wood is grey with a tinge of olive brown, hard, smooth and close grained and polishes well; but it is liable to split and warp. It is durable under water. Much esteemed in Ceylon.

9.3.58. Chittagong wood or Kalgarige – The wood is reddish-brown and hard with a fine silver grain and beautiful satiny lusture, seasons and works well. It is most elegantly veined and at the same time very close in the grain. Sapwood is pale and of lighter colour. The fibre run in somewhat different directions and is consequently difficult to plane.

The bark is a powerful astringent and the flowers give a red or yellow dye.

9.3.59.Vate Mara – The heart wood is yellow in colour and changes to dull brown on exposure. It is smooth, even grained, fairly hard and durable. It works easily and presents a fair appearance when polished. It gives out an unpleasant odour while being sawn, probably due to the resinous nature of the wood. It resists the attack of white ants.

9.3.60. Jalari Mara – The wood is yellow or yellowish brown or grey, hard, smooth and even grained with small dark coloured irregularly shaped heartwood. The wood seasons well and is not attacked by white ants on account of its resinous nature.

9.3.61. Kavalu or Gavalada Mara – The wood is dark reddish brown, even grained and durable. It is fairly hard and strong but not very heavy. It is a fine wood, cuts to a smooth surface and takes a good polish. It is difficult to season. It stands well under water.

9.3.62. Rampatre or Ramanadike – It is light reddish brown, moderately hard with prominent regular concentric lines.

9.3.63. Aine tree or Hebbahalasu – The wood is yellowish-brown in colour. It is moderately hard and straight grained durable, seasons and polishes well. It does not warp or crack nor is eaten by white ants. It stands contact with water well. This is one of the reserved trees of Karnataka.

9.3.64. Bende Mara – The wood is white grey and soft. The bark yields a fibre for rope making, for temporary raft tying. It becomes brittle and rots if allowed to dry.

9.3.65. Hale or Beppale – The tree is much fluted and grows badly. It is capable of yielding pieces suitable for turning and carving work. The wood is white, moderately hard and even grained. Pores very scanty and very small.

9.3.66. Kaidhupa or Koidhupa – The wood in pinkish white when freshly cut, turning grey on exposure. It is straight grained and moderately hard and not durable. The tree yields a large quantity of black resign which is an important article of trade in Mangalore and Udupi districts.

9.3.67.Kasarike or Casuarina – The wood is yellowish-pink to reddish brown in colour with a long fibre. It is very hard and not easy to work. Sometimes the fibre becomes twisted. It cracks and splits if the timber is not seasoned slowly. It is not durable when exposed but fairly so under cover. It bears great strain and is well adapted for posts.

9.3.68. Dodda Thoppe or Doddi – The tree attains a girth of 2 to 2.5 meters with a bole of 8 to 10 meters. The wood is white when cut up fresh and brownish grey if cut up dry. It is soft, but of good quality for purposes for which soft wood is useful.

9.3.69. Bili Halasu or Sattale – The tree attains a good size with a clean bole of 15 to 20 meters and even more. The wood is reddish grey, moderately hard and close grained. It seasons well and works to a smooth surface. It is durable if smoked.

9.3.70. Incence Tree, Maddi, Guggala Dhupa, or Sambrani Dhupa – Trees growing up to 1.5 to 2 meters in girth are common. The bark is yellow or greenish yellow, exfoliating in small, hard and irregular flakes or thin plates. The heartwood is very small and when present it is handsome, streaked in darker and lighter bands. The wood is moderately hard, smooth and brown in colour. It is not durable, and to some extent free from attacks of white ants.

Maddale or Madhalle – The tree attains gigantic girth sometimes and also a height of 30 meters and even more. The wood is white soft and even grained, but seasons badly and soon gets mouldy and discoloured, if allowed to season in logs. The wood is not durable, but is easily workable.

Ramanadike – The trees does not grow more than 2 meters in girth, but a height of 15 to 20 meters is common. The wood is light reddish brown, streaked, soft. With many prominent brown concentric lines. The wood is handsome.

Nirangi – The wood is red or barks brown in colour, soft, porous and even grained. The tree does not attain more than 1.5 meters in girth even in favourable places.

Gulmavu – The wood is orange brown and moderately hard. The timber seasons well, and does not split and cracks.

Bevu or Margosa Tree – The wood is dull red in colour. It is fairly hard, close grained and slightly scented. It is durable, mottled and heavy and takes good polish. It is so bitter that no insects attack it. The wood is very much like Mahogany beautifully mottled and heavy.

9.4. General woodwork – wrought & put up

“Carpenter’s work” includes all timber in roofs, floors, verandahs, staircases, door and window frames, bridges, centerings, cofferdams, curbs of well, shores, struts, large gates, and generally all wood-work except in the case of battens used in roofing trellis-works, etc., which is not specially moulded or carved.

When the thickness of carpenter’s work does not exceed 50 mm and at the same time the width exceeds twice the thickness, it is called “planking”.

“Joiner’s work “includes furniture, doors and windows, and turned, carved, or moulded work of all kinds.

9.4.4. Carpenter’s work is rated per cubic meter, except planking, which is rated by the square metre of a specified thickness, or per Rmtr with specified breadth and thickness and batten work which is rated by the square meter. Doors, windows and similar work, and paneled work generally, are rated per square meter; other joiner’s work at special rates, according to the nature of each case.

9.4.5. The timber is to be of the best quality, well seasoned, felled not less than two years before use for carpentry and four years for joinery and free from large or loose knots and from shakes or defects of any kind. Sapwood will be rejected unless it is thoroughly impregnated with creosote or some other approved preservative. Any timber so rejected shall be removed at once from the site of the works, and not again brought thereon unless with the express written permission of the engineer.

9.4.6. The engineer may inspect all logs previous to use, and reject any which he considers defective. The engineer shall  however have power of rejecting at any stage, any work which may be found defective in quality or workmanship and shall not be debarred from rejecting wrought timber by reason of his having previously passed the same in the log or in un-worked stage.

9.4.7. Carpenter’s work is ordinarily specified as “wrought” or “wrought and put up,” or “wrought, framed and fixed”.

9.4.8. The rate for wrought timber includes carriage to, and delivery at, the site of the works, the fair rendering of all surfaces, chamfering of angles, etc.

9.4.9. The rate of timber “wrought and put up” includes all that is specified in the preceding paragraph, and in addition, all work required for fixing the timber in its proper position in a building, bridge centering, or other construction. The rate includes all special scaffolding, labour, materials, and apparatus for lifting and fixing in position according to the drawing or other instructions furnished by the engineer.

9.4.10.The rate for framed wood-work to include all sawing, jointing framing,  labour and materials for raising and fixing, and also, the fitting, fixing and supply, of all straps, bolts, nails, treenails, spikes, screws, etc., necessary for the framing and fixing.

9.4.11. All workmanship is to be of the best description and all joints must fit accurately without wedging or filling. After the wood-work has been erected, any undue shrinkage or bad workmanship is discovered, the contractor shall forthwith amend the same, without any extra charge.

9.4.12. Planking is to be specified with straight square edges, or rebated, ploughed, tongued, or dowelled as may be directed.

9.4.13.All carpenter’s work shall be paid by net measurement, no allowance being made for wastage or for dimensions supplied beyond those specified, but the length of each piece shall be taken over all, so as to include projections for tenons or scarfs.

9.4.14. The contractor shall give due notice to the engineer when any timber is to be covered up in the ground, or in the walls of a building, or otherwise; failing which it shall be optional with the engineer to order it to be uncovered at the contractor’s expense, or to measure and pay for only so much as is uncovered.

9.4.15. No timber work shall be painted, tarred, or oiled without the previous written permission of the engineer.

9.4.16. The engineer may order any truss or other framed work to be put together on the ground, and submitted to suitable tests before being placed in position.

9.4.17. When unwrought timber is supplied by a contractor, the rate paid will in all cases include carriage to, and delivery at, the place where it is required for use.

9.4.18. Timber in the log, or wholly or partially wrought, may be supplied to the contractor from government stores or from a dismantled building. In such case the value of the timber so supplied, at the rate payable to the contractor for similar material, will be deducted from the price of the finished work. Where the contract schedule contains no rate for similar material, the value to be deducted will form the subject of special agreement.

9.4.19. A separate rate will be required when material thus supplied has to be framed, re-fitted or reworked in any manner.

9.4.20.When material is supplied to be contractor under either of the two preceding paragraphs, he shall be charged for its full dimensions, no allowance being made for wastage in working or altering it and all of such material not used and charged for as finished work shall be the contractor’s property, but the contractor shall be entitled if required and permitted to utilise such material, as is in his opinion, unsuited to the purpose intended, in consequence of excessive wastage or other cause.

9.4.21. The conditions detailed above will apply to joiners as well as to carpenter’s work, except where they are plainly inapplicable.

9.4.22. All timber-resting on or bedded in masonry must be well coated with boiling coal tar.

9.4.23. The ends of all timbers set in masonry shall have as air space left on end and sides to allow of free circulation of air round it.

9.4.24. Glue shall not be used in joints which are exposed to the weather, and in such exposed work any hard stopping shall be done with tight driven plugs.

9.4.25. No wood-work of any sort shall be set within 0.5 metres of a fireplace or flue.

9.4.26. The contractor will be responsible for the easing or otherwise of all doors, etc., and the closing of all joints which may occur within six months of the completion of the work and which, in the opinion of the engineer, should be attended to.

9.5. Defects in timber for structural and carpenter’s work

9.5.1. Prohibited defects - Timber for structural shall not have loose grains, splits, compression wood in coniferous structural timber, heartwood rot, sap rot, and warp, wormhole made by powder pest beetles and pitch pockets.  Knots, shakes and checks shall not be permitted in regions of maximum stress intensities nor shall they be permitted at locations where joints are to be provided.

9.5.2. Permissible defects The following defects are permissible

Wanes provided they are not combined with knots and reduction in strength on account of the wanes is not more than the reduction with the maximum allowable knots.(b)Worm holes, other than those due to powder pest beetles, located and grouped that reduce the strength of timber shall be evaluated in the same way as knots.( c) Sap wood not more than 15 per cent of the area of the section may be allowed provided it is properly treated with preservative as specified in IS:  401-1982, Code of practice for preservation of timber.(e) All other defects which do not affect any of the mechanical properties.(f) Location and permissible limit of the size of knots, depth of checks and shakes and slope of grain shall be as applicable for Grade I structural timber as per IS: 3629-1986. Details furnished in Annexure 9-A.1.

9.5.3. Defects in timber for joiner’s work

9.5.3.1. Prohibited defects - Timber for joiner’s work shall be free from decay, fungal growth, boxed heart, pitch pocket or streaks on the exposed edges, boxer holes, splits, cracks, pin holes and worm holes.

9.5.3.2. Permissible defects

(a) Cross grain shall not be steeper than 1 in 15. (b) The diameter of individual sound knot and live knot shall not exceed 25 mm and the aggregate area of the knots shall not exceed one percent of the area of the piece. (c) Timber shall be generally free from sapwood, but traces of sapwood up to 15 percent may be allowed provided it is properly treated with preservative as specified in IS:  401-1982, Code of Practice for preservation of timber.

9.6. Seasoning of timber - The process of drying timber under controlled conditions is called seasoning of timber. Timber shall be either air seasoned or kiln-seasoned and in both cases moisture content of a seasoned timber shall be as specified in Table given below. Unless otherwise specified, air seasoned timber shall be used.  Kiln seasoning of timber, where specified, shall be done as per IS:   1141-1993 in a plant approved by engineer.

9.7. Tolerances - Seasoned timber (whether air or kiln dried) shall be deemed to conform to the moisture content requirements if the average moisture content of all samples from a given lot is within + 3 per cent and the moisture content of individual sample is within + 5 per cent of the maximum permissible moisture content for the particular end use and locality as indicated above.

9.8. Moisture content - Moisture meters obviate the necessary of cutting test samples and yield immediate results and are particularly suited for checking of moisture of timber in the field.  This method is however not as precise and fool-proof as oven drying method.  The accuracy of determination under field conditions of use after observing necessary precautions and applying the appropriate corrections to take account of timber species is not better than ± 2 per cent of the results obtained by oven drying method.  Any dispute concerning the moisture content of timber shall be decided by recourse to the oven drying method as described in IS: 287-1973. (See Annexure 9-A.2)

Maximum permissible moisture content of timber

Sl.No.

Use

Max moisture content percent

Zone I

Zone II

Zone III

Zone IV

1.

Beams, Rafters and Posts

12

14

17

20

2.

Doors and Windows

a) 50 mm and above thickness

b) Thinner than 50 mm

 

10

8

 

12

10

 

14

12

 

16

14

3.

Flooring strips

8

10

10

12

4.

Furniture and Cabinet making

10

12

14

15

9.9. Preservation of timber - Preservative treatment does not improve basic properties of timber but gives varying degree of protection against deterioration due to attacks by fungi, termites, borers, and marine organisms, Preservative treatment, where specified, shall be done using oil type, organic solvent type or water –soluble type preservative.  Oil type preservatives shall be used if the timber is not required to be polished or painted.  Before preservative treatment, the timber shall be sawn and seasoned.  All surfaces exposed after treatment, except due to planning, shall be thoroughly brushed with the preservation before jointing.  Preservative treatment of timber shall be done as per IS: 401 - 1987 in a plant approved by the engineer.

9.10. General guidelines for good workmanship - All wood work and carpenter’s work shall be carried out as detailed in drawings or as directed by the engineer.

9.10.1. Species of timber - Only the specified species of timber shall be used.  For any one structural unit, only one species of timber shall be used.

9.10.2. Sawing and planing - Sawing shall be truly straight and square and in the direction of grains except for the members which are curved.  Where indicated, the members shall be planed smooth to the full dimensions are rebated, rounded, chamfered or moulded as detailed in the drawings or directed, before they are fixed or framed and fixed.  A tolerance of - 2 mm and + 3 mm shall be allowed in the finished cross sectional dimensions.

9.10.3. Nails - Steel wire nails shall conform to IS: 723-1972, Specification for steel countersunk head wire nails.  The nails shall be machine made.  The head should be properly formed, chequered and concentric with the shank.  The ends shall be sharp and pointed.  Nails shall be plain finished.

9.10.4. Wood screws - Steel wood screws shall conform to IS: 451-1972.  Technical supply condition for wood screws and of the type, finish and size as required or as directed.  Screws shall be cleanly finished and the heads shall be true and concentric with the shank.  Slots in the head shall be clear, straight and free from burrs and central with regard to the head.  Threads shall be clear and well defined.  Wood screws shall be in ‘self colour’ condition.

9.10.5. Glue - Adhesives and glues for putting together in wood work and joinery shall conform to (a) Synthetic adhesives WRB or MR grade conforming to IS: 851-1978, Synthetic resin adhesives for construction work in wood; or (b) synthetic adhesives conforming to IS: 4835-1979, polyvinyl acetate dispersion based adhesives for wood;

9.10.6. Jointing - The contractor shall observe the following principles in forming joints (a)To form joints and arrange the fastenings in such a way so as to weaken as little as possible the pieces of timber they connect.  b)To place each abutting surface in a joint, as nearly as possible, perpendicular to the pressure it has to transmit ; ( c)To form and fit accurately every pair of surfaces that come in contact.

9.10.7. Joints - Joints in timber frames shall be made carefully and securely.  Notches shall in no case remove more than the quarter of the section.  All mortice and tenon mitred, scarf and other joints shall fit fully and truly without wedging or bamboo pins of about 10 mm dia.

9.10.8. Fabrication - Fabrication shall be done in the best possible manner and all necessary mild steel ties, straps, bolts, etc., shall be fitted as indicated. Members shall be fabricated accurately so that these can be assembled without being unduly packed, strained or forced into position and when build up shall be true to shape and free from twist, kinks, buckle or open joints.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be allowed.

9.11. SPECIFICATIONS FOR WOODEN BALLIES

9.11.1. Unless otherwise ordered, the ballies shall conform to the dimensions given below

Type of ballies

Diameter at the top in cm

Diameter at the butt end in cm

1

Over 8.5 up to 12.5

Over 15 up to 20

2

Over 6.5 up to 8.5

Over 11.5 up to 15

3

Over 5 up to 6.5

Over 7.5 up to 11.5

Note: The top and butt end diameters shall be measured at the extreme ends of the ballies.

9.11.2. Ballies shall be reasonably straight that when laid horizontally in any position the centre line joining the apex and base shall not deviate from the actual axis of the ballies by more than 7.5 cm. Ballies shall be air-dried to a moisture content not exceeding 20 per cent within a depth of 12 mm from the surface, when measured at 30 cm from the butt end of the ballies.

9.11.3. Ballies shall be free from cuts across the grain, live insect attack, any kind of decay (rot), pronounced spiral or twisted grain, hollow heart and dead knots exceeding 5 cm in diameter.  The number, size and distribution of knots shall be such as not to weaken a ballies to such an extent as to make it unsuitable for use.

9.11.4. Surface cracks shall not exceed 19 mm in depth and 3 mm in width for type 1 ballies, and 12 mm in depth and 3 mm in width for type 2 and type 3 ballies provided they are not so numerous or so located as to impair the usefulness of the ballies.  Spiral or twisted grain shall not be more than one complete twist of grain or spiral in any 6 m of length.  Short crooks shall not exceed two in number per balli.  Pin hole (dead infestation) shall be scattered and not concentrated; provided they are not due to powder pest beetles.

9.11.5. Specifications for sal balli work

Ballies shall be free from large and dead knots, cracks and wooden borer infection.  These shall be as far as possible straight and of uniform section.  The diameter specified shall be the mean diameter.  This mean diameter shall be the average of two diameters at ends.

The tolerance shall permit as under.

Length

Mean diameter or diameter at the centre

Tolerance in diameter at the thinner end

Ballies not exceeding 3 metre length

Not less than the specified diameter

The diameter at the thinner end shall not be less than specified diameter by more than 10 mm

Ballies exceeding 3 metre length

Not less than the specified diameter

The diameter at the thinner end shall not be less than specified diameter by more than 10 mm

9.11.5.1. Surface treatment - It shall be as specified in 9.27.6.

9.11.5.2. Fixing - The fixing of the ballies for posts, purlins and rafters shall be done by clamps, bolts and nuts and spikes (country nails) as specified or as directed by the engineer.  In case of the last alternative the large nail with a cap shall be driven through about 40 mm beyond the ballies to be fixed together and the end of the nail turned back so as to ensure proper fastening.  Where so required, holes of slightly smaller size may be drilled before hammering in spike.

9.11.5.3. Trusses - The ballies in truss work shall be as far as possible of full lengths.  Where making up is considered necessary it may be done by half lap joints secured together with 50 x 6 mm M. S. clamps of suitable length and shape fixed with bolts and nuts.

9.11.5.4. Measurements - The Sal ballies shall be measured in running metres correct to a cm. Each piece shall be measured overall so as to include half lap joints etc.

9.11.5.5. Rate - The rate includes the cost of materials and labour required for all the operations described above.  The cost of bolts, nuts, flat iron clamps and other iron work except nails and spikes shall be paid for separately under relevant item of steel work.

9.12. SPECIFICATIONS FOR SHORING AND STRUTTING

Walls, floors, roofs, partitions etc., where indicated or directed to be supported, shall be adequately shored to the satisfaction of the engineer.  The contractor shall be responsible for the soundness and strength of the timber used for shoring and strutting and for properly bracing and securing them to sustain the pressure to which the shoring is likely to be subjected.  Shoring shall be removed only after its removal has been approved by the engineer.

Shoring shall consists of all requisite dogs, hoop iron, hooks, rakers, sole-pieces, wall pieces, braces, struts, needles, cleats, wedges and posts.  Shoring shall be of suitable structural timber, clean swan.

Racking shore may be at an angle of 60 degree to 75 degree Celsius with a building but 40 degree is the best angle, if obtained Sole piece should be quite at right angle to the shore.  The top needle should be at least 0.6 metre down from the top of the wall.

9.13. SPECIFICATIONS FOR FORMWORK

9.13.1. Materials - Formwork shall be of timber.  Alternatively the contractor may provide form work of plywood, timber with steel sheet lining or steel plate stiffened by steel angles without any price adjustment.

9.13.2. Classification of form work - Form work shall be classified depending upon the type of finish required for the concrete as under -

(a)  Form work for rough finish - Form work required for the concrete surface which is either hidden from view or is specified to be separately finished with plastering or rendering

(b) Form work for fair finish - Form work required for the concrete surface which may show some joint – marks which may not be objectionable (on account of forming a pattern by itself or otherwise not objectionable), and is presentable without any further treatment.

9.13.3. General requirement - The form work shall be rigid and so constructed as to retain the shape and dimensions of the member being cast.  It shall have sufficient strength and rigidity to withstand the load of concrete, vibrations, movement or men, materials and plants and any other incidental loads without excessive deflection beyond permissible limits.  Before concreting is started, the props and wedges shall be thoroughly checked to see that these are intact, and are not loose. While concreting is in progress, a constant watch shall be kept on the props and immediate remedial measures taken as soon as any of these gets loosened.  Care shall be taken that props and wedges do not get loose for the minimum period specified for the removal of form work.

9.13.4. Propping and centering - The props shall consist of ballies, steel sections or of brick pillars laid dry or mud mortar.  Ballies shall be placed at a spacing of 1 to 1.2 metres and shall rest squarely of wooden sole plates. Double wedges shall be provided between the sole plate and the wooden prop, so as to facilitate tightening and easing of shuttering without jarring the concrete.  In case brick masonry pillars are used as props, the wooden sole plate shall be provided at the top of pillar and double wedges inserted between the sole plate and the bottom of shutting.

In case of multi-storeyed structures, the weight of concrete and form work of any upper floor shall be suitably supported on at least two floors below the same. In case the height of centring exceeds 3.50 metres, the props may be provided in multi-stages.

9.13.5. Shuttering - Shuttering for ‘rough finish’ surface of concrete may have clean sawn or wrought surfaces which come in contact with concrete surface and planed on the sides.  The shuttering of ‘fair finish’ surface shall have wrought and smooth surfaces which come in contact with concrete surface and planed on sides.  Joints shall not permit leakages of cement grout.

Form lining shall be such as would not discolour the concrete.  Where steel sheet lining is provided to timber forms, it shall have, on mounting, minimum amount of kinks and other imperfections.  Where metal forms are used, all bolts and nuts shall be countersunk and well ground to provide a smooth plain surface.

Where concrete is required to have a rounded edge, bevelled edge or moulded edge; provision shall be made in the form itself.  Opening for fan clamps and other fitting connected with services shall be provided in the shuttering as directed by the engineer.

As far as possible, clamps shall be used to hold the forms together.  Where use of nails is unavoidable minimum number of nails shall be used and these shall be left projecting so that they can be easily withdrawn.

9.13.6. Surface treatment to shuttering - Forms shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dust, dirt, wood shavings and other matter by washing with water.  The surface shall then be coated with soap solution before concreting is done.  Soap solution shall be prepared by dissolving yellow soap in water to get consistency of paint.  Alternatively a coat of raw linseed oil / refined pale paraffin mineral oil of approved manufacture may be applied.  Care shall be taken that the coating does not get on construction joint surface and reinforcement bars.  It shall also not cause softening or permanent straining of concrete surface nor shall impede the wetting of surfaces to be water-cured.  Special care shall be taken in case of small grooves.  The form strips shall be oiled coated thoroughly so as to prevent swelling of the forms and damages to the concrete on removal of forms.

9.13.7. Camber - The shuttering for beams and slabs shall have a chamber of 1 in 250 and for cantilevers at the free end of 1/50 of the projected or as directed by the engineer.

9.13.8. Erection of assembly of forms - Form work shall be erected true to line, vertical or battered to proper slope as required and free twist.  It shall be so assembled as to facilitate easing, and removal of the various parts in proper sequence without jarring the concrete.  For column etc., where concreting is done in stages, one side of the form work shall be made in suitable parts and shall be capable of being fixed securely and quickly in position.  The complete form work shall be inspected and approved by the engineer before placing reinforcement and laying concrete.

9.13.9. The form work shall confirm to the shapes, lines and dimensions as shown on the drawings or as indicated within the tolerance given below -

Deviation from specified dimensions of cross section of column and beam

-6 mm

+12 mm

Deviations from dimension of footing

Dimension in plan

(See Note)

-12 mm

+ 30 mm

Eccentricity

0.02 times the width of footing in the direction of deviation but not more than 50 mm.

Note: Tolerance apply to concrete dimensions only, not to positioning of vertical reinforcing steel or dowel.

9.13.10. Striking / removal of forms - Forms shall be removed gently.  They shall be eased carefully in order to prevent the load being suddenly transferred to concrete.  The minimum periods that shall elapse after the concrete has been laid and before form work is eased and removed are given in Section 4 – Concrete.

Reuse - Before reuse, the forms shall be thoroughly scraped, cleaned and joints gone over and repaired where necessary.  Inside surface shall be retreated to prevent adhesion of concrete.

9.14. SPECIFICATIONS FOR CENTERING FOR ARCHES

Centering for arches shall be of timber and so constructed and stayed as to remain rigid and unyielding during the construction of the work for which it acts as support.  Other materials such as bricks, etc., may be used as supports only for centering if they will serve effectively the purpose desired, subject to the approval of the engineer.  In preparing centering, allowance shall be made for easing by means of wedges before striking the centres.  Centering shall be set truly level, unless

9.15. SPECIFICATIONS FOR SCANTLINGS

Unless otherwise indicated, the contractor shall supply scantlings in one piece in lengths up to 3 m.  For lengths over 3 m the contractor shall be allowed to use more than one piece.  One for every extra 3 m or part thereof; and shall connect the same with proper scraf or other lengthening joints, as directed by the engineer.

9.16. SPECIFICATIONS FOR NAIL JOINTED TIMBER CONSTRUCTION

9.16.1. Nails with blunt, tapered and diamond point are preferable for structural work.  Diameter of nails shall be within the limits of 1/11 to 1/6 of the least thickness of the members to be connected.  It should be such that while driving, the nails should not cause splits or cracks in the timber.  The length shall be such that the nails fully penetrate through all the members to be jointed.  A minimum of two nails for model joints for lengthening joints shall be used.

9.16.2. Spacing of nails - Unless otherwise indicated or directed, minimum distance of nails, prebore end, between the nail distance from the edge shall be as per IS: 2366-1983.

9.16.3. Driving of nails - Nails shall be driven through and through.  Adjacent nails shall be driven alternately from either faces.  Protruding nails shall be cut down or clenched.  Where required prebore shall be drilled before driving the nails to avoid the splitting of timber.  Prebore for various size of nails shall be as specified in IS: 2366-1983.

9.16.4. Camber - The initial camber recommended in nail jointed construction is L/200 were L is the span of the truss.

9.17. SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOLT JOINTED TIMBER CONSTRUCTION

9.17.1. Spacing of bolts - Unless otherwise indicated or directed, spacing of bolts shall be as per IS:  11096-1984.

9.17.2. Bolting - Staggering of bolts shall be avoided as far as possible in case of members loaded parallel to grain of wood,  For loads acting perpendicular to grain of wood, staggering is preferable to avoid splitting due to weather effects. The bolt holes shall be bored or drilled perpendicular to the surface involved. Bolts shall not be forcibly driven.  A bolt hole of 1 mm oversize may be used as a guide for pre-boring.  Washer shall be used between the wood and the bolt head and between wood and the nut.

9.18. SPECIFICATIONS FOR BATTENS FOR MANGALORE TILE ROOFING

9.18.1. The spacing of rafters shall not normally exceed 60 cm.  The battens shall be fixed over the rafters or the boarding at the spacing indicated and nailed to the rafters/boarding with plain headed nails.  The nails shall penetrate at least 2 cm in to the rafters/boarding.  The length of battens shall be extended with butt joints and shall be located only over the rafters.  The joints of no two adjacent rows of battens shall come over the same rafter.  At the eaves tilting fillet shall be fixed, unless otherwise indicated.

9.18.2. Nailing and screwing of fillets, battens and boards - Fillets, battens, trellis work ; etc. shall be nailed, or screwed, if indicated, at every support. Boarding shall be nailed, or screwed if indicated; using two nails or screws for every board per support.  Where the support is continuous, the nailing or screwing shall be done at intervals not exceeding 30 cm.  As a guide, the minimum length of nails and screws shall be as under -

For 15 mm to 20 mm thick timber

30 to 40 mm long.

For 25 mm to 30 mm thick timber

50 to 60 mm long.

For 35 mm to 45 mm thick timber

60 to 80 mm long

For 50 mm thick timber

100 mm long.

9.19. SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROOF BOARDING

Heading joints shall come over centre of rafters or purlins in all cases.  For tiled roofs, etc., the boarding shall be laid horizontally over rafters butt jointed, well cramped up and securely nailed to rafters.  When fixed direct to purlins, the boarding shall be laid diagonally with butt joints, well cramped up and securely nailed to purlins.  When fixed under felt etc. the boarding shall be tongued and grooved, traversed and cleaned off after fixing, to an even surface.  All nail heads shall be driven in and all exposed arises rounded off.

9.20. SPECIFICATIONS FOR WEATHER BOARDING

Weather Boarding shall be 12 to 18 cm in width plain or feather edged, rebated and chamfered, hollow or V jointed, with edges shot or chamfered and of thickness as indicated fixed with 60 mm long nails and neatly cut and fitted around doors, windows, etc.

The types of weather boarding shall be as specified.

9.21. SPECIFICATIONS FOR TIMBER CEILING

9.21.1. Timber ceilings shall be provided as detailed in drawings.  Unless otherwise indicated, timber boards/planks shall be 15 to 20 mm thick as indicated and width 100 to 150 mm as indicated.  The longitudinal edges of the planks shall be jointed to each other in one of the following ways, as indicated -

a) Butt and beading type - The planks shall be butted together with a small gap and a beading provided.

(b) Overlap Type - Each plank shall overlap the adjoining plank by at least 15 mm on both sides such that any two adjoining planks are in two levels.

(c) Half lap Type - The adjoining planks shall be half lapped by 15 mm.

(d) Tongued and Grooved Type - The adjoining planks shall be jointed together through tongued and grooved joint with tongue 10 mm long.

9.21.2. Fixing - The plank joints shall be parallel and in perfect line.  The first plank next to the wall shall be fixed carefully and accurately very close to the wall.  Subsequent planks shall be jointed up as indicated with utmost care.  The longitudinal joints of the plank shall be as indicated.  Heading joints shall be square butt type and shall occur under centre line of the supplying joint.  The countersunk screw holes and the joints between the planks (except butt joints) shall be filled with putty or stopping. The beading where indicated shall be fixed to boarding with screws of length 50 mm or equal to the overall thickness of the planks and beading whichever is larger.  The overlap of the beading shall be equal on either side of the two adjoining planks.  The beading shall be mitred at junctions.  The spacing of the screws shall be staggered along the length so that each one is driven completely through the planks.  Screws shall be countersunk and screw holes filled up with putty or stopping.

9.22. SPECIFICATIONS FOR TIMBER FLOORS

9.22.1. Timber floors shall be provided as detailed in the drawings.  Timber floor boards shall be of the species and class as indicated.  Only selected quality of boards of uniform width shall be used.

Floor boards shall be 25 mm to 40 mm in thickness as indicated and shall not be less than 10 cm nor more than 15 cm in width.  The same width of boarding shall be maintained throughout the floor except where the width of the room is not an exact multiple of the boards; in which case the difference shall be equally adjusted between the two end boards adjacent to walls.  The maximum length of the boards shall be restricted to 3 metres.  The minimum length of board shall be such that the boards rest at least on three supports but in no case it shall be less than 2 metres.

9.22.2. Finish and joining - The boards shall be planed true on the top surface only with edges shot, tongued and grooved rebated or rebated and filleted (with loose filet) and heading joints shall be close butt, tongued and grooved, cross tongued or secret nailed, as indicated. Heading joints shall occur over the centre line of the supporting joists/rough ground and that heading joints in adjacent boards shall not be placed over the same joist.  The length of the nails land screws shall be not less than twice the thickness of the board.  Where use of screw is indicated they shall not be thinner than designation 8.

9.22.3. Fixing - The joists or the rough grounds on which planks are fixed shall be checked and corrected to levels.  The end boards shall be accurately fixed with sides and close to the walls.  A margin on minimum 5 mm all round shall be left to allow the floor to expand.  Unless otherwise indicated, each adjoining board shall be properly jointed and tightened into position and nailed, or screwed where indicated.  Two nails/screws shall be used for fixing each board to the joist/rough ground at each end and one nail/screw at the intermediate joists in a zigzag manner.  The screws shall be countersunk and screw holes filled with approved stopping.   The junction between timber flooring and adjacent flooring shall be formed by inserting an aluminium strip at the junction.  The metal strip shall be fixed to the end of the planks by screws.  The flooring shall be truly level and plane.  The flooring shall be planed in both directions and made perfectly even, true and smooth.

9.22.4. Finishing - The surface of the floor shall be waxed or otherwise finished as indicated.  The lower face shall be treated as indicated.

9.23. SPECIFICATIONS FOR TIMBER FENCING POSTS

9.23.1. Fencing posts shall be provided as detailed in the drawing.  The bottom ends shall be sawn square and tops shall be either tapered or sawn square as indicated or as directed.

9.23.2. Knots in the timber fencing posts shall not be more than half the cross sectional dimensions of fence posts.  The number condition and distribution shall be as not to weaken a post to an extent to make it unsuitable for use.  Surface cracks shall be permitted only up to 5 mm in depth, 1 mm in width and up to 10 cm in length.  Their number and location shall not impair the usefulness of posts. 

Pin holes shall be well scattered and not concentrated in any area.  No pin hole shall be permitted if they contain live infestation of powder pest beetles.  All fence posts shall be seasoned to moisture content not more than 18 per cent.

9.23.3. A tolerance of ± 5 mm in dimension of fence posts shall be permitted.

9.23.4. Erection - Unless otherwise indicated, fence posts shall be erected so that at least 40 cm of the butt is firmly gripped in the ground.  The holes in the ground shall be as small as practicable to allow for refilling with earth which shall be well rammed.  When posts are set in concrete, concrete shall be set with posts completely gripped in it and earth well rammed on all sides of concrete.  The top of the concrete may be sloped away from the post in all directions.

9.24. SPECIFICATIONS FOR TIMBER PILES

9.24.1. Species of timber for piles shall be as indicated. Ballies used for pilling shall be specially selected any straight.  The ratio of heartwood diameter to the pile butt diameter shall be not less than 0.8.  Circumference less by 5 cm than that specified in 10 per cent piles may be acceptable.  Defects like short crooks twists, knots, etc. shall not exceed those specified for structural timber ballies.

9.24.2. Setting out - The piles shall be set out to proper alignments, correctly centered and driven vertically or battered as indicated.  In loose sand and stiff clay pile driving shall proceed outward from the centre.  In the case of very soft soils driving may have to proceed from outside to inside, unless otherwise directed.

9.24.3. Driving - The pile shall be pointed in the form of a truncated cone or a pyramid having the end 25 cm 2 to 40 cm 2 in area and the length shall be of 1-1/2 to 2 times the diameter.  If the driving is to be done; through hard material such stiff clay and gravels etc., metal shoes of approved design shall be attached to the tip.  To prevent splitting and reduce brooming the head of the pile shall be hooped.  The heads of piles shall be further protected by provision of cushion blocks.

9.24.4. Control of alignment - The pile shall be driven as accurately as possible to the vertical or to the specified batter.  Any pile deviating from its proper alignment to such an extent that the resulting eccentrically cannot be taken care of, shall at the discretion of the engineer, be replaced or supplemented by an additional pile at no extra cost to the Govt.  As a general guide, permissible positional deviation for piles shall be not greater than 75 mm from their designed position at the working level of the pile rig.  In case of single pile in the column position, the tolerance shall not be more than 50 mm and shall not exceed two per cent (one degree) from the specified inclination.

9.24.5. Amount of driving - Care shall be taken not to damage the piles by over driving.  Any sudden change in the rate of penetration, which cannot be ascribed to the nature of the ground, shall be noted and its cause ascertained if possible, before driving is continued.

9.24.6. Recording of data - The recorded data shall include the following - (a)the diameter of the pile ;(b)the depth driven ;( c)the sequence of driving –in pile groups ;(d)the final set for the last ten blows, or as may be directed ;(e)the type and size of hammer and its stroke, or with double-acting hammers the number of blows per minute ; and(f)the type and condition of the packing on the pile head and the dolly in the helmet.

9.24.7. Cut offs and capping  - After driving pile tops shall be cut off to a true plane and shall show a solid head at the plane of cut off.  Capping shall be done when the piles are in correct position.

9.25. SPECIFICATIONS FOR WOODEN PLUGS

Wooden plugs shall be made of hardwood and shall be wedge shaped.  Unless otherwise indicated or directed, the size of plugs shall be 20 mm square at one end, 25 mm square at the other end and 50 mm long.  Wooden plugs shall be driven into the martices, embedded in the hole with grout around them, if necessary, at the time of construction, generally, if plugs are fixed later, a near hole of a size slightly longer than the size shall be made and plug fixed in the hole and the surrounding space grouted with neat cement mortar.  The side with the larger cross section shall be inserted inside the wall.

9.26. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL - TIMBER

9.26.1. Timber - Timber panels shall be preferably made of timber of larger width.  The minimum width and thickness of a panel shall be 150 mm and 15 mm respectively.  When made from more than one piece, the pieces shall be joined with a continuous tongue and groove joint, glued together and reinforced with metal dowels.  The grains of timber panels shall run along the longer dimensions of the panels.  The panels shall be designed such that no single panel exceeds 0.5 square metre in area.

9.26.2. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL – PLYWOOD BOARDS

9.26.2.1. Plywood boards – 9.6.2.1. Plywood boards are formed by gluing and pressing three or more layer of veneers with the grains of adjacent veneers running at right angles to each other.  The veneers shall be either rotary cut or sliced and shall be sufficiently smooth to permit an even spread of glue.  Face veneers may be either commercial or decorative on both sides or one side commercial and the other decorative.  Plywood shall be of BWP grade or BWR grade as per IS: 303.

9.26.2.2. Adhesive - Adhesive used for bonding BWP grade of plywood boards shall be BWP type synthetic resins conforming to IS:  848 respectively.

9.26.2.3. The thickness of all veneers shall be uniform, within a tolerance of ± 5 per cent.  Corresponding veneers on either side of the centre one shall be of the same thickness and species.  The requirements of thickness and core veneers shall be as follows - (a)In 3 ply boards up to 5 mm thick.  The combined thickness of the face veneers shall not exceed twice the thickness of centre ply(b)In a multiply boards, the thickness of any veneer shall not be more than thrice the thickness of any other veneer.( c)The sum of the thickness of the veneers in one direction shall approximate to the sum of the thickness of the veneers at right angle to them and shall not be greater than 1.5 times this sum except for 3 ply as specified in (a).

9.26.2.4. Thickness - Plywood boards are available in thickness ranging from 3 to 35 mm.  Tolerance in thickness shall be ± 10% for boards up to and including 5 mm; ±7% for boards from 6 to 9 mm and ± 5% for boards above 9 mm thickness.  The boards shall be of uniform thickness and the surface of the boards shall be sanded to a smooth finish.  Number of plys in plywood boards shall be as under.

Thickness in mm

No. of ply

Thickness in mm

No. of ply

3,4,5,6

3

12,15,16,19

9

5,6,8,9

5

19,22,25

11

9,12,15,16

7

 

 

9.26.2.5. Moisture content of the plywood boards when tested in accordance with IS: 1783 -1993 (Part 1) shall not be less than 5 per cent and not more than 15 per cent.

9.26.2.6. Testing - One sample for every 100 sqm or part thereof shall be taken and testing done as per IS 303.  However, testing may not be done if the total requirement of plywood boards is less than 30 sqm.. All the samples tested shall meet the requirements of physical and mechanical properties of plywood boards specified in Annexure 9-A.3.

9.26.2.7. Thickness - Type of face veneer and grade of plywood boards shall be as specified.  Unless otherwise stated, only BWP grade plywood boards shall be used.

9.26.3. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL – PARTICLE BOARDS

9.26.3.1. Particle boards - Particle boards shall be of medium density and manufacture of from particles of agro waste, wood or lignocelluloses i.e. material blended with adhesive and formed into solid panels under the influence of heat, moisture, pressure etc.  The particle boards shall be flat pressed with single three or multi layers and graded and of Type 1 as per Table 1 of IS:   3087 - 1985.  Both surfaces of the boards shall be sanded to obtain a smooth finish.

9.26.3.2. Adhesives - Adhesives used for bonding shall be BWP type synthetic resin conforming to IS:  848 - 1974.

9.26.3.3. Thickness and tolerance - Particle boards are available in thickness ranging from 6 mm to 40 mm.  Tolerance in thickness shall be +/- 5% for boards up to and including 25 mm thick and +/- 2.5 per cent for boards above 25 mm thickness.  Each board shall be of uniform thickness.

9.26.3.4. Testing - One sample for every 100 sqm or part thereof shall be taken and testing done as per IS 3087.  However, testing may not be done if the total requirement of particle boards in a work if the total requirement of particle boards in a work is less than 30 sqm.  All the samples tested shall meet the requirement of physical and mechanical properties of particle boards as specified.

9.26.3.5. Thickness of particle and adhesive used for bonding shall be as specified.  Unless otherwise stated, only type 1 particle boards bonded with BWP type synthetic resin adhesive shall be used.

9.26.4. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL - VENEERED PARTICLE BOARDS

9.26.4.1. Veneered Particle Boards have a solid core of medium density Type 1 particle board which is covered with commercial or decorative veneers on one face and commercial veneers on the other.  Face veneers are bonded using adhesives under the influence of heat and pressure.  Veneered particle board shall be of exterior grade (Grade I) as per IS 3097.  Both surfaces of the boards shall be sanded to a smooth finish.

9.26.4.2. Adhesives - The adhesive used for bonding shall be BWP synthetic resin conformity it IS   848 - 1974.

9.26.4.3. Thickness & tolerance - Veneered particle boards are available in thickness ranging from 6 to 50 mm.

Tolerance in thickness shall +/- 5% for boards up to and including 25 mm thick and +/- 2.5% for boards above 25 mm thickness.  Each board shall be of uniform thickness.

9.26.4.4. Testing - One sample for every 100 sqm or part thereof shall be taken and testing done as per IS 3097. However, testing may not be done if the total requirement of veneered particle boards in a work is less than 30 sqm.  All the samples tested shall meet the requirements of physical and mechanical properties of veneered particle boards as specified.

9.26.4.5. Type of face veneers thickness of veneered particle boards and adhesive used for bonding shall be as specified.  Unless otherwise stated, exterior grade veneered particle boards with BWP type synthetic resin adhesive shall be used.

9.26.5. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL – HARD BOARD

9.26.5.1. Hard Board - Hand books are generally classified in to the following three types according to their method of manufacture, density and other related mechanical and physical properties.

Medium hard boards A homogeneous fibre building board having a density exceeding 480 kg/m3 but not exceeding 800 kg/m3.

(b). Normal hard board.  A  homogeneous fibre building board having a density exceeding 800 kg/m3 but not exceeding 1200 kg/m3.

(c) Tempered hard board.  Hard board which has been further treated in the course of manufacture to increase its density strength and water resistance.

9.26.5.2. The hard board used for paneling of door shutters shall be tempered quality.  The thickness of hard board paneling used shall not be less than 12 mm in case of single panels shutter and 10 mm in case of two or more panels shutter.  The hard board shall be regular and unless otherwise specified shall have square edges.  The lengths of the two diagonals of the board shall not differ by more than +/- 3 mm per metre length of the diagonal.  The tolerance on length and width shall be +/- 3 mm and on thickness +/- 0.3 mm.

9.26.5.3. Workability - The hard board shall not crack split or chip when drilled sewed or nailed perpendicular to the surface.

9.26.5.4. Finish - The boards shall be of uniform thickness subject to tolerance stated above.  They shall be free from warp.  The surfaces shall be flat, free from cracks and lumps and of natural colour.  At least one face shall be smooth.

9.26.6. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL – BLOCK BOARD

9.26.6.1. Block board - Block Boards have a solid core made up of uniform strip of wood each not exceeding 25 mm in width, laid separately, or spot glued, or otherwise joined to form a slab which is glued.  Between two or more outer veneers, with the direction of the grain of the core block running at right angles to that of adjacent veneers.  In any one block board, the core strips shall be of one species of timber only.  Face veneers may be decorative or commercial on both faces or decorative on one face and commercial on the other.  Block boards shall be Grade (Exterior Grade) as per IS:   1659-1990. Both surfaces of the boards shall be sanded to a smooth finish.

9.26.6.2. Adhesives - The adhesives used for bonding shall be BWP type synthetic resin conforming to IS   848 for Grade I block boards.

9.26.6.3. Thickness and tolerance - Block boards are available in thickness ranging from 12 to 50 mm.  Tolerance in thickness shall be +/- 5% for boards up to and including 25 mm thick and +/- 2.5% for boards above 25 mm thickness.  Each board shall be of uniform thickness.

9.26.6.4. Testing - One sample for every 100 sqm or part thereof shall be taken and testing done as per IS: 1659.  However, testing may not be done if the total requirement of block boards in a work is less than 30 sqm.  All the samples tested shall meet the requirements of physical and mechanical properties of block boards specified in the relevant I.S. code.

9.26.6.5. Type of face veneers, thickness and grade of block boards shall be as specified.  Unless otherwise stated, grade I (exterior grade) block board, bonded with BWP grade be used.

9.26.7. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL – ASBESTOS CEMENT BOARD

9.26.7.1. Asbestos cement board - This should conform to IS: 2096-1992.  The material used in the manufacture of asbestos cement building boards shall be composed of an inert aggregate consisting of clean asbestos fibre cemented together by ordinary Portland cement, rapid hardening and low heat Portland cement, or blast furnace slag cement.  No organic or inorganic materials shall be added to the composition.  Pigments which are embodied in the asbestos cement for colouring purpose shall be of permanent colours and shall conform to the requirements. The thickness of the asbestos cement board used for paneling shall not generally be less than 6.5 mm in case of single panels shutters and 5 mm in case of two or more panel shutter.  Asbestos cement building boards shall be of two classes, namely class ‘A’ and class B.  The thickness of class A shall be 6.5 mm and for class ‘B’ 5 mm. The tolerance on thickness shall be +/- 0.5 mm.

9.26.8. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL-FIBRE BOARD

9.26.8.1. Fibre Board - Fibre boards shall be of medium density and manufactured from wood fibre, produced by fiberising steamed wood under  pressure, blended with adhesive and wax and formed into solid panels under controlled conditions of heat and pressure.

Fibre boards are flat pressed single layer and shall be Exterior Grade as per IS: 12406-1988. Both surfaces of the boards shall be sanded to a smooth finish.

9.26.8.2. Adhesives - The adhesive used for bonding shall be BWP type synthetic resin conforming to IS: 848.

9.26.8.3. Thickness - Fibre boards are available in thickness ranging from 6 to 40 mm.  The tolerance in thickness shall be + / - 0.3 mm up to and including 9 mm thickness and + / -0.6mm for thickness above 9 mm.

9.26.8.4. Testing - One sample for every 100 sqm or part thereof shall be taken and testing done as per IS: 12406 -1988.  However, testing may not be done if the total requirement of fibre boards in a work is less than 30 sqm.  All the samples tested shall meet the requirements of physical and mechanical properties of fibre boards specified in the relevant BIS codes.

9.26.8.5. Thickness of fibre boards and adhesive used for bonding shall be as specified.  Unless otherwise stated, exterior grade fibre boards bonded with BWP type synthetic resin adhesive shall be used.

9.26.9. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL-SHEET GLASS, FROSTED SHEET GLASS

9.26.9.1. Sheet glass, frosted sheet glass - Sheet Glass shall be flat, transparent and clear as judged by the unaided eye.  It may, however, possess a slight tint when viewed edgewise.  Sheet Glass shall be of Selected Quality (SQ) or Ordinary Quality (OQ) as per IS-2835.  Glass shall be free from cracks. Unless otherwise specified, ordinary quality sheet glass shall be used.

9.26.9.2. Dimensions - Nominal thickness and range of thickness of sheet glass shall be as per Table given below. Tolerance on cut sizes (length and width) shall be + / - 2.0 mm.

Thickness and weight of Sheet Glass

Nominal thickness Mm

Range of thickness mm

Weight (Kg/sqm)

3.0

2.8  to  3.2

7.5

4.0

3.8  to  4.2

10.0

4.8

4.6  to  5.1

11.9

5.5

5.2  to  5.8

13.5

6.3

6.0  to  6.6

15.5

9.26.9.3. Sheet Glass of 4 mm nominal thickness weighing not less than 10 Kg/sqm shall be used for glass panel of area up to 0.5 sqm. For panel exceeding 0.5 sqm in area, the nominal thickness of the glass to be used shall be as specified.

9.26.10. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL- WIRE CLOTH

9.26.10.1. Wire cloth (Wire gauze) - Wire Cloth which shall generally conform to IS: 1568 -1970 shall be regularly woven with equally spaced galvanised mild steel wires in both warp and weft directions. The wire cloth shall be properly selvedged by one or more wires in each edge.

9.26.10.2. Mesh - Average width of aperture and the nominal diameter of the wire shall be as under -

Average width of Aperture mm

Nominal dia. of wire mm

1.40

0.63

1.18

0.556

1.0

0.50

9.26.10.3. Width of the aperture and dia of wire of wire cloth shall be as specified.  Unless otherwise stated, wire cloth of 1.40 mm average aperture width woven with 0.63 mm nominal dia galvanised mild steel wire shall be used.

9.26.10.4. Fly – proof wire cloth (aperture 1.40 mm) is generally provided in Kitchen and dining areas while wire cloth of smaller aperture is used in mosquito proof shutters.

9.26.11. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLING MATERIAL- GYPSUM BOARD

9.26.11.1 Gypsum Board is formed by enclosing and bonding together a core gypsum plaster (a calcium sulphate mineral) with or without fibre between two sheets of highly durable paper.  The gypsum boards shall be non-resonant, dimensionally stable and possess flame retardant qualities.  The boards shall conform to IS: 2095 and gypsum plaster shall conform to IS: 2547.  The surfaces of the board shall be true and free from imperfection that would render the board unfit for use with or without decoration.

9.26.11.2. Types - Gypsum plaster boards are classified according to their use.

9.26.11.3. Gypsum wall board with reduced water absorption rate - These boards have additives in the core and/or the paper liners to reduce the water absorption rate.  They may be suitable for special applications in buildings where reduced absorption properties are required to improve the performance of the board.  Unless stated otherwise, decoration may be applied to the face.

9.26.11.4. Gypsum wall board with improved core cohesion at high temperatures - These bonds have mineral fibres and /or other additives in the gypsum core to improve core cohesion at high temperatures.  They have a face suitable for direct decoration.

9.26.11.5. Gypsum plaster base board - These boards have a face suitable to receive gypsum plaster and may be perforated during primary manufacture.                                                            

9.26.11.6. Gypsum plaster base board with improved core cohesion at high temperatures - These boards have mineral fibres and / or other additives in the gypsum core to improve core cohesion at high temperatures.  They have a face suitable to receive gypsum plaster and may be perforated during primary manufacture.

Physical requirements

9.26.11.7. Dimensions - The width, length and thickness of the boards shall be as given in Table below.  The lengths of the two longitudinals of the boards shall not differ more than +/- 3 mm per metre length of the diagonal.

9.26.11.8. Tolerance - The tolerance on dimension shall be as given below –

Type

Tolerance in mm on

Width

Length

Thickness

Gypsum wall board

0  to  -5

0  to  -6

+/- 0.6

Gypsum base board

 

a) Non-perforated

0  to  8

0  to  -6

+/- 0.6

b) Perforated

0  to  -8

0  to  -10

+/- 0.6

9.26.11.9. Transverse strength - Breaking load for gypsum plaster boards, shall be in accordance with Table given below -

Breaking load of gypsum plaster boards

Type of Board

Thickness (mm)

Breaking load, Transverse Direction N

Min. Longitudinal 

Direction N

Plaster Board

9.5

140

360

12.5

180

500

15.0

220

650

Base Board

9.5

123

180

12.5

165

235

Dimensions of gypsum plaster boards

Type of Board

Width in mm

Length in mm

Thickness in mm

Wall board

600, 900 and 1200

1800 to 3600 in steps of 100 mm

9.5, 12.5 and 15

Base Board

400 and 900

1200, 1500 and 1800

9.5 and 12.5

9.27. SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRUSSES

9.27.1. Trusses - The work shall be carried out as per detailed drawings and as directed by the engineer specified timber shall be used.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square, and in the direction of the grains.  The scantlings shall be accurately planned smooth to the full dimensions and rebate roundings and mouldings shown on the drawings, before the same are framed.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted.  A tolerance of ± 2mm or ± 3 mm shall be allowed in the finished cross sectional dimension.

9.27.2. Joints - Joins shall be simple, neat and strong.  All mortise and tenon joints, mitred joints, scarfs etc. shall fit in fully and accurately without wedging or fillings.  The joints shall be as per detailed drawings.  Holes of correct sizes shall be drilled before inserting screws bolts.  Holes for bolts shall be of uniform diameter.  The screws, bolts and nails shall be dipped in oil before using.  The heads of nails and screws shall be sunk and puttied or dealt with as instructed by engineer.  The gauge and Length of nails, screws and bolts shall be approved by the engineer before using on works.

9.27.3. Shaping form and cutting - The wood sections, as specified or required, shall be straightened, cut square and to correct lengths.  A fine accuracy shall be ensured in the fabrication of various member so that these can be assembled without being unduly packed, strained or forced into position and when build, shall be true to shape and free from twist, kinks, buckles or open joints.

9.27.4. Fabrication - As per drawing, a full size truss diagram shall first be drawn on a levelled platform. From this full size diagram, templates of all joints as for tenons, mortises, scarves etc. shall be made for use in the fabrication.  The template shall be made 10 correspond to each member and plate holes for screws and bolts shall be marked accurately  on them and drilled.  The templates shall be laid on wooden members and the holes for screwing and bolting marked on them.  The ends of the wooden members shall also be marked for cutting.  The base of columns and the position of anchor bolts shall be carefully set out.  Before fabrication of the truss individual members shall be assembled together to ensure close abutting or lapping of the surfaces of the different members and fitted close together as per drawing.

9.27.5. Hoisting and placing in position - The trusses shall be hoisted and placed in position carefully, without any damage to itself and other building work and injury to workman.  The trusses shall be secured to walls by means of holding down bolts or as directed by the engineer.  The necessary mechanical appliances such as lifting tackle, winch, etc. for hoisting the truss shall be used.  The trusses shall be stayed temporarily till they are permanently secured in position and connected with each other by means of purlins.  Holding down bolts cleats used for purlins and bottom plates used for tie and rafter member shall be paid for separately.

9.27.6. Surface treatment - Wood work shall not be painted, oiled or otherwise treated before it has been approved by the engineer.  All portions of timber built into or against or close to masonry or concrete of burried in ground shall be given two coats of boiling coal tar.  All junctions of rafters, purlins, beams and wall plates shall be painted with approved wood primer.

9.27.7. Measurements - Wood work shall be measured for finished dimensions.  No allowance shall be made for dimensions supplied beyond those specified.  Length of each piece shall be measured over all nearest to a cm, so as to include projections for tenons, scarves or miters. Width and thickness shall be measured to the nearest mm.  Cubical contents can be worked out in units of 10 cubic decimetre in whole number.

9.27.8. Rate - The rate includes the cost of materials and labour involved in all the operations described above.  Unless otherwise specified, iron fixtures such as bolts and nuts, M. S. steel plates, holding down bolts and staining, priming, painting or polishing of the work shall be paid for separately.

9.28. SPECIFICATIONS FOR WALL LINING

9.28.1 Specified timber shall be used, and it shall be sawn in the direction of the grains.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings and mouldings as shown in the drawings made, before assembly.  Patching or plugging of, any kind shall not be permitted except as provided.

9.28.2. Grounds - Grounds shall be provided where so specified.  These shall consist of first class hard wood plugs or the class of word used for fabricating the frames, of trapezoidal shape having base of 50 x 50 mm and top 35 x 35 mm width of 5.0 cm and embedded in the wall with cement mortar 1:3 and batten of first class hard wood or as specified of size 50 x 25 mm or as specified, fixed over the plugs with 50 mm long wood screws.  The plugs shall be spaced at 45 to 60 mm centres, depending upon the nature of work.  The battens shall be painted with priming coat, of approved wood primer before fixing.

9.28.3. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELING – TEAKWOOD PANELING

9.28.3.1. Teak wood paneling - The thickness of panel shall be 16 mm up to a width 40 cm and 19 mm for a greater width.  Solid wood panels shall be made out of one or more pieces of timber of not less than 12.5 cm in width.  In order to avoid warping, splitting and cracking, normally pieces not exceeding 20 cm in width should be used.  When made from more than one piece, the pieces shall be joined with a continuous tongued and grooved joint glued together and reinforced with metal dowels.  The grains of the solid panel shall run along the longer dimensions of the panel.  The finished work with a tolerance of ± 1 mm in thickness may be accepted.

9.28.3.2. Block board paneling - This paneling shall be decorative or non-decorative (Paintable) type as per design and thickness specified by the engineer.  These shall be specified in details of the type and construction of core.  The specification in general shall conform to Indian Standard Specifications IS:  2202 (Part I) and 2202 (Part II).

9.28.3.3. Ornamental work - The ornamental wood work shall be painted on the back with priming coat of approved wood primer before fixing the same to the grounds with screws, which shall be sunk into the wood work and their tops covered with putty.  The ornamental work shall be made true and accurate to the dimensions shown in the working drawings.  The fixing shall be done true to lines and levels.  The planks for wall lining shall be tongued and grooved, unless otherwise specified.

9.28.3.4. Measurements - Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm.  Wall paneling such as teakwood paneling and block paneling, plain lining, the plain skirting each shall be measured separately in square metre nearest to two places of decimal. The moulded work shall be measured in cm running metre i.e. in running metres stating the girth in cm.  The sectional periphery (girth) of moulding excluding the portion in contact with wall shall be measured in cm correct to 5 mm and length in metre correct to a cm. The measurements for ground shall be taken on the basis of cubical contents of battens and paid for separately, unless otherwise specified. Where only plugs are required to be fixed for the ornamental work, the costs for the same shall be deemed to be included in the rate of ornamental work and no separate payment shall be made for plugs.

9.28.3.5. Rates for paneling and ornamental work - The rate include the cost of materials and labour required for all the operation described above.

Note   Use of wood for wall paneling has been prohibited by Government of India, (cabinet secretariat office order no. 6/4/90/cab. date 29.6.1990).

9.29. SPECIFICATIONS FOR SHELVES

9.29.1. Shelves and vertical partitions of cupboards shall be of timber planks fibre board, particle board, block board or veneered particle board as specified. Thickness and type of planks or boards shall be as specified.  Each shelf shall be a single piece and vertical partitions between two consecutive shelves shall be without any joint.  Exposed edges of boards having particle board core shall be sealed with 3 mm thick  single piece teak wood strips of width equal to the thickness of board with headless pins.  The arrangement of shelves and vertical partitions shall be as per drawings or as directed by the engineer.

9.29.2. Fixing - Planks for shelves shall be planed on all faces and edges.  In case of boards they shall be sawn to the required size truly straight and square.  Timber battens 25 x 40 mm unless otherwise specified shall be planed smooth and fixed inside the cupboard with wooden plugs and screws.  Shelves shall be fixed to the battens and vertical portions shall be held in position by fixing them to the battens and shelves using screws.  Teakwood strips for edge sealing of the boards shall be planed smooth and fixed with headless nails.  Tolerance in width shall be ± 5 mm and in thickness 1 mm.

9.29.3. Measurements - Length and width of shelves and vertical partitions shall be measured correct to a cm. separately for each type of board stating its thickness. Area shall be calculated correct to 0.01 sqm.

9.29.4. Rate - In includes the cost of materials and labour required for all the operations described above.

9.30. SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRELLIS WORK

9.30.1. Specified timber shall be sawn in the direction of the grains.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings, and mouldings as shown in the drawings made, before assembly.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted except as provided.

9.30.2. Plain trellis - This shall consist of wooden strips or laths 35 x 10 mm section unless otherwise specified planed and nailed together at every alternate crossing.  The strips shall cross each other at right angle and shall be spaced 35 mm apart, so as to form 35 x 35 mm square opening or as shown in the drawing.  These shall be fixed with nails to the frame.  To cover the ends of strips, 50 x 12 mm beading shall be fixed to the frame with screws. The finished work with a tolerance of +/- 1 mm may be accepted.

9.30.3. Trellis doors and windows shutters - Shutter frame of specified timber shall consist of two stiles and top, lock and bottom rails, each of section 75 x 35 mm unless otherwise specified.  The stiles and rails shall be properly mortised and tenoned.  The tenons shall pass through the stiles for at least 3/4th of the width of the stile.  Shutter frame shall be assembled and passed by the engineer before jointing.  The joints shall be pressed and secured by bamboo pins of about 6 mm diameter.  To this frame, plain trellis work as described shall be fixed as shown in the drawings or as directed by the engineer.  Fixing, fittings, wooden cleats and blocks shall be provided as specified.

9.30.4. Measurements - Width and height of plain trellis work and trellis shutters shall be measured overall correct to a cm.  The area shall be calculated in square metres nearest to two places of decimal.  In case of shutters, the measurement shall be as specified.

9.30.5. Rate - It includes the cost of materials and labour required in all the operations described above.

9.31. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PELMETS

9.31.1. Planks and curtain rods of specified timber shall be used, and it shall be sawn in the direction of the grains.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings, and mouldings as shown in the drawings made, before assembly.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted.

9.31.2. Sides, front and top of the pelmets shall be of 12 mm planks or boards of specified quality and width unless otherwise stated.  These shall project from the wall face by 15 mm or as specified, and shall be securely fixed to walls with wood screws by means of wooden plugs and 10 cm long 25 x 3 mm M. S. flat bent in the form of angle or by any other device approved by the engineer.  The pelmets shall be provided with curtain rods and brackets or curtain rails with rollers, stop ends and brackets wooden, brass or chromium plated brass as specified.  Intermediate wooden brackets shall be provided, if the front length of pelmet exceeds 1.5 metres.

9.31.3. Measurements - The pelmets box shall be measured along the sides and front planking correct to a centimetre.

9.31.4. Rate - The rate includes the cost of sides, front and top planking curtain rods with brackets or curtain rails with rollers labour and materials required for all the operations described above.

9.32. SPECIFICATIONS FOR HOLD FASTS IN WOODEN FRAMES

9.32.1. Hold fasts

9.32.1.1. These shall be made from mild steel flat 40 x 5 mm size conforming to IS: 7196 without any burns or dents.  5 cm length of M. S. flat at one end shall be bent at right angle and one hole 11 mm dia shall be made in it for fixing to wooden frame with 10 mm dia nut bolt.  The bolt head shall be sunk into the wooden frame, 10 mm deep and plugged with wooden plug.  At the other end 10 cm length of the hold fast flat shall be forked and bent at right angle in opposite direction and embedded in cement concrete block of size 30 x 10 x 15 cm of mix 136 (1 cement  3 coarse sand  6 graded stone aggregate, 20 mm nominal size) or as specified

9.32.1.2. Measurements - Measurements for the hold fasts shall be in number.

9.32.1.3. Rate - It includes the cost of labour and material involved in all the operations described above including fixing bolt and cement concrete blocks.

9.32.2. SPECIFICATIONS FOR EXPANDED METAL, HARD DRAWN STEEL WIRE FABRIC AND WIRE GAUZE IN WOODEN FRAMES

Expanded metal, hard drawn steel wire fabric or wire gauge or weld mesh as described in the item of work shall be fixed to the window frames on the outside or inside as per detailed drawings or as directed by the engineer.  These shall be free from rust and other defects.

9.32.2.1. Expanded metal - This shall be in the form of rhombus with its opening diagonals 20 x 60 mm and strands 3.25 mm wide and 1.6 mm thick weighing 3.633 kg/m2 unless otherwise specified.

9.32.2.2. Welded steel drawn wire fabric - This shall conform to IS  4948 and shall have rectangular mesh of 75 x 25 mm size with wires of diameter not less than 5 mm longitudinally and 3.15 mm transversely.  Its weight shall be not less than 7.75 kg/m2 unless otherwise specified.

9.32.2.3. Wire-gauze - This shall conform to 9.26.10.

9.32.2.4. Fixing - Expanded metal, hard drawn steel wire fabric and wire gauze shall cut in one piece to the size of the frame (out to out).  Expanded metal and hard drawn steel wire fabric shall be fixed on to the frame with staples, over which wooden beading 60 x 20 mm shall be fixed with wood screws.

9.32.2.5. Measurements - The length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm, the area from outside to outside of beading shall be calculated in square metre nearest to two places of decimal.

9.32.2.6. Rate - It includes the cost of labour and materials required for all the operations described above.

9.33. SPECIFICATIONS FOR DOOR, WINDOW AND VENTILATOR FRAMES

9.33.1. Timber for door, window and ventilators frames shall be as specified.  Timber shall be sawn in the direction of the grains.  All members of a frame shall be of the same species of timber and shall be straight without warp or blow.  Frames shall have smooth, well-planed (wrought) surfaces except the surfaces touching the walls, lintels, sill etc., which may be left clean sawn.  Rebates, rounding or moulding shall be done before the members are jointed into frames.  The depth of the rebate for housing the shutters shall be 15 mm, and the width of the rebates shall be equal to the thickness of the shutters.  A tolerance of +/- 3 mm and 2 mm shall be permitted in the specified finished dimensions of timber sections in frames.

9.33.2. Joints - The frames shall have dovetail joints Fig. 1.  The Jamb posts shall be through tenoned in to the mortise of the transoms to the full thickness of the transoms and the thickness of the tenon shall be not less than 2.5 cm.  The tenons shall closely fit into the mortise without any wedging or filling.  The contact surface of tenon and mortise before putting together shall be glued with polyvinyl acetate dispersion based adhesive conforming to IS: 4835 or adhesive conforming the WBP or MR grade of IS: 851 and pinned with 10 mm dia hard wood dowels, or bamboo pins or star shaped metal pins.  The joints shall be at right angles when checked from the inside surfaces of the respective members.  The joints shall be pressed in position.  Each assembled door frame shall be fitted with a temporary stretcher and a temporary diagonal brace on the rebated faces.

9.33.3. Fixing of frames - The frames shall be got inspected approved by the engineer before being pinned, oiled or otherwise treated and before fixing in position.  The surface of the frames abutting masonry or concrete and the portions of the frames embedded in floors  shall be given a coating of coal tar.  Frames shall be fixed to the abutting masonry or concrete with hold fasts or metallic fasteners as specified.  After fixing, the jamb posts of the frames shall be plugged suitably and finished neat.  Vertical members of the door frames shall be embedded in the floor for the full thickness of the floor finish and shall be warping during construction.  A minimum of three hold fasts shall be fixed on each side of door and window frames one at centre point and other two at 30 cm from the top and bottom of the frames.  In case of window and ventilator frames of less than 1 m in height two hold fasts shall be fixed on each side at quarter point of the frames.  Hold fasts and metallic fasteners shall be measured and paid for separately.

9.33.4. Measurements - Wood work wrought, framed and fixed shall be measured for finished dimension without any allowance for the wastage or for dimensions beyond specified dimension without any allowance for the wastage or for dimension beyond specified dimensions. However, in case of members having mouldings, roundings or rebates and members of circular or varying sections, finished dimensions shall be taken as the sides of the smallest square or rectangle from which such a section can be cut.  Length of each member shall be measured over all to the nearest cm so as to include projection for tenons.  Width and thickness shall be measured to the nearest mm and the quantity shall be worked out in unit of 10 cubic decimetre in whole numbers.

Fig. 1 Joints in timber

9.33.5. Rate - The rate shall include the cost of material and labour involved in all the operational described above except the hold fasts or metallic fasteners which will be paid for separately.

9.34. SPECIFICATIONS FOR PANELLED GLAZED OR PANELLED AND GLAZED SHUTTERS

9.34.1. Paneled or glazed shutters for doors, windows, ventilators and cupboards shall be constructed in the form of timber frame work of stiles and rails with panel inserts of timber, plywood, block board, veneered particle board, fibre board wire gauze or sheet glass.  The shutters, single or multi-paneled, as shown in the drawings or as directed by the engineer.  Timber for frame work, material for panel inserts and thickness of shutters shall be as specified. All members of the shutters shall be straight without any warp or bow and shall have smooth well planed face at right angles to each other. Any warp or bow shall not exceed 1.5 mm.  The right angle for the shutter shall be checked by measuring the diagonals and the difference between the two diagonals should not be more than +/- 3 mm.

9.34.2. Frame work - Timber for stiles and rails shall be of the same species and shall be sawn in the directions of grains.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the required dimensions.  The stiles and rails shall be joined to each other by plain or haunched mortise and tenon joints and the rails shall be inserted 25 mm short of the width of the stiles.  The bottom rails shall have double tenon joints and for other rails single tenon joints shall be provided.  The lock rails of door shutter shall have its centre line at a height of 800 mm from the bottom of the shutters unless otherwise specified.  The thickness of each tenon shall be approximately one-third the finished thickness of the members and the width of each tenon shall not exceed three times its thickness.

9.34.3. Gluing of joints - The contact surfaces of tenon and mortise shall be treated, before putting together, with bulk type synthetic resin adhesive conforming to IS: 851 suitable for construction in wood or synthetic resin adhesive (Phenolic and aminoplastic) conforming to IS: 848 or polyvinyl acetate dispersion based adhesive conforming to IS: 4835 and pinned with 10 mm dia hardwood dowels or bamboo pins or star shaped metal pins ; after the frames are put together and pressed in position by means of press.

Stiles and bottom rail shall be made out of one piece of timber only.  Intermediate rail exceeding 200 mm in width may be out of one or more pieces of timber.  The width of each piece shall be not less than 75 mm.  Where more than one piece of timber is used for rails, they shall be joined with a continuous tongued and grooved joint glued together and reinforced with metal dowels at regular intervals not exceeding 200 mm.

Dimensions of components of frame work

Sl.No. Description

Width (mm)

Thickness (mm)

A. Door shutters

a.

Stile, top and free rail 100 35  or 40

b.

Lock rail 150 35  or 40

c.

Bottom rail 200 35  or 40

d.

Muntin 100 35  or 40

e.

Glazing bar 40 35  or 40
B. Window, ventilator & cupboard shutters

a.

Stile, top and freeze rail 80 20, 25  or 30

b.

Bottom rail 80 20, 25  or 30

c.

Muntin 60 20, 25  or 30

d.

Glazing bar 40 20, 25  or 30

Muntin and glazing bars where required shall be sub-tenoned to the maximum depth which the size of the member would permit or to a depth of 25 mm whichever is less.  Unless otherwise specified the finished dimensions of the components of frame works of shutters shall be as given in Table 7.  Tolerance on widths of stiles and rails shall be +/- 3 mm.  The thickness of all components of frame work shall be the same as the thickness of the shutter.  Tolerance on over all dimensions of the shutter shall be +/- 3 mm.

9.34.4. Rebating - The shutters shall be single-leaf or double leaved as shown in the drawings or as directed by the engineer.  In case of double leaved shutters, the meeting of the stiles shall be rebated by one-third the thickness of the shutter.  The rebating shall be either sprayed or square type as shown in Fig. 2.

9.34.5. Paneling - The panel inserts shall be either framed into the grooves or housed in the rebate of stiles and rails.  Timber, plywood, hard board and particle board panels shall be fixed only with grooves.  The depth of the groove shall be 12 mm and its width shall accommodate the panel inserts such that the faces are closely fitted to the sides of the groove.  Panel inserts shall be framed into the grooves of stiles and rails to the full depth of the groove leaving on space of 1.5 mm.  Width and depth of the rebate shall be equal to half of the thickness of stiles and rails.  Glass panels, asbestos panels wire gauze panels and panel inserts of cupboard shutters shall be housed in the rebates of stiles and rails.

Fig. 2 Terminology timber door, window & ventilator components

9.34.6. Timber panels - Timber panels shall be preferably made of timber of large width; the minimum width and thickness of the panel shall be 150 mm, and 15 mm respectively.  When made from more than one piece, the pieces shall be jointed with a continuous tongued and grooved joint glued together and reinforced with headless nails at regular intervals not exceeding 100 mm.  Depth and thickness of such joint shall be equal to one-third of thickness of panel.  The panels shall be designed such that no single panel exceeds 0.5 square metres in area.  The grains of timber panels shall run along the longer dimensions of the panels.  All panels shall be of the same species of timber unless otherwise specified.

9.34.7. Plywood panels - Plywood panels used for paneling of shutters shall be BWP type or grade as specified in 9.2.8.  Each panel shall be a single piece of thickness, 9 mm for two or more panel construction and 12 mm for single panel construction unless otherwise specified.

9.34.8. Block board panels - Block Board used for paneling of shutters shall be Grade 1 (Exterior Grade) bonded with BWP Type Synthetic resin adhesives as specified.  Each panel shall be a single piece of thickness 12 mm unless otherwise specified.

9.34.9. Veneered particle board panels - Veneered Particle board used for paneling of shutters shall be Exterior Grade bonded with BWP type synthetic resin adhesive as specified.  Each panel shall be a single piece of thickness 12 mm unless otherwise specified.

9.34.10. Fibre board panels - Fibre board used for paneling of shutters shall be Exterior Grade bonded with BWP type synthetic resin adhesive as specified.  Each fibre board panel shall be a single piece of thickness 10 mm unless otherwise specified.

9.34.11. Wire gauze panels - Wire Gauze used for paneling of shutters shall be woven with 0.63 mm dia galvanised mild steel wire to form average aperture size of 1.40 mm as specified.  Wire gauze shall be securely housed into the rebates of stiles and rails by giving right angles bend turned back and fixed by means of suitable staples at intervals of 75 mm and over this wooden beading shall be fixed.  The space between the rebate and the beading shall be fixed with putty to give a neat finish.  Each wire gauze panel shall be as single piece, and the panels shall be so designed that no single panels exceeds 0.5 sqm in area.  However, care shall be taken to prevent sagging of wire gauge, of panel by providing and fixing 20 x 20 mm square or equivalent beading on the external face in the required patterns as decided by the engineer.

9.35. SPECIFICATIONS FOR FLUSH DOOR SHUTTERS (FIG. 3)

9.35.1 Flush door shutters shall have a solid core and may be of the decorative or non-decorative (Paintable type as per IS:  2202-1991 (Part I).  Nominal thickness of shutters may be 25, 30, or 35 mm.  Thickness and type of shutters shall be as specified.

Width and height of the shutters shall be as shown in the drawings or as indicated by the engineer.  All four edges of the shutters shall be square.  The shutter shall be free from twist or warp in its plane.  The moisture content in timbers used in the manufacture of flush door shutters shall be not more than 12 per cent when tested according to IS: 1708-1986.

9.35.2. Core - The core of the flush door shutters shall be a block board having wooden strips held in a frame constructed of stiles and rails.  Each stile and rail shall be a single piece without any joint.  The width of the stiles and rails shall not be less than 75 mm and not more than 100 mm. The width of each wooden strip shall not exceed 25 mm.  Stiles, rails and wooden strips forming the core of a shutter shall be of equal and uniform thickness.  Wooden strips shall be parallel to the stiles.

End joints of the pieces of wooden strips of small lengths shall be staggered.  In a shutter, stiles and rails shall be of one species of timber.  Wooden strips shall also be one species only but it may or may not be same species as that of the stiles and rails.

9.35.3. Face panel - The face panel shall be formed by gluing, by the hot-press process on both faces of the core, either plywood or cross-bands and face veneers.  The thickness of the cross bands as such or in the plywood shall be between 1.0 mm and 3.0 mm.  The thickness of the face veneers as such or in the plywood shall between 0.5 mm and 1.5 mm for commercial veneers and between 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm for decorative veneers.  The direction of the veneers adjacent to the core shall be at right angles to the direction of the wooden strips.  Finished faces shall be sanded to smooth even texture.

9.35.4. Lipping - Lipping, where specified, shall be provided internally on all edges of the shutters.  Lipping shall be done with battens of first class hardwood or as specified of depth not less than 25 cm.  For double leaved shutters, depth of the lipping at meeting of stiles shall be not less than 35 mm.  Joints shall not be permitted in the lipping.

9.35.5. Rebating - Rebating shall be as specified.

9.35.6. Opening for glazing - Where specified the opening for glazing shall be 25 cm in height and 20 cm in width unless directed otherwise.  The bottom of the opening shall be at a height of 140 cm from the bottom of the shutter.  Opening for glazing shall be lipped internally with wooden batten of width not less than 25 mm.  Opening for glazing shall be provided where specified or shown in the drawing.

9.35.7. Venetian opening - Where specified the height of the Venetian opening shall be 30 cm from the top of the bottom rail unless directed otherwise.  The width of the opening shall be as directed but shall provide for a clear space of 75 mm between the edge of the door and Venetian opening but in no case the opening shall extend beyond the stiles of the shutter.  The top edge of the opening shall be lipped internally with wooden battens of width not less than 25 mm.  Venetian opening shall be provided where specified or shown in the drawing.

9.35.8. Tolerance - Tolerance on width and height shall be + 3 mm and tolerance on nominal thickness shall be +/- 1.2 mm.  The thickness of the door shutter shall be uniform throughout with a permissible variation of not more than 0.8 mm when measured at any two points.

Fig. 3 Wooden flush doors shutters

9.35.9. Adhesive - Adhesive used for bonding various components of flush door shutters namely, core, core frame, lipping, cross-bands, face veneers, plywood etc. and for bonding plywood shall conform to BWP type, phenol formaldehyde synthetic resin adhesive conforming to IS   848.

9.35.10. Tests - Samples of flush door shutters shall be subjected to the following tests -

(a)End Immersion Test (b) Knife Test (c) Glue Adhesion Test

One end of each sample shutter shall be tested for End Immersion Test.  Two specimens of 150 x 150 mm size shall be cut from the two corners at the other end of each sample shutter for carrying out

Glue Adhesion Test.  Knife Test shall be done on the remaining portion of each sample shutter.  Test shall be done as laid down in IS standards.

9.35.11. Sample size - Shutters of decorative and non-decorative type from each manufacturer, irrespective of their thickness, shall be grouped separately and each group shall constitute a lot.  The number of shutters (sample size) to be selected at random from each lot for testing shall be as specified in Table given below.  If the total number of shutters of each type in a work (and not the lot) is less than twenty five, testing may be done at the direction of the engineer and in such cases extra payment shall be made for the sample shutter provided the sample does not fail in any of the test specified.

Lot Size

Sample Size

Upto 50

1

50 – 150

2

151 – 300

3

301 – 500

4

501 and above

5

9.35.12. Criteria for conformity - All the samples shutters when tested shall satisfy the requirements of the tests laid down in Annexure 9-A.5.  If the number of sample shutters found unsatisfactory for a test is one, twice the number of samples initially tested shall be selected and tested for the test.  All sample shutters so tested shall satisfy the requirement of the test.  If the number of samples found unsatisfactory for a test is two or more, the entire lot shall be considered unsatisfactory.

9.35.13. Fixing of shutters - For side hung shutters of height upto 1.2 m, each leaf shall be hung on two hinges at quarter points and for shutter of height more than 1.2 m, each leaf shall be hung on three hinges one at the centre and the other two at 200 mm from the top and bottom of the shutters.  Top hung and bottom hung shutters shall be hung on two hinges fixed at quarter points of top rail or bottom rail.  Centre hung shutter shall be suspended on a suitable pivot in the centre of the frame. Size and type of hinges and pivots be as specified.  Flap of hinges shall be neatly counter sunk into the recesses cut to the exact dimensions of flap.  Screws for fixing the hinges shall be screwed in with screwdriver and not hammered in.  Unless otherwise specified, shutters of height more than 1.2 mm shall be hung on butt hinges of size 100 mm and for all other shutters of lesser height butt hinges of size 75 mm shall be used.  For shutter of more than 40 mm thickness butt hinges of size 125 x 90 x 4 mm shall be used.  Continuous (piano) hinges shall be used for fixing cup-board shutters where specified.

9.35.14. Measurements - Length and width of the shutters shall be measured to the nearest cm in closed position covering the rebates of the frames but excluding the gap between the shutter and the frame.  Overlap of two shutters shall not be measured.

All work shall be measured net as fixed and area calculated in square metres to nearest two places of decimal.  No deduction shall be made for providing Venetian opening and opening for glazing.

9.35.15. Rates - The rate includes the cost of material and labour involved in all the operations described above.  Extra rate shall be payable for providing rebates in double leaved shutters.

9.36. SPECIFICATIONS FOR BATTENED AND FRAMED DOOR AND WINDOW SHUTTERS

9.36.1. Specified timber shall be used, and it shall be sawn in the direction of the grains.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings and mouldings as shown in the drawings made before assembly.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted except as provided.

Planks for battens shall be 20 mm thick unless otherwise specified and of the uniform width of 75 to 100 mm.  These shall be planed and made smooth, and provided with minimum 12 mm rebated joints.  The finished work with a tolerance +/- 1 mm in thickness and +/- 3/2 mm in width of battens etc.  shall be accepted.  The ends of battens shall be feather tongued into stiles and rails, which shall be provided with 12 mm groove to fit in the battens.

The specification for fixing, wooden cleats and blocks, fittings and measurements shall be as described under 9.6.

9.36.2. Rate - It includes the cost of materials and labour involved in all the operations described above.

9.37. SPECIFICATIONS FOR LEDGED AND BATTENED, OR LEDGED BRACED AND BATTENED DOOR AND WINDOW SHUTTER (FIG. 4 A) 

9.37.1 Specified timber shall be used, and it shall be sawn in the direction of the grains.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings and mouldings as shown in the drawings made, before assembly.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted except as provided.  Thickness of the doors shall be the thickness of the battens and braces.

Fig. 4A Frames

9.37.2 Planks for battens shall be 20 mm thick unless otherwise specified and of the uniform width of 75 to 100 mm.  These shall be planed and made smooth, and provided with minimum 12 mm rebated joints.  The finished work with a tolerance +/- 1 mm in thickness and +/- 3/2 mm in width of battens etc.  shall be accepted.  The ends of battens shall be feather tongued into stiles and rails, which shall be provided with 12 mm groove to fit in the battens.

9.37.3. Ledges and braces - The battens shall be fixed together by 25 mm thick ledges and braces fixed to the inside face of door shutters with screws.  The ledge shall be 175 mm wide and brace 125 mm wide unless otherwise specified.  The braces shall incline downwards towards the side on which the door in hung as shown in Fig. 4 of Chapter 9.  Edges and ends of ledges and braces shall be chamfered.  Tee hinges shall be provided in ledges only.  The finished work with a tolerance of + /- 1 mm in the thickness and +/- 3/2 mm in width of battens, ledges etc shall be accepted.

The specifications for fixing wooden cleats, blocks, fittings and measurements shall be as described under 9.6.

9.37.4. Rate - It includes the cost of materials and labour involved in all the operations described above.

9.38. SPECIFICATIONS FOR LEDGED BRACED AND BATTENED GARAGE DOOR SHUTTERS (FIG. 4B, 4C & 4D)

9.38.1. Specified timber shall be used, and it shall be sawn in the direction of the grains. Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings and mouldings as shown in the drawings made, before assembly.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted except as provided. The thickness of the doors shall be the thickness of the battens only and not the combined thickness of battens and braces.

9.38.2. Battens - Planks for battens shall be 20 mm thick unless otherwise specified and of uniform width of 125 to 175 mm.  These shall be planed and made smooth, and provided with minimum 12 mm rebated joints.  The joint lines shall be chamfered.  The finished work with a tolerance of +/- 1 mm in thickness and +/- 3/2 mm in width of battens etc. shall be accepted.

9.38.3. Ledges and braces - The battens shall be fixed together by 30 mm thick (unless otherwise specified), ledges and braces on the inside face of door shutter with minimum two numbers of 50 mm long wood screws per batten.  The ledges shall be 225 mm wide and braces 175 mm wide, unless otherwise specified.  The braces shall incline downwards towards the side on which the door is hung.  Edges and ends of ledges and braces shall be chamfered.

9.38.4. Fittings and fixing - Garage door shutter shall be fixed to the wall masonry with six pintle sets.  Each set shall consists of a pin clamp of 50 x 6 mm flat iron 45 cm long, bent and forked at one end and provided with 20 mm dia.  M. S. pin on the other end and 50 x 6 mm double strap 60 cm long.  The pin shall be firmly riveted or welded to the pin clamp, the other end of which shall be embedded in masonry by means of cement concrete block 40 x 20 x 20 cm 136 mix (1 cement  3 coarse sand  6 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal size).  These shall be so placed that the bottom pin shall faced upwards and the top in downwards, in order that the gate may not be removed by lifting over pins.  The fixing shall be so done that the door shutter can open on the outside by 180 degree.

The double strap shall fit in the pin side and shall be fixed to the shutter at ledges on the other side with 4 bolts and nuts of 12 mm diameter.  One hook and eye 450 mm size of mild steel shall be provided for each shutter to keep it fixed in open position.  A cement concrete size) mix shall be embedded in the floor at junction of two shutters so that the door shutters open only on the outside and not on the inside.  An iron sliding bolt (aldrop) 450 x 16 mm in diameter shall be provided and fixed.  Tolerance of +/- 0.5 mm in diameter may be allowed.

9.38.5. Measurements -The over all length and width of the shutter shall be measured nearest to a cm in fixed position (overlaps not to measure in case of double leaved shutters) and area calculated in square metres correct to two places of decimal.

9.38.6. Rate - It includes the cost of materials and labour required for all the operations described above.  Nothing extra shall be paid for cement concrete blocks, nor anything deducted from the measurement of masonry of wall on account of cement concrete blocks etc.block 15 x 10 x 20 cm in 124 (1 cement  2 coarse sand  4 graded stone aggregate 20 mm nominal

9.39. SPECIFICATIONS FOR LOUVERED SHUTTERS

9.39.1. Specified timber shall be used, and it shall be sawn in the direction of the grains.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings and mouldings as shown in the drawings made, before assembly.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted except as provided.

9.39.2. Frames - Where the shutters have to be provided in the same frames as for the ordinary door or window, the thickness of the frame shall be increased by the specified thickness of the shutters, which shall be paid for separately under the relevant items of work. 

9.39.3. Stiles and rails - It shall be as specified in 9.3.4.

9.39.4. Venetians - The panel space shall be fitted with Venetians which shall be 12 mm thick, unless otherwise specified.  The Venetian blades shall slope down towards the outside at angle as shown in the drawings and shall be fixed in stiles.  These shall overlap each other by about half of their widths.  The Venetians, may be fixed or movable as specified.  The finished work with a tolerance of +/- 1 mm in thickness and +/- 3/2 mm in width of battens etc shall be accepted.

The specifications for fittings, wooden cleats and blocks and measurements shall be as specified.

9.39.5. Rate - It includes the cost of materials and labour involved in all the operations described above.  The rate for frame work includes the cost of butt hinges and necessary screws as specified.  The rate for Venetian / louvers shall include the cost of beading if specified.

9.40. SPECIFICATIONS FOR LOUVERS FIXED TO FRAMES

9.40.1. The louvers shall be of wood, glass, AC sheet or any other material as specified.

9.40.2. Fixing - These shall be fixed in grooves of minimum 1.25 mm depth, made in the frame.  The Venetian blades shall slope down towards the outside at an angle of 45 degree or as shown in the drawings.  These shall overlap each other by about half of their widths.

Fig. 4 B, C, D. Ledged, Braced and battened doors

9.40.3. Measurements - The width and height of the clear opening shall be measured to the nearest cm and area calculated in square metre correct to two places of decimal for the purpose of payment.

9.40.4. Rate - The rate is inclusive of the cost of materials and labour required for all the operations described above.

9.41. SPECIFICATIONS FOR WIRE GAUZE FLY PROOF SHUTTERS

9.41.1. Specified timber shall be used, and it shall be sawn in the direction of the grains.  Sawing shall be truly straight and square.  The timber shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, roundings and mouldings as shown in the drawings made, before assembly.  Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted except as provided.

9.41.2. Stile and rails - The Specifications shall be as described. The stiles and rails shall be given a rebate to receive the wire gauze which shall form the panels.

9.41.3. Wire gauze - This shall be unless specified otherwise conform to clause 9.26.10.   The wire gauze shall be bent at right angles in the rebates of stiles and rails, turned back and fixed tight with the blue tacks at about 75 mm centres, fixed alternatively in the two faces of the rebates.  Over this, wooden heading shall be fixed with brads or small screws at about 75 mm centres. The space between the beading and rebates, where the wire gauze is bent, shall be neatly finished with putty, so that the end of the wire gauze may not be visible. Fixed Fittings, Wooden cleats, blocks and Measurement shall be as specified.

9.41.4. Rate - This includes the cost of materials and labour involved in all the operations described above, and as specified.

9.42. SPECIFICATIONS FOR GLAZING

9.42.1. General - Glazing is an important item in building construction and glass has to be selected to cater to several requirements, such as, in multistoreyed buildings, industrial structures, etc.  Therefore fixing of glass is a specialized operation and has to be done carefully; otherwise it will lead to hazards of broken glass. Besides the types of glass and exposure conditions have to be taken into account,

9.42.2. Patent glazing - As already mentioned, it is covered by IS: 10439 -1983.

9.42.3. Materials

The glass shall conform to (1) IS:2835-1987 for sheet glass. (2) IS:2553-1990 for safety glass. (3) IS: 5437-1994 for wired and figured glass.

Glazing compound shall conform to 1) IS: 419-1967 for putty. (2) IS:11433 (Part I)-1985, IS:11433 (Part 2)-1986 for polysulphide based sealants.

3)  Compounds for glazing in concrete, stone, brick or asbestos cement are needed to be sealed to prevent absorption of oil from the glazing compound, unless the compound has been specifically formulated; resistance to alkali is important.  A non-setting compound may be used, provided it is pointed.

4) Non-setting compounds are needed for use with colour and heat absorbing glasses which will become hot in sunshine and which are therefore liable to expand and contract much more than ordinary glass. The fact that non-setting compounds are easily finger marked make it undesirable to use them without beads except in relatively inaccessible situations.

The design criteria like thickness, durability, fire resistance, thermal expansion and contraction, light transmission and heat insulation, sound insulation are to be satisfied as per IS  3548 -1988 on glazing practice.

9.42.4. Glazing - The size of glass shall allow for a clearance between the edges of glass and surround as specified below

For wood or metal surrounds -2.5 mm

For stone or brick -3.0 mm

The clearance may be increased, provided in depth of the rebate or groove is sufficient to provide not less than 1.5 mm cover to the glass.

9.42.5. Rebates and grooves - Rebates shall be rigid and true.  The rebates shall be as follows

  • 6 mm for small panes.
  • 8 mm for normal panes.
  • 10 mm at tops and sides and 12 mm at bottom for large windows, such as, shop windows.
  • 16 mm deep for double or multiple glazed seal units, unless otherwise advised by the manufacturer.
  • A wider rebate is required for bent glass than for flat glass; rebate for flat glass without beads shall be enough to accommodate the back putty, the glass and front stripped at an angle.
  • For glazing with beads rebates shall be wide enough to accommodate glass and beads and to allow a minimum clearance of 1.5 mm at both back and front of the glass.
  • Rebates and grooves shall be clean and un-obstructed before glazing.

9.42.6. Location of glass in frame 

  1. The glass shall rest on two blocks to locate the pane properly within the surround.  In case of small panes, the blocks may not be necessary, when glazing in side-hung windows or door, the glass
  2. shall be located by blocks so that it bears on the bottom of the surround at a point near the hinge but is not brought into contact with surround and does not suffer undue stress.
  3. When glazing in horizontal hung sashes, which may turn through about 180 degree, additional blocks shall be placed between the top edge of glass and the surround to prevent movement of the glass when the sash is inverted.  When the panels are more than 90 mm high, the glass shall be located at two pivoting points by blocks of suitable material, like chloroprene.

9.42.7. Preparation of rebates and grooves in wood

  1. Rebates or grooves should be primed to prevent excessive absorption of oil from the putty.  If shellac varnish or gloss paint is used, the wood may be completely sealed and setting of putty unduly delayed.
  2. Absorbent hardwood frames that are not to be painted should either be primed with a medium composed of equal parts of exterior varnish and white spirit and glazed with linseed oil putty; or be completely sealed with a coat of un-thinned exterior quality varnish and glazed with a metal casement putty (which will need to be painted); or with a non-setting compound.
  3. When completely non-absorbent hardwoods, such as, teak frames are used, metal –casement putty shall be used.
  4. If the wooden frame has been treated with a preservative, preparation of rebates and grooves shall be made as per instructions of the manufacturer of glazing compound.
  5. In case of stone, concrete, brick or other materials, the rebates or grooves should be sealed with an alkali resisting sealer and allowed to dry before glazing.  The compound shall be metal-casement putty.

9.42.8. Glazing with compound - This method is suitable for window or door panes where the combined height and width do not exceed the maximum prescribed for appropriate exposure grading.

Fig.5. Typical illustrations showing glazing details

9.42.9. Glazing with beads - This method should be used for window and door panes where the combined height and width exceed the maximum prescribed; glazing in unpainted hardwood frames and framed shop fronts for double and multiple glazing units as defined, and wherever a non-setting compound is used in a position where it is liable to be disturbed.

9.42.10. Glazing with compound into rebates - Sufficient compound should be applied to the rebate so that, when the glass has been pressed into the rebate, a bed of the compound (known as back putty) not less than 1.5 mm thick will remain between the glass and rebate; there shall be a surplus of compound squeezed out above the rebate which would be stripped at an angle and not undercut to prevent water accumulating.

  1. The glass should be secured by springs or spring clips spaced not more than 350 mm apart measured around the perimeter of the pane, and afterwards fronted with the compound to form  a triangular fillet stopping 1.5 mm short of the sight line so that the edge of the compound may be sealed against the glass by painting, without encroaching over the sight line.

Fig 6 – Glazing details

9.42.11. Glazing with compound into grooves - The glass should be pressed into the glazing compounds previously placed in the groove.  The space between the glass and sides of the groove should be filled with the compound which should then be stopped at an angle and not undercut.

Fig.7 – Glazing details

9.42.12. Glazing with beads along with compound - Sufficient compound should be applied to the rebate so that when the glass has been pressed into the rebate, a bed of compound (known as back putty) not less than 1.5 mm thick will remain between the glass and the rebate.  There should also be a surplus of compound squeezed out above the rebate which should be stripped at an angle not undercut, to prevent water accumulating.  Bends should be bedded with the compound against the glass and wood beads should also be bedded against the rebate.

  1. Care should be taken to see that no voids are left between the glass and the bead.  For outside glazing, hollow beads are undesirable unless they can be completely filled.
  2. With non-setting compound and where there is a risk of glazing compound being dislodged by pressure, front and back distance pieces (to maintain face clearances) should be used.  Distance pieces should be completely embedded in the compound.
  3. Beads should be secured to the wooden frame with either panel pins or screws and to metal frames in the way provides for in the frame.  In securing wooden frames, an adequate number of pins or screws for fixing the beads should be used as to prevent flexing or movement of beads.
  4. The external glazing should as far as possible be fixed from outside with beads as stated.
  5. Where it is not possible to fix the glass from outside, especially in a multi-storeyed buildings, it may be fixed from inside with sealing compound.
  6. Figured glasses are used  to avoid direct sunrays and to get diffused light.  This can be achieved advantageously by placing rough surface of the glass facing outside.  As the surface of the glass from inside is smooth, it will facilitate in pasting colour plastic film on the inside surface, whenever required. In that case, it will be difficult to clean the rough surface of the glass outside, but it can be cleaned by a water jet.

9.42.13. Double and multiple glazing - The problems connected with application of double and multiple glazing are briefly as follows

  1. Two separate window frames, each single glazed - These are preferable for sound insulation. To avoid problems of dirt and moisture in the air space, means of access to the cavity should be provided.
  2. One window frame carrying two sashes coupled together, each separately glazed - The glazing may be in separate rebated, one inside glazed and the other outside glazed; or in single wide rebates with spacing beads.  The former method has the advantage that either pane can be replaced without disturbing the other.  However carefully such glazing is done, it may be necessary to open the cavity at frequent intervals for the purpose of cleaning.
  3. One window frame of sash single-glazed provided with clip to permit attachment of second glass - This system involves no serious cleaning problems since the slipped – on panes can be quickly detached.  Their main use is on existing windows, which cannot otherwise be modified.
  4. Double or multiple factory made hermetically sealed units - Problems of cleaning of inner surfaces do not arise.  Adequate rebate shall be provided in accordance with manufacturer’s instruction.

9.42.14. Double glazing other than factory made units - To minimize the entry of moist air from the interior of the building or penetration of rain from outside into the cavity, the glazing should be done carefully.  When opening sashes are provided, it is essential that they should fit closely.  A small breathing hole should be provided from the bottom of the cavity to the outside to ensure that such breathing vents are kept clear of paint or other obstructions.

Where separate panes are glazed in one sash, it is preferable to use performed strip of compound for the back putty in glazing the second pane, in order to provide full back putty with a neat finish.  Usually it is better to glaze the outer pane first.

9.42.15. Factory made double or multiple sealed units - When ordinary factory-made units or multiple units the following points may be taken into account

  1. Both tight size and glazing size should be specified and not the glazing size.
  2. Sealed units should be checked in the opening for edge clearance consistent with the manufacturer’s recommendations.  It is essential to follow any recommendation given by the manufacturer concerning the correct edge to be glazed at the bottom.  Units should be positioned in the compound approximately one quarter of the total length from each end.  The width of the blocks should not be less than the thickness of the sealed units and their thickness should be such as to position the units centrally in the opening.  The thickness of glazing compound between the glass and the back of the rebate, and between the glass and bead should be about 1 mm.
  3. Special techniques of glazing are required to protect the seal and reference shall be made to the manufacturer of glazing units.
  4. A non-setting glass compound having good adhesion to glass and frame should be used. All absorbent rebates and beads should be treated with a sealer (priming is not sufficient).
  5. Glazing with beads should always be used.  Hollow beads are not recommended.
  6. Where there is a risk of the glazing being dislodged by pressure, front and back distance pieces should be used to maintain face clearance.

Fig  8. Inside glazing

9.42.16. Louvered glazing - This type of fixed glass louvres are recommended for toilets, stores, etc, where permanent ventilation is required.

(a) Louvred glazing (horizontal) – Glass strips with rounded edges are inserted from outside into the grooves shall be angular preferably at 45 degree on the frame.  The grooves shall overlap each other by at least 20 mm.

(b) Louvered glazing (vertical) – Glass strips are placed angularly and vertically, and inserted as described.

9.42.17. Measurements - Frame work and paneling shall be measured separately.

9.42.18. Rate - Rate includes the cost of materials and labour involved in all operations described above.  The frame work and paneling of each type or glazed panel shall be paid separately. The rate for frame work includes the cost of hinges and screws. Extra shall be paid for providing moulded beading where specified.  Nothing extra shall be paid for plain beading when specified in drawing.

9.43. SPECIFICATIONS FOR FITTINGS OR BUILDERS HARDWARE

9.43.1. Fitting shall be of mild steel brass, aluminium or as specified.  Some mild steel fittings may have components of cast iron.  These shall be well made, reasonably smooth, and free from sharp edges and corners, flaws and other defects. Screw holes shall be counter sunk to suit the head of specified wood screws.  List of Indian Standards on Builders Hardware is given below.  (See also Annexure 9 A.7)

List of Indian Standards on Builders’ Hardware

IS No.

Title

204  (Part 1)-1991

Tower bolts (ferrous metals)

204 (Part 2)-1992

Tower bolts (non ferrous metals)

205-1992

Non-ferrous metal bull hinges

206-1992

Tee and strap hinges

207-1964

Gate and shutter hooks & eyes (1st revision) (Amendment 1) (Reaffirmed in 1990)

208-1987

Door handles

281-1991

Mild steel sliding door bolts for use with padlocks

362-1991

Parliament hinges

363-1993

Hasps and staples

364-1993

Fanlight catch

452-1973

Door springs, rat-tail type

453-1993

Double acting spring hinges

729-1979

Drawer locks. Cupboard locks and box locks

1019-1974

Rim latches

1341-1992

Steel butt hinges

1823-1980

Floor door stoppers

1837-1966

Fanlight pivots          

2209-1976

Mortise locks (vertical type)

2681-1993

Non-ferrous metal sliding door bolts for use with padlocks

3564-1995

Door closer (hydraulically regulated)

3818-1992

Continuous (Piano) hinges

3828-1966

Ventilator chains

3843-1995

Steel back flap hinges

3847-1992

Mortise night latches

4992-1975

Door handles for mortice lock (vertical type)

5187-1972

Flush bolts

5899-1970

Bathroom latches

5930-1970

Mortise latch

6315-1992

Floor springs (hydraulically regulated) for heavy doors

6318-1971

Plastic window stays and fasteners

6343-1982

Door closers (Pneumatically regulated) got light doors weighing up to 40 kg.

6607-1972

Rebated mortise locks

7196-1974

Hold fast

7197  1974

Double action floor springs (without oil check) for heavy doors

7534-1985

Sliding locking bolts for use with padlocks

7540-1974

Mortise dead locks

8756-1978

Mortise ball catches for use wooden almirah

8760-1978

Mortise sliding door locks, with level mechanism

9106-1979

Rising butt hinges

9131-1979

Rim locks

9460-1980

Flush drop handles for drawer

9899-1981

Hat, coat and wardrobe hooks

10019-1981

Mild steel stays and fasteners

10342-1982

Curtain rail system

12817-1997

Stainless steel butt hinges

12867-1989

PVC hand rail covers

9.43.1. These shall be of the following types according to the material used.

a)  Mild steel fittings - These shall be bright satin finish black stone enameled or copper oxidised (black finish), nickel chromium plated or as specified.

b)  Brass fittings - These shall be finished bright satin finish or nickel chromium plated or copper oxidised or as specified.

c) Aluminium fittings - These shall be anodised to natural matt finish or dyed anodic coating not less than grade AC 10 or IS: 1868-1996. The fittings generally used for different type of doors and windows are indicated in Annexure 9-A.8 attached.  The fittings to be actually provided in a particular work shall, however, be decided by the engineer.

Screws used for fittings shall be of the same metal, and finish as the fittings.  However, chromium plated brass screws or stainless steel screws shall be used for fixing aluminium fittings.  These shall be of the size as indicated in respective figures. Fittings shall be fixed in proper position as shown in the drawings or as directed by the engineer.  These shall be truly vertical or horizontal as the case may be.  Screws shall be driven home with screw driven and not hammered in.  Recess shall be cut to the exact size and depth for the counter-sinking of hinges.

9.43.2. Butt hinges - (These shall be of the following types according to the material used.

(a) Mild steel butt hinges (Medium) (b) Cast brass butt hinges light/ordinary or heavy. (c) Extruded aluminium alloy butt hinges.

9.43.2.1. Mild steel (medium)

a) These shall be medium type manufactured from M. S. Sheet.  These shall be well made and shall be free from flaws and defects of all kings.  All hinges shall be cut clean and square and all sharp edges and corners shall be removed.  These shall generally conform to IS: 1341.

b) Hinge pin - Hinge pin shall be made of mild steel wire.  It shall fit inside the knuckles firmly and riveted head shall be well formed so as not to allow any play or shake, and shall allow easy movement of the hinge, but shall not cause looseness.

c) Knuckles - The number of knuckles in the hinges of different sizes shall be as per IS: 1341-1992.  The size of knuckles shall be straight and at right angle to the flap.  The movement of the hinges shall be free and easy and working shall not have any play or shake.

d) Screw holes - The screw holes shall be clean and counter sunk.  These shall be suitable for counter sunk head wood screws and of the specified size for different types, and sizes of hinges.  The size of the holes shall be such that when it is counter sunk it shall be able to accommodate the full depth of counter sunk head of the wood screws.

9.43.2.2. Cast brass

a) These shall be light/ordinary or heavy as specified. These shall be well made and shall be free from flaws and defects of all kinds.  These shall be finished bright or chromium plated or oxidised or as specified.  These shall generally conform to IS: 205-1992.

b) Hinge pin - Hinge pin shall be made of brass or of phosphor bronze.  The hinge pins shall be firmly riveted and shall be properly finished.  The movement of the hinge pin shall be free, easy and square and shall not have any play or shake.

c) Knuckles - The number of knuckles in each hinge shall not be less than five.  The number of knuckles in case of sizes less than 40 mm shall be three. The sides of the knuckles shall be straight and at right angle to the flap.  The movement of the hinge pin shall be free and easy and working shall not have any play or shake.

d) Screw holes - The screw holes shall be suitable for counter sunk head wood screws and of the specified sizes for different types of hinges.  The size of the holes shall be such that when it is counter sunk it shall be able to accommodate the full depth of counter sunk head of wood screw specified.

9.43.2.3. Extruded aluminium alloy - These shall be manufactured from extruded sections.  These shall be well made and free from flaws and defects of all kinds.  These shall conform to IS: 205.

a)  Hinge pin - Hinge pin shall be made of mild steel (galvanised) or aluminium alloy.  The aluminium alloy hinge pin shall be anodised.  The hinge pin shall be finally riveted and shall be properly finished.  The movement of hinges shall be free, easy and square and shall not have any play or shake.

Kunckies Number of kunckles in each hinge pin shall be less than 5. The number of kunckles in case of sizes less than 40 mm be straight and at right angle to the flap. The movement of the hinge pin shall be free and easy working shall not have any play or shake.

Screw holes The screw holes shall be suitable for counter sunk head wood screws and of specified sizes for different types of hinges. The size of the holes shall be such that when it is counter sunk it shall be able to accommodate the full depth of counter sunk head of wood screw specified.

9.43.2.4. Sampling and criteria for conformity - The number of butt hinges to be selected from a lot shall on the size of lot and shall be in accordance with Table 10. Butt hinges for testing shall be taken at random from at least 10 percent of the package subject to a minimum of three, equal number of hinges being selected from each package. All butt hinges selected from the lot shall be checked for dimensional and tolerance requirements. Defects in manufacture and finish shall also be checked. A lot shall be considered conforming to the requirements of this specification if the number of defective hinges among those tested does not exceed the corresponding number given in Table given below.

Lot size

Sample size

Permissible No. of defective hinges

Upto 200

15

0

201 to 300

20

1

301 to 500

30

2

501 to 800

40

2

801 and above

55

3

Note: Any hinge which fails to satisfy the requirements of any one more of the characteristics shall be considered as defective hinge.

9.43.3. Parliament hinges

These shall be of mild steel cast brass or as specified, and shall generally conform to IS: 362. The size of parliament hinges shall be taken as the width between open flanges. Mild steel parliamentary hinges shall be copper oxidized (thick finish) or as specified. The brass parliament hinges shall be finished bright, chromium plated or oxidized or as specified

  1. The hinges pin shall be made of mild steel in the case of brass hinges. The hinge pin shall be mild steel (galvanised) in the case of aluminium alloy hinges. The hinge pin shall be firmly riveted and shall be properly finished. The movement of the hinges shall be free, easy and square, and shall not have any play or shake.
  2. All screw holes shall be clean and counter sunk to suit the counter sunk head of wood screws specified.
  3. Sampling and criteria for conformity - It shall be same as specified in 9.43.2.4

9.43.4. Spring hinges - (Single or double acting)

These shall be single acting when the shutter is to open on one side only or double acting when the shutter opens on both sides. These shall be made of M.S or brass as specified, and shall generally conform to IS:  453-1993.

Hinges shall work smoothly and shall hold the door shutter truly vertical in closed position. Each double-acting spring hinges shall withstand the following tests which shall be carried out after fixing it to a swing door in the normal manner.

 (1). When the door is pushed through 90° and released 2000 times on each side in quick succession the hinge shall show no sign of damage or any appreciable deterioration of the components during or on completion of the test.

(2)The door shall require a force 2.0 ±0, 5 kg for 100 mm hinges and 3.0 ± 0.5 for 125 mm and 150 mm hinges at a distance of 4.5 cm from the hinge pin to move the door through 90°.

The size of spring hinge shall be taken as the length of the plate..

These shall be of the following type

  1. Mild steel The cylindrical casing shall be made either from M.S. sheet of 1.60 mm thickness, lap jointed and brazed, welded and riveted, or from solid drawn tube of thickness, pressed to from the two casing. It shall be stove enameled black or copper oxidized or as specified.
  2. Cast brass The cylindrical casing shall be made either from brass sheet of 1.60 mm thickness, lap jointed and brazed, or from solid drawn brass tube of not less than 1.60mm thickness. It shall be satin, bright nickel-plated or copper oxidized or as specified.

Sampling - The number of spring hinges shall be selected from the lot and this shall depend on the size of the lot and shall be in accordance with Table given below.

Lot size

Sample size

Permissible No. of defective hinges

1 to 25

3

0

26 to 50

6

0

51 to 100

12

0

101 to 200

15

0

201 to 300

20

1

301 to 500

30

2

501 to 800

40

2

801 and above

55

3

 9.43.5. Rising hinges

These shall be made of brass, finished bright or chromium plated or oxidized or as specified. It shape and pattern shall be approved by the engineer. The size of the rinsing hinge shall be taken as the length of its plate.

9.43.6. Continuous piano hinges

These shall be made from mild steel or aluminium alloy sheet; these shall generally conform to IS 3818. All screw holes shall be clean and counter sunk. Piano hinges shall be fixed in the entire length of the cup board shutters. Its size will be the width of the two flaps when open.

9.43.6.1. M.S piano hinges –

(1) These shall be made from 1 mm or 0.80 mm thick M.S. sheets and shall be protected with anti-corrosive treatment, such as bright polished, chromium plated or oxidized finish.

(2)Hinge pin shall be of galvanised mild steel. It shall fit in the knuckle firmly so as not to allow any play or shake and shall allow easy movement of hinge, but shall not cause looseness.

(3)The sides of the kunckles shall be straight and at right angles to the flap. The movement of the hinge shall be free and easy and working shall not have any play and shake.

9.43.6.2. Aluminium piano hinges - These shall be made of aluminium alloy sheet and shall be anodised. The anodic coating shall not be less than the grade AC 15 of IS: 1868 - 1996. Hinge pin shall be made of aluminium alloy with anodic coating not less than grade of AC-15 of IS: 1868-1996. The hinge pin shall fit in the knuckle firmly so as not to allow any play or shake and shall allow easy movement of hinge but shall no cause looseness. The sides of the kunckles shall be straight and at right angles to the flap. The movement of the hinge shall be free and easy and working shall not have any play and shake.

9.43.6.3. Sampling and criteria for conformity - It shall be same as specified in 9.43.2.4

9.43.7. Tee hinges

These shall be made from M.S. sheets and shall be either bright finished or stove enameled black or as black or specified. These shall generally conform to IS: 206. Tee hinges shall be well made, free from burrs, flaws, and defects of any kind. The movement shall be square, and the working shall be free and easy without any play or shake. The hole for the hinge shall be central to the bore and shall be square.

The hinge pin shall be firm and riveted over, so that the heads are well formed. All screw holes shall be clear and counter sunk and shall be suitable for the counter sunk head of wood screws.

Sampling and criteria for conformity - It shall be same as specified in 9.43.2.4

9.43.8. Sliding door bolts (Aldrops)

9.43.8.1. These shall be of mild steel, cast brass, aluminium or as specified, and shall be capable of smooth sliding action.

9.43.8.2. M.S. sliding door bolts - These shall be made of M.S. sheets and M.S. rods and shall generally conform to IS:  281-1991. M.S. sliding door bolts shall be copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified.

9.43.8.3. Cast brass sliding door bolts- These shall be made from rolled brass and shall generally conform to IS: 2681. The hasp shall be of cast brass and secured to the bolt as shown in Fig.8. Alternatively, the hasp and the bolt may be cast in one piece. The fixing and staple bolts shall be cast with 6 mm studs. Bolts shall be finished to shape and shall be finished smooth and polished before assembly. Cast brass sliding bolts shall be finished bright or chromium plated or oxidized or as specified.              

9.43.8.4. Aluminium sliding door bolts - These shall be made of aluminium alloy and shall generally conform to IS: 2681-1993. Aluminium sliding door bolts shall be anodized. All screw holes shall be counter sunk to suit the counter sunk head of screws of specified sizes. All edges and corners shall be finished smooth. In case of single leaf door, when iron socket plate or a brass or aluminium fixing bolts (or sliding door bolt) cannot be fixed, hole of suitable size shall be drilled in the door frame and an iron or brass plate cut to shape shall be fixed at the face of the hole. The leading dimensions of the sliding door bolts are illustrated.

9.43.8.5. Sampling and criteria for conformity - It shall be same as specified in 9.43.2.4.

9.43.9. Tower bolts These shall generally conform to IS: 204-1992 (Part I) & (Part.II). Tower bolts shall be well made and shall be free from defects. The bolts shall be finished to the correct shape and shall have a smooth action. All tower bolts made with sheet of 1.2 mm thickness and above shall have counter sunk screw holes to suit counter sunk head of woo screws. All sharp edges and corners shall be removed and finished smooth.

The height of knob of tower bolt when the door, window etc. is in closed position from the floor level shall be not more than 1.9 meter.

9.43.9.2. Tower bolts shall be of the following types    

Aluminium barrel tower bolts with barrel and bolt of extruded sections of aluminium alloy. The knob shall be properly screwed to the bolt and riveted at the back.

Brass tower bolts with cast brass barrel and rolled or cast brass bolt. or Brass tower bolts with barrel of extruded sections of brass and rolled or drawn brass bolt.

The knobs of brass tower bolts shall be cast and the bolt fixed with knob, steel spring and ball shall be provided between the bolt and the barrel.

Mild steel barrel tower bolts with mild steel barrel or mild steel bolt or Mild steel tower bolts with mild steel barrel and cast iron bolts.

The plates and straps after assembly shall be firmly riveted or spot welded. The rivet head shall be properly formed and the rivet back shall be flush with the plate. These shall be made in one piece.

9.43.9.3. Unless otherwise specified bolt shall have finish as given below

Mild steel tower bolts (Types 1 and 2) Bolts bright finished or plated as specified and barrel and stock stove enabled black.(b)Brass tower bolts (Type 3 to 5) Bolt and barrel polished or plated as specified.( c) Aluminium alloy tower bolts (type 6) Bolt and barrel anodized.

The anodic film may either transparent or dyed as specified. The quality of anodized finish shall not be less than grade AC-10 of IS: 1868-1996.

9.43.9.4. Sampling and criteria for conformity - It shall be same as specified in 9.43.2.4.

9.43.10. Flush bolts These should generally conform to IS: 5187-1972. These shall be of cast brass, cast aluminium alloy or extruded aluminium alloy as specified. Only one material shall be used in the manufacture of all the components of flush bolts except spring which shall be of phosphor bronze or steel strip.

When the rod is completely in its maximum bolting position it shall be retained in that position by the spring. The length of the bolt shall be such that, when the bolt is pulled down, the top of the bolt shall be flush with the top of the lip face. The top of the bolt shall be given a taper of 45° to enable easy pull or push.

Brass flush bolts shall be satin or bright polished. Alternatively they may be nickel or chromium plated as specified in IS: 4827-1983 or copper oxidized in accordance with IS: 1378-1987. Aluminium flush bolts shall be anodized and the quality of the anodized finish shall not be less than grade AC15 of IS: 1868-1996.

Note:The working of flush bolts is found satisfactory only in case of shutters made of high quality timber like teakwood properly seasoned and when there is no warping due to changes in weather Brass flush bolts which give a more satisfactory performance are costly and uses scarce materials. Hence use of flush bolts is too discouraged.

9.43.11. M.S. locking bolt with holes for pad locks

This shall conform to IS: 7534-1985. This shall be of mild steel polished bright or copper oxidized batch electro galvanised or stove enameled. In case of stone enameled locking bolts. The bolt may be finished bright.

9.43.12. Pull bolt locks

These shall be of M.S. cast brass or aluminium as specified. M.S. pull bolt locks shall be copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified.

Brass pull bolt locks shall be finished bright, chromium plated or oxidized as specified. Aluminium pull bolt locks shall be anodised and the anodic coating shall not be   less than grade. A.C. 10 of IS: 1968-1961. The bolt shall be 10 mm in diameter and the fixing plate 3 mm thick. The stop block shall be screwed to the fixing plate by a small ball and spring over which the bolt shall slide.

The fixing plate shall have four holes for fixing it to the door leaf, two of which shall be square to receive 6 mm dia. Bolts with round heads the remaining two shall receive machine screwed with lock nuts. The receiving plate shall be of the same width and thickness as the fixing plate and shall have 3 counter sunk holes. Where the bolt slides into wooden members, like the chowkhat, which have a rebate, the receiving plate shall also is correspondingly shaped so as to fit into the rebate. The screws and bolts shall have the same finish as the main bolt. The leading dimensions of pull bolt locks are given in the drawing. The denominating size of the pull bolt locks shall be length of the fixing plate between guides plus the thickness of the guides.

9.43.13. Door latch

This shall be of mild steel, cast brass, or as specified and shall be capable of smooth sliding action. In case, of mild steel latch, it shall be copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified and in case of brass, it shall be finished bright, chromium plated or oxidized or as specified. The size of door latch shall be taken as the length of the latch.

Indicating bolt (vacant/engaged) - These shall be of cast brass finished bright chromium plated, or oxidized or as specified. The shape and pattern shall be approved by the engineer.

9.43.15. Mortice lock and latch

This should generally conform to IS: 2209-1976.

The size of the mortice lock shall be denoted by the length of the body towards the face and it shall be 65 mm, 75 mm and 100 mm as specified. The measured length shall not vary more than 3 mm from the length specified.

Non-interchangeable Keys Testing of non-interchangeable keys shall be as per IS: 2209-1976.

The clear depth of the body shall not be more than 15 mm. The fore end shall be firmly fitted to the body suitably by counter sunk head screw. The latch bolt shall be of specified material and of section not less than 12x16 mm for all sizes of locks. If made of two piece construction both parts shall be riveted. Ordinary lever mechanism with not less than two levers shall be provided. False levers shall not be used. Lever shall be fitted with one spring of phosphor bronze or steel wire and shall withstand the tests as provided in IS: 2209-1976.

Locking bolts, spring and strike plate shall conform to IS: 2209-1976.

Handles these shall conform to IS: 4992-1975.

Keys each lock shall be provided with two keys.

Sampling, criteria for conformity It shall be the same as specified in 9.43.2.4.

Tests - The finally assembled locks shall be tested as prescribed..

9.43.16. Mortice latch (with locking bolt)

These are generally used in doors of bath rooms, WC’s and private rooms.

Mortice latch shall, in respect of shape, design and mechanism of the latch and its components parts, generally conform to IS: 5930-1970. The material used for the different component parts of the latch shall comply with Tables 1 and 2 of IS: 5930-1970, unless otherwise specified.

The size of the latch shall denoted by the length of the body towards the face and shall be 65 mm, 75 mm or 100 mm as specified. The depth of the body shall not be more than 15 mm.

The latch shall be of size 10x10 mm of shape as shown in IS: 5930-1970. The locking bolt shall be of section not less than 8x25 mm for all size of locks. The mechanism of the latch bolt, its spring, striking plate etc. shall be described in IS: 5930-1970.

The handles provided shall conform to IS: 4992-1975.

Sampling, criteria for conformity shall be as per 9.43.2.4.

9.43.17. Mortise lock and latch (rebated)

These are slightly different from mortice lock described in 9.43.15 and are designed for use in double leaved doors. These should generally conform to IS: 6607-1972.

Handles, keys, sampling, criteria for conformity and test

These shall be as specified in 9.43.2.4.

9.43.18. Mortise night latch

This is a mortice lock having a single spring bolt withdrawn from the outside by using the key and from inside by turning the knob and with an arrangement whereby the lock can be prevented from being opened by its key from outside while the night latch is used from inside the room.

This should generally conform to IS: 3847-1992.

It shall be cast or sheet brass, cast or sheet aluminium alloy or Mild steel as specified and of best quality of approved make. These shall be bright finished or copper oxidised (black) finish as specified. Nominal size of the latch shall be denoted by the length of the face over the body in millimeter. These shall have not less than two levers. False (Dummy) levers shall not be allowed.

Keys - Each latch shall be provided with keys which should work smoothly and without any appreciable friction in the lock.

9.43.19. Cupboard or wardrobe lock - This should generally conform to IS: 729. The size of the cupboard lock shall be 40, 50, 65 & 75 mm. This shall be made of cast brass and shall be of the best make of approved quality. These shall be finished bright or chromium plated or oxidized or as specified. The size of the lock shall be denoted by the length of the face across the body in mm.

These locks shall be fitted with four, five or six levers as specified. False (dummy) levers shall not be used.

9.43.20. Ball catches for wooden almirah

This should generally conform to IS: 8756-1978. These may be brass sheets or cast brass with steel balls of sizes 6, 7, 5, 9.5 or 12 mm dia as specified. The size shall be denoted by the external diameter of the cylinder holding the steel ball with spring. When the almirah is in the closed position it shall be retained in that position by the spring action of the ball catch and shall be so in continuous usage. The door shall open only when it is pulled open.

Sampling, criteria for conformity and test shall be as specified in 9.43.2.4.

Finger plate

This shall be finished bright, chromium plated, oxidized of brass, or anodised aluminium or transparent plastic or as specified. This shall be made from brass or aluminium plate of 1.6 mm thickness with bevelled or square edges as specified.

The size of the plate shall be 300x65 mm unless otherwise specified. The shape and pattern shall be approved by the engineer.

Kicking plates

This shall be of brass (finished bright or chromium plated or oxidized) bronze, stainless steel, aluminium or as specified. Aluminium kicking plates shall be anodised and the anodic coating shall not be less than grade AC-10 of IS: 1868. It shall be made from a plate of minimum thickness 3.0 mm & 1.5 mm in case of stainless steel. Shape of the plate shall be as specified. This shall have bevelled or straight edges and shall be fixed buy means of counter sunk or rounded screws of the same material and finished as that of the plate. The shape and pattern shall be according to the drawings and as approved by the engineer.

Handles (doors and windows)

These should generally conform to IS 208. The door handles shall be well made and free from defects. These shall be finished correct to shape and dimensions. All edges and corners shall be removed and finished smooth so as to facilitate easy handling. Cast handle shall be free from casting defects. Where the grip portion of the handle is joined with the piece by mechanical means, the arrangement shall be such that the assembled handle shall have adequate strength comparable to that of integrally cast type handles.

Door handles shall be of the following types according to the material used

(1). Cast or sheet aluminium alloy handles - These shall be of aluminium of specified size, and of shape and pattern as approved by the engineer. The size of the handle shall be determined by the inside grip of the handle. Door handles shall be of 100 mm size and window handles of 75 mm size unless, otherwise specified. These shall be fixed with 25 mm long wood screws of designation No.6. Aluminium handles, shall be anodized and the anodic coating shall not be less than grade AC 15 of IS: 1868-1996 as specified. The finish can be bright natural, matt or satin or dyed as specified.

(2). Cast brass handles. These shall be of cast brass of specified size and of the shape and pattern as approved by the engineer. The size of the handle shall be determined by the inside grip of the handle. Door handles of 75 mm size, unless otherwise specified. These shall be fixed with 25 mm long wood screws of designation No.6. Brass handles shall be finished bright satin or nickel chromium plated or copper oxidized or as specified.

(3). Mild steel handles. These shall be of mild steel sheet, pressed into oval section. The size of the handles will be determined by the inside grip of the handle. Door handles shall be 10 mm size and window handles of 75 mm size unless otherwise specified. These shall be fixed with 25 mm long wood screws of designation No. 6. Iron handles shall be copper oxidized (black finish) or stove enameled black or as specified.

Sampling and criteria for conformity - It shall be as specified in 9.43.2.4.

Floor door stopper The floor door stopper shall conform to IS: 1823. This shall be made of cast brass of overall size as specified and shall have rubber cushion. The shape and pattern of stopper shall be approved by the engineer. It shall be of brass finished bright, chromium plated or oxidized or as specified. The size of floor stopper shall be determined by the length of its plate. It shall be well made and shall have four counter sunk holes for fixing the door stoppers to the floor by means of wood screws. The body or housing of the door stopper shall be cast in one piece and it shall be fixed to the cover plate by means of brass or mild steel screws and cover plate shall be of casting or of sheet metal. The spring shall be fixed firmly to the pin. Tongue which would be pressed while closing or opening of the door shall be connected to the lower part by means of copper pin. On the extreme end a rubber piece shall be attached to absorb shock. All parts of the door stopper shall be of good workmanship and finish, burrs and sharp edges removed. It shall be free from surface and casting defects. Aluminium stopper shall be anodised and anodic film shall not be less than grade AC-10 of IS: 1868.

The rubber for the floor door stopper shall meet the requirements as per Table given below.

 Requirements for rubber

Particulars

Requirements

Testing  procedure

Relative density Max

          1.3        

IS-3400 (part IX)

Hardness

60 ± 5

IS-3400 (part II)

Change in initial hardness

ageing for 24 hours

at  100° ± 1°

+5

+5

(part II)

Hanging rubber door stopper

These shall be of cast brass, finished bright, chromium plated or as specified. Alumium stopper shall be anodised and the anodic coating shall not be less than grade AC-10 of IS: 1868. The size and pattern of the door stopper shall be approved by the engineer. The size shall be determined by its length.

Universal hydraulic door closer (exposed type)

These shall be made of cast iron / aluminium alloy / zinc alloy and of shape and pattern as approved by the engineer. These shall generally conform to IS Specifications for door closers (Hydraulically regulated) IS: 3564. The door closers may be polished or painted and finished with lacquer to desired colour Aluminium alloy door closer shall be anodised and the anodic coating shall be not to be less grade AC 15 of IS: 1868. All dents, burrs and sharp edges shall be removed from various components and they shall be picked, scrubbed and rinsed to remove grease, dust, scale or any other foreign elements. After pickling, all the M.S. parts shall be given phosphate treatment in accordance with IS: 3618.

The nominal size of door closers in relation to the weight and the width of the door size to which it is intended to be fitted shall be given in the Table below.

Type and designation of door closers

Designation of Closers           

Weight of the door (kg)

Size of the door (mm)

Remarks

1

Upto 35

700

For light doors such as double leaved and toilet doors

2

36 to 60

850

Interior doors, such as of bed rooms, and kitchen and store

3

61 to 80

1000

Main doors in a building, such as entrance doors

Sampling and Criteria for Conformity - All these closer of the same nominal size and shape and from the same batch of manufacture, in one consignment shall constitute a lot. The number of door closers to be taken at random from a lot shall depend upon the size of the lot. The sample shall be tested for construction, finish, dimensions, interchangeability of parts and performance.

Performance requirements - After being fitted in its position when the door is opened through 90°, the same should swing back to angle 20° ± 5° with nominal speed but thereafter, the speed should get automatically retarded and in case of doors with latches, it should be so regulated that in final position the door smoothly negotiates with the latch.

Hooks and eyes

9.43.27.1 These shall be mild steel or hard drawn brass or as specified. Mild steel hooks and eyes shall be copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified. Cast brass hooks eyes shall be finished bright or chromium plated. These shall be well made and from defects these shall be finished to the correct shape and dimensions so as to function properly when they are in use. Cast hooks eyes and plates shall be free from casting and other defects. All these shall generally conform to IS: 207-1964. All size of hooks and eyes shall be determined by the length of the hooks measured out to out. Unless otherwise specified the articles shall be finished bright.

Casement  window fasteners

These shall be made of cast brass. Finished bright, chromium plated or oxidized or of nylon or as specified. Casement fasteners for single leaf window shutter shall be left or right handled as specified.

These shall not weight less than 0.20 kg per fasteners. Nylon window fasteners shall conform to IS: 6318-1971.

Casement brass stays (straight peg type)

These shall be made of mild steel, cast brass, aluminium (extruded section) or plastic (polypropylene) as specified. Mild steel casement stays shall be a copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified. Cast brass stays shall be finished bright or chromium plated or as specified. Aluminium stays shall be anodised and the anodic coating shall not be less than grade AC-10 of IS: 1868. Aluminium and M.S. stays shall be made from channel section. The stays shall not weight less than that indicated below

20 mm

0.24 kg each

250 mm

0.28 kg each

300 mm

0.33 kg each

The shape and pattern of the stays shall be approved by the engineer. The size of stays shall be determined by its length as shown in the plate. The plastic (Polypropylene) stays shall conform to IS 6318-1971.

Fan light pivots

These shall generally conform to IS 1837-1966. These shall be of mild steel or cast brass or Aluminium or as specified. The brass, fan light pivots shall be finished bright, chromium plated or as specified. M.S. fan light pivot shall be copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified. The base and socket plate of M.S. fan light pivots shall be made from minimum 3.0 mm M.S. sheet and the pivot shall be of round M.S. bar of minimum 10 mm diameter projecting out by minimum 12 mm length and firmly riveted to the base plate. The base and socket plate of cast brass fan light pivots shall be made from minimum 3.0 mm thick brass plate and the projected pivot shall not be less than 12 mm diameter and 12 mm length, cast in single piece with the base plate.

Fan light catch

This shall conform to IS: 364-1993. This shall be made of mild steel or cast brass or Aluminium or as specified. M.S. fan light catch shall be copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified. Brass catch shall be finished bright, chromium plated or oxidized or as specified.

Chain with hook for ventilator.

This shall generally conform to IS: 3828. This shall be made of mild steel, hard drawn brass or cast brass welded or twisted or as specified. The brass chain shall be finished bright, chromium plated or oxidized or as specified. M.S. chain shall be copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified. One end of the chain shall be provided with an eye and the other end with a staple. The minimum thickness of plates shall be 3 min. the chain shall be 300 mm long made from minimum 4 mm hard drawn wire with properly joined or twisted ends.

9.43.33. Quadrant stays 300 mm - These shall be made of cast brass and finished bright or chromium plated or as specified. The shape and pattern shall be approved by the engineer. It shall not weight less than 0.20 kg each.

9.43.34. Hasp and staple safety type

9.43.34.1. This shall be made of mild steel, cast brass or aluminium as specified. This shall generally conform to IS: 363. M.S. Hasp and staples shall be finished black enameled, or copper oxidized (black finish) or as specified. Brass hasp and staples shall be finished bright chromium plated or oxidized or as specified. Aluminium hasp and staples shall be anodized and the anodic coating shall not be less than grade AC-15 of IS: 1868-1996.

M.S. hasp and staples shall be manufactured from M.S. sheet and brass hasp and staples by casting and Aluminium hasp and staples shall be made from dye section. The hinge pin which in all cases shall be of mild steel, shall be firm and its riveted heads well formed. The movement of hasp shall be free, easy and square and shall not have any play or shake. The hasp shall fit, in the staple correctly. The size shall be determined by the length of the bigger of the hasp.

The staple except in the case of cast one, shall be riveted properly to its plate. The ends of the hinge pin for the safety type hasp shall be riveted and properly finished. All screw holes shall be clean and counter sunk to suit counter sunk wood screw. All edges and corners shall be rounded.

Annexure 9-A.1

TABLE FOR PERMISSIBLE DEFECTS FOR VARIOUS GRADES OF TIMBERS (Clause 9.5.2)

Sl.No

Defects

First Grade

Second Grade

i)

Cross-grain

Not steeper than 1 in 15

Not steeper than 1 in 10

ii)

Sound knots

and live knots

i) stiles and rails

  1. Short exposed face Not more than 15 mm size and not more than 1 knot/metre
  2. Long exposed face not more than 15 mm size and not more than 1 knot/m. No knot shall occur within 20 mm of the edges

ii) Panels-not more than 20 mm size and not more than 2 knots/m2. No knot shall occur on edge of any component of a panel

i)  stiles and rails

  1. Short exposed face- not more than 15 mm size and not more than 3 knots per stile and 1 knot per rail.
  2. Long exposed face-not more than 20 mm size and not more than 3 knots per stile and 1 knot per rail.

ii)  Panels- not more than 20 mm size and more the 4 knots/m2. Not knots shall occur on edge of any components of a panel.

Iii)

Dead and loose

knots (plugged)

  1. stiles and rails-not more than 10 mm size, centrally located and not more than 1 knot/m
  2. Panels-not more than 15 mm size and not more than 2 knots/m2. Not shall occur on edges of any component of a panel 
  1. stiles and rails-not more than 10 mm size. Centrally located and not more than 3 knots per stiles and 1 knot per rail.
  2. Panels-Not more than 15 mm size and not more than 4 knots/m2. No knot shall occur on edge of any components of a panel. 

iv)

Pitch pockets

or streaks

None

Permissible except on exposed edges provided that they are clean and filled up with suitable putty or filler when pitch pockets or streaks are located on the exposed edges of the core, they shall be cut and filled with piece of wood or similar species with grain running in the same direction. The piece shall be well glued.

v)

Sapwood

Total not exceeding 5 mm wide and 150 mm long per metre. (This restriction applies only to super group species)

Total not exceeding 10 mm wide and 300 mm long per metre. (This restriction applies only to super group species.)

vi)

Pin holes

Permitted provided they are not in cluster

Permitted.

vii)

Worm holes

None

Permitted provided they are not more than 10 mm in diameter and not more than one per metre and provided such worm holes are plugged with similar timber in such a manner that the pluging merges with the surrounding area both as to colour and grain.

Notes: (i) Dead and loose knots are permitted only if they are suitably plugged.(ii) Knot shall not occur where hinges or locks are to be FIXED

Annexure 9-A.2

MOISTURE CONTENT OF TIMBER (clause 9.8)

C-1. Moisture content of timber shall be checked for every 1 cum or part thereof by electrical moisture meters as per IS: 287.

C-2. Electrical moisture meters are of resistance type and shall be used when the moisture content is within a range of 8 top 25 per cent. When checking moisture content with electrical moisture meter, it shall be measured that

(a) Timber is not hot or surface wet and the moisture gradient in not large due to wet cores.

(b) Electrode probes are of adequate depth (not less than one-fifth the thickness of timber).

C-3.Sufficient number of reading at different positions are taken on each piece of timber to eliminate localised variations in surface moisture and species corrections are applied for the make of electrical resistance, type moisture meter.

C-4.If for any reason, whatsoever, the result of electrical moisture are not be relied upon the moisture content shall be checked by the oven drying method.

C-5. For checking for moisture content by oven drying method, a complete test cross section, 12 to 19 mm long in the direction of timber grain, free from all defects shall be cut from each piece of timber selected for test as follows

(a)If weighing can be done immediately, the test section shall be cut from a point at least 45 cm from one end of the piece or from its centre. (b)If weighing cannot be made immediately, a sample of 30 cm long shall be cut from a point at least 45 cm from one end of the piece or from its centre. Subsequently (within 24 hours), the test section shall be cut from the centre of this sample.( c)In case cutting of test section from the piece is not permissible the moisture content in the whole section can also \be determined by collecting a boring to a depth of half of the thickness of the piece by means of an auger, in a pre-weighed weighing bottle which should then be securely stoppered.

C-6.The test sections obtained above shall be weighed, immediately after cutting, on a balance the sensitivity of which is not less than 10 mg. They shall be dried in a ventilated, and preferably thermostatically controlled, oven at a temperature of 100° C to 105°C until the weight is constant. The weight of the test section shall be deemed to have become constant if successive weighing at intervals of 2 to 5 hours do not differ from one another by more than 50 mg. The test weigh shall be taken to the oven dry weight of the test section.

C-7.The percentage moisture content in the test section shall be calculated as follows

            Where

            W1   = initial weight of test section and

            Wo = oven dry weight of test section

C-8. When moisture content of timber is checked by oven drying method, results of electrical moisture metre shall be ignored.

Annexure 9-A.3

LIST OF BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARD CODES (ISI)

Sl. No.

IS. No.

Subject

1

287-1993

Recommendations for maximum permissible moisture content of timber used for different purposes (3rd Revision)

2

401-1982

Code of practice for preservation of timber (3rd Revision) (Amendments 2) (Reaffirmed 1990)

3

419-1967

Putty for use on window frames (1st Revision) (Amendments 3)

4

420-1953

Putty for use on metal frames

5

451-1999

Technical supply condition for wood screws (2nd Revision) (Amendment 1) (Reaffirmed 1991)

6

723-1972

Specification for steel countersunk head wire nails (1st Revision) (Amendments 3) (Reaffirmed 1990)

7

848-1974

Specification for synthetic resin adhesives for plywood (phenolic and aminoplastic (1st Revision) (Amendments 3) (Reaffirmed 1990)

8

851-1978

Specification for synthetic resin adhesives for construction work (non structural) in wood (1st Revision) (Amendment 1) (Reaffirmed 1990)

9

852-1994

Specification for animal glue for general wood working purposes (2nd Revision)

10

1003 (Part1)-1991

Specification for timber paneled and glazed shutters (Part 1) Door shutters (3rd Revision) (Amendment 1)

11

1003 (Part II)

1994

Specification for timber paneled and glazed shutters (part ii) window and ventilator shutters (3rd Revision)

12

1141-1993

Specification for code of practice for seasoning of timber (2nd Revision)

13

1200-(Part XIV)1984

Wood work and joinery (2nd Revision) (Amendment 1)

(Reaffirmed 1992)

14

1378-1987

Specification for oxidized copper finishes (3rd Revision) (Reaffirmed 1992)

15

1566-1982

Specification for hard-drawn steel wire fabric for concrete Reinforcement (2nd Revision) (Amendments 2) (Reaffirmed 1995)

16

1568-1970

Specification for wire cloth for general purpose (1st Revision) (Amendment 1) (Reaffirmed 1992)

17

1708 (Part.1 to 18) 1986

Method to testing of small clear specimens of timber

(2nd Revision) (Amendment 1) (Reaffirmed 1991)

18

1734-1983

(pt. 1 to 20) Methods of test for plywood (2nd Revision) (Reaffirmed 1993)

19

1761-1960

Transparent steel glass for glazing and framing purposes (Superseded by IS:  2835)

20

1868-1996

Specification for anodic coating on aluminium and its alloy (2nd Revision) (Reaffirmed 1991)

21

2095-1982

Specification for gypsum plaster boards (1st Revision) (Amendment 1) (Reaffirmed 1991)

22

2096-1992

Specification for asbestos cement flat sheets (1st Revision)

23

2202(Part 1)-1991

Specification for wooden flush door shutters (Solid core type) plywood face panels (5th Revision) (Amendments 2)

24

2202 (PartII)-1983

Specification for wooden flush door shutters (Solid core type) (Reaffirmed 1991)

25

2380-1981

Method of test for wood particle boards from other lingnocelluslosic material (parts 1 to 23) (1st Revision) (Amendment 3) (Reaffirmed 1993)

26

2547 (Part 1) 1976

Gypsum building plaster (Parii) Excluding premixed light weight plaster (1st Revision) (Amendment 1) (Reaffirmed 1990)

27

2547 (Part1)-1976

Gypsum Plaster (Part ii) premixed light weight plaster (1st Revision) (Reaffirmed 1992)

28

2835-1987

(2835-1987) Flat transparent sheet glass (3rd Revision) (Reaffirmed 1992)

29

3400(Part II)-1995

Methods of test for vulcanized rubbers (hardness) (1st Revision) (Reaffirmed 1991)

30

3400 (PartIV)1987

Methods of test for Vulcanized rubbers Accelerated ageing (2nd Revision) (Reaffirmed 1993)

31

3400 (Part X)1978

Methods of test for vulcanized rubbers Density (1st Revision)

(Amendment 1) (Reaffirmed 1987)

32

3618-1966

Phosphate treatment for iron and steel for protection against corrosion (Reaffirmed 1991)

33

3813-1967

‘C’ hooks for use with swivels (Reaffirmed 1992)

34

4835-1979

Specification for polyvinyl acetate dispersion based adhesives for wood (1st Revision) (Amendment 2) (Reaffirmed 1990)

35

4948-1974

Specification for welded steel wire fabric for general use (1st Revision) (Reaffirmed 1992)

36

6760-1972

Slotted countersunk head wood screws (Amendments 2) (Reaffirmed 1988)

37

12406-1988

Specification for medium density fiber boards for general purposes (Amendment 4) (Reaffirmed 1992)

38

5523-1983

Method of testing anodic coating on aluminium and its alloys. (1st Revision) (Reaffirmed 1991)

39

707-1976

Glossary of terms applicable to timber technology and utilization (second revision)

40

2366-1983

Code of practice for Nails-jointed timber construction (first revision)

41

2700-1974

Code of practice for roofing with wooden shingle.

42

2911-(Part ii)-1980

Timber pile (first revision)

43

2911-(Part4)-1985

Load test on piles (first revision)

44

3337-1978

Ballies for general purpose (first revision)

45

3386-1979

Wooden fencing post (first revision)

46

3639-1966

Structural timber in building (first revision)

47

3670-1989

Code of practice for construction of timber flow (first revision) with Amendment No.1.

Annexure 9-A.4

Tests For Flush Shutters   (Clause 9.35.1 to 9.35.10)

F-1.End immersion test - Door shutters shall be tested for resistance of their base to immersion in water as follows

The door shutter shall be immersed vertically to height of 30 cm in water at room temperature for 24 hours and then allowed to dry for 24 hours at 27 ± 2° and relative humidity of 65 ± 5 percent. The cycle shall be repeated eight times. There shall be no delaminating at the end of the test 

F-2. Knife test

(i) Apparatus - The type of knife required to be used in the test may be made from a 250 X 25 mm file. The cutting edge should be chisel sharp. The test shall be carried out on a stout table to which a wooden batten is screwed against which the edge of test piece is placed.

(ii) Procedure - The knife is inserted with its cutting edge parallel to the grain of the outer veneer ands worked into, or if possible along glue line and the veneers are prised upwards. Hard and dense species of plywood requires considerable force to effect entry and to prise the veneer. In a soft timber the knife tends to follow an easy course through the wood and in this case it is essential that the knife be firmly guided along the glue.

The bond should just pass the requirement, it is judged by the relative amount of wood fibre left on the core veneer, and the area prised off. The grading is assessed chiefly on the appearance of the break. The force needed to effect separation is also an accompanying requirement.

The bond is ‘Excellent’, when it is difficult to find the glue line and impossible to keep the tool within it for more than 6 mm without cutting adjacent wood. On prising upwards, the veneer usually breaks off over a width slightly greater than that of the tool.

The bond is ‘poor’ when knife meets little opposition in the glue line and the prise results in the easy removal of almost all the veneers from one side of the test piece. The separated veneers are usually almost frees from adherent fibre.

(iii) Reporting of test results - The results shall be reported as ‘pass standard’ ‘excellent’ or   ‘poor’. 

F-3. Glue adhesion test - Four square sections. 150 x 150 mm shall be cut from the corners of the door. These four corner sections as cut from the door shall be immersed in boiling water for 4 hours, then dried at 27 ± 2° C and relative humidity of 65° ± 5 per cent for 24 hours. At the end of the drying period, the samples shall be examined for delamination. In the case of the glue lines in the plywood, all the four exposed edges of the plywood on both faces of a specimen shall be examined for delamination.

A specimen shall be considered to have passed the test if no delamination has occurred in the glue lines in the plywood and if no single delamination more than 50 mm in length and more than 3 mm in depth has occurred in the assembly glue lines between the plywood faces and the stile and rail. Delamination at the corner shall be measured continuously around the corner. Delamination at a knot, knot hole, a pitch pocket and worm hole or other permissible wood defects shall not be considered in assessing the sample. A door shall be deemed to have passed this test if three of the four specimens tested pass the test.

Annexure 9-A.5

LEDGED, BRACED AND BATTENED
TIMBER DOOR SHUTTERS
(Extract of IS:  6198-1971)

1. Scope – Requirements regarding, material, sizes, construction, workmanship and finish of ledged, braced and battened timber door shutters.

Note: This is a simple form of door, and is frequently used for temporary sheds, warehouses, stores, etc, where appearance is not the main criterion. It is relatively cheap, but has a tendency to twist if timber is not good quality, and if thinner ledges are used.

2. Materials

2.1. Timber shall be of four classes, namely, (a) Teak wood, (b) Deodar wood. (c)  Hard woods other than Teak, (d) Softwoods other than Deodar.

Note: For classification of species of timber see Appendix A of the standard.

2.2. Moisture content, max – 10 to 16 percent for timber of 50 mm and above, and 8 to 14 percent for timber thinner than 50 mm.

2.3. Defects prohibited – Shall be free from decay, fungal growth, boxed heart, pitch pockets or streaks on the exposed edges, borer holes, slits and cracks.

2.4. Grades of timber and permissible defects – Shall be graded as Superior Grade, First Grade and Second Grade on the basis of permissible defects in timber.

Note: For permissible defects for various classes of timber see Table 1 of the standard.

3. Designation – By symbols denoting width, type and height of door in succession. Width – Indicated by the number of modules of 10 cm in the width of door opening. Type D= Door S= Single shutter, T= Double shutter. Height – Indicated by the number of modules of 10 cm in the height of door opening.

Example – 8 DS 21 would mean a shutter suitable for a single shutter door of 8 modules width and 21 module height,

4. Standard sizes (in mm)

Designation

Width

Height

8  DS 20

700

1 905

8 DS 21

700

2 005

9 DS 20

800

1 905

9 DS 21

800

2 005

10 DS 20

900

1 905

10 DS 21

900

2 005

12 DT 20

560

1 905

12 DT 21

560

2 005

Note 1: For two shutter doors, only sizes of one shutters has been given.

Note 2: In arriving at standard widths and heights, an allowance of 6 cm has been made for timber doorframes, 4 cm  for floor finish, 0.5 cm for clearance all round between door opening and door frame and 1.5 cm for rebate all round for the shutter into the  frame .Tolerance on size of door shutter ±3mm.

5. Dimensions of components – Finished dimensions shall be as follows

Top and bottom ledges 150X30mm;

Middle ledge 2200X30 mm;

Braces 110 to 125X30 mm.

Battens 140 to 160X25 mm.

All battens in a shutter shall be of uniform width.

6. Rebating – In case of double leaved shutters, meeting of the stiles shall be rebated 20 mm (splayed or square type).

7. Fittings – There tee hinges for each shutter (one at centre and others 20 cm from top and bottom). Each shutter shall also have 2 barrel bolts and one sliding bolt for locking.

8. Finish – Well planed and finished smooth. Surfaces to be painted, polished or varnished shall be given a suitable priming coat before delivery.

Defective knots, where permitted in surfaces exposed to view, shall be completely bored or cut out and tightly plugged with a cross-gained plug (round or dovetailed) of similar species of timber and shall be properly glued in.

Annexure 9-A.6

Test For Mortise Locks (Clause 9.43.15 - 9.43.18)

The finally assembled lock shall withstand the test given as below      

The locking bolt shall be first locked in the forward position. A load of 40 kg shall be applied without shock in the direction perpendicular to securing face as well as on both the locking faces of protruding bolt in turn. Then the load shall be applied by means of a fixed steel board 3 mm thick by rounded edge held in such a position that the centre line is approximately 3 mm from the fore end.

When the spindle with handle is inserted into hole in the follower and turned, the latch bolt shall draw smoothly into the lock body and shall be within one millimetre from the face of the fore end.

When the latch bolt is pressed in to the lock body by pressure, the action shall be smooth and when fully pressed the latch bolt shall not project more than one millimetre from the face of the fore end.

When a key is inserted in key hole from one side of the lock and turned to withdraw the locking bolt the action shall be smooth and without impediment. When the direction of turn is reversed to lock the locking bolt then also the action shall be smooth and without impediment. In the locked position the locking bolt shall project 12 mm from the face of the fore end, although one millimetre free movement is permissible. In the withdrawn position the locking bolt shall be worked by turning key in both the direction 6000 times. At the end of the test, the lock shall continue to work smoothly.

The test shall be repeated with the key inserted from the other side of the lock.

Note: The clearance for levers while in the operating condition shall not exceed 0.25 mm.

When the key is turned to lock the locking bolt at the same time applying a reasonable pressure by finger on it, after completion of the key rotation the locking bolt shall be positively locked in the forward position. This test shall be repeated with the key inserted from the other side of the lock.

Annexure 9-A.7

Schedule of Fittings for Doors and Windows  (Clause 9.43)

Sl. No.

 

 

 

 

Name of fittings

 

 

 

Double leaf doors shutters panelled or glazed

Single leaf door shutters

external paneled or glazed

Single leaf door shutter inter communicating panelled or gauzed

Single leaf wire gauge

door shutters

Single leaf wardrobe/

cupboard shutters

Single leaf window shut-ters panneled or glazed

Fan light/ clear storey 

window shutters

Designation No. of wood screw

Length in mm of wood

screw IS 6760-1972

 

1

Butt Hinges 100 mm

6

3

3

3

-

-

-

9

40

For fixing Wooden cleat

2

Butt Hinges 75 mm

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

8

30

3

Butt Hinges 50 mm

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

6

20

4

Piano Hinges

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

6

20

5

Tower Bolt 250 mm

3

2

3

2

-

1

-

10

30

6

Tower Bolt 150 mm

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

8

30

7

Tower Bolt 100 mm

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

30

8

Sliding door Bolt 300mm

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

35

9

Sliding door Bolt 250mm

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

9

35

10

Floor door stopper

2

1

1

-

-

-

-

9

30

11

Door handle with plate 100 mm

2

2

2

1

1

-

-

6

25

12

Window handle in with plate 75 mm

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

6

20

13

Casement stay 300 mm

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

6

30

14

Helicat door spring (Superior quality)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

30

15

Cupboard/Wardrobe Lock

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

6

20

16

Fanlight Catch

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

8

30

A Door shutters

1. Door of room adjoining the veranda, corridor, lobby or hall, shall be considered as external door.

2. Where the length of the door leaf exceeds 2.15 meters above the floor level, one extra hinge shall be provided for every additional height of 0.50 metre, or part thereof and the length of top bolts shall be increased by the height of the leaf above 2.15 metres from floor level.

3. Single leaf door shutters of more than 0.80 m in width shall be provided with one extra hinge.

4. Fan light shutters of more than 0.80 metre width shall be provided with one extra hinge and extra quadrant stay.

5. In double leaf shutters of doors, two door bolts shall be fixed to the first shutter and one to the closing shutter at the top.

6. In case of single leaf inter communicating, paneled, glazed or paneled door shutter for bath and w.c. one tower bolts will be replaced by a bathroom latch.

7. For shutter exceeding 40 mm thickness, heavy type M.S. but hinges of 125 x 90 X4 mm shall be used.

8. In case of external door shutters, instead of sliding door ball mortice lock can be provided where specified.

9. Cupboard and wardrobe shutters will have ball catches where specified.

10. Finger plates shall be provided in case of bath and W.C. shutters in office buildings.

B  Window shutters

11. In case of windows with double shutters, two tower bolts shall be fixed to the closing shutters and one tower bolt to the first shutter at the top.

12. In case of window shutters, hooks and eyes may be provided in lieu of casement stays where specified.

13. Where the height of window shutter exceeds 1.20 meters one extra hinges shall be provided and length of top bolts shall be increased by height of the leaf above 2.15 meters from the floor level.

14. Window shutter with steel frames shall be provided with six hinges in case of double leaf shutters and three hinges in case of single leaf shutters, irrespective of height and width of shutters.

C  Fanlight and clerestory widow or ventilator

15. Centrally hung and bottom hung CS windows and fan lights, will be provided with chain and hook bamboo pole with hook for opening ventilators shall be provided for each residence or for set of 4 rooms in case of office building.

16. Centrally hung clerestory windows or fan lights will have fan light pivots in lieu of hinges.

Dimensions of door handles shall be taken from the IS standards

Annexure 9-A.8

SpecificationS for timber door, window and ventilator frames

(Extract of IS: 4021-1995)

1. Scope

1.1. This section lays down the requirements regarding material, construction, workmanship and sizes of timber door, window and ventilator frames generally used in residential and institutional buildings.

1.2. This standard does not cover timber door, window and ventilator frames for commercial, industrial and other special buildings, such as workshops and garages.

2. References - The Indian Standard listed in Annex A are necessary adjuncts to this standard.

3. Terminology - For the purpose of this standard, the definitions given in IS: 10428-1983 and IS:  707-1976 shall apply (see Fig.1).

4.  Materials

4.1. Timber

4.1.1. Indian timber suitable for the manufacture of door and window frames shall be in accordance with IS: 12896-1990.  Imported timbers, to be used are listed in Annex B. door frames shall be made from all heart stock of a decay resistant species of wood treated to make it decay-resistant. Vertical timber posts or head/sill of the frame shall be of the same species excepting in case of frames made out of non-porous wood (softwood) when the bottom sill of the window and the ventilator frame shall be of porous wood (hardwood).

4.1.2. Moisture content - The maximum permissible moisture content in timber shall be as specified in IS: 287-1993.

4.1.3. Seasoning and treatment - Timber shall be well seasoned by a suitable process conforming to IS:  1141-1993, before being planed and shaped to the required dimensions. Sapwood of durable

species and hardwood and sapwood of non-durable species shall be treated with suitable preservatives (except the water soluble leachable types) as specified in IS:  402-1982. The portions expected to remain concealed in joinery or in masonry shall be given an additional coat of wood preservative.

4.1.4. Defects prohibited - Timber for frames shall be free from decay, fungal growth, boxed heart, splits, pitch pocket or streaks on the exposed faces.

Fig. 1 Terminology for Timber door, window and ventilator components (contd)

4.1.5. Defects permitted - The timber shall be graded as First Grade or Second Grade on the basis of the permissible defects in timber as given in Table 1. For both the grades, knots shall not occur at joint or at locations where holdfasts/hinges are to be fixed.

Fig. 1B – Terminology for timber door, window and ventilator components (contd)

5. Construction and workmanship

Timber shall be sawn in the direction of grain. Sawing shall be truly straight and square. The scantling shall be planed smooth and accurate to the full dimensions, rebates, etc. before assembly. The surface touching the walls may not be planed unless it is required to straighten up the member or to obtain the overall size within the specified tolerances; Patching or plugging of any kind shall not be permitted except as provided herein.

All members of frame shall be exactly at right angles. The right-angles shall be checked from the inside surfaces of the respective members.

Fig. 1C Terminology for timber door, window and ventilator components (contd)

All members of frame shall be straight without any warp or bow and shall have smooth, well-planed on three sides exposed at right angles to each other.

The depth of rebate in frame for housing the shutter shall in all cases be 15 mm except for small window and ventilator frames where it shall be 12mm.

Fig. 1D- Terminology for timber door, window and ventilator components

5.2.   Joinery

5.2.1. Frames of timber doors, windows and ventilators shall be assembled  by any of the following simple, neat and strong joints (a) Single dovetail joint (Fig. 2), (b) Closed mortice and tenon joint (Fig.3)and (c) Haunched mortise and tenon joint (Fig.4).

5.2.1.1 Divetail joint is formed at the corner of two pieces in such a way that the notch made on one is fitted exactly into projection of corresponding size and shape made in the other. This is a wedge shaped dovetail joint made in a way which will resist withdrawal except in the direction in which it was assembled (This joint is usually adopted when the frame is not built-in as the work proceeds).

Table 1 Permissible defects for various grades of timber (Clause 4.1.5 IS: 4021-(1995))

Sl.No.

Defects

First Grade

Second Grade

I

Cross grain

Not steeper than 1 in 15

Not steeper than 1 in 10

II

Sound knots and live knots

a)  Size, Max

b)  Number per metre

 

20 mm

1

 

35 mm

2

III

Decay knots, dead knots and knot holes

Not more than 10 mm size centrally located and not more than 1 knot per metre. These shall be completely put out and tightly plugged with seasoned timber of the same species and properly glued, so that its grains run in the direction of main pieces

Not more than 10 mm size centrally located and not more than 2 knot per metre. These shall be completely put out and tightly plugged with seasoned timber of the same species and properly glued, so that its grains run in the direction of main pieces

IV

Pitch pockets or streaks

None

 Permissible except on exposed edges, provided they are clear and filled up with putty or filler. When these are located on exposed edges of the core, they shall be cut and plugged with similar species of timber with grains running in the same direction as that of the pieces. The pieces shall be well glued.

V

Sapwood

Total not exceeding 5 mm wide and 150 mm long per metre (This restriction applies only to group 1 timbers )

Total not exceeding 10 mm wide and 300 mm long per metre ( This restriction applies only to group 1 timbers)

VI

Pin holes (other than due to live infestation).

Permitted provided they are not in clusters

Permitted

 

VII

Worm holes

None

Permitted provided they are not more than 10 mm in diameter and not more than one per metre and provided such worm holes are plugged with similar timber in such a manner that the plugging merge with the surrounding area both as to colour and grains.

VIII

Checks, depth, Max

3 mm, provided it fully stopped

One-fourth of the total thickness of piece or 6 mm whichever is less, provided it is fully stopped.

For closed mortice and tenon joint the head is mortised to receive the tenon on the post. The mortice and tenon must be correctly proportioned. Thickness of tenon should be equal to 1/3 that of the member and width of tenon not exceeding five times the thickness. (In this case the head usually projects from 50 to 100 mm beyond the post and these projections called ‘horns’ assist in making the frame secured when it is built into the wall). Mortice and tenon joint shall  fit in fully and accurately preferably without wedging or filling. The joints shall be glued, framed, put together and pinned with hardwood or bamboo pins not less than 8 mm dia after frames are put together and pressed.

Haunched mortise and tenon joint is adopted when the frame is not built-in as the work proceeds. Horns are not required (These are removed after wedging has been completed) and therefore width of tenon is reduced to facilitate wedging. This haunch increases the strength of tenon at its roots and prevents twisting of post. The joint shall however be glued.

Transom shall be tennoned to the frame.

In the case of door frames without sill, the vertical members (Posts) shall be held in position at specified distances by means of spacers, which may be removed after fixing of the frame in position.

Fig. 2 Simple dove-tail joint

5.3. Gluing of joints - The contact faces of tenon and mortice shall be treated, before putting together, with bulk type synthetic adhesives conforming to IS:  851-1978 suitable for construction work in wood or synthetic resin adhesive (Phenolic and aminoplastic) conforming to IS:  848-1974 suitable for plywood or animal glue for general wood working purposes conforming to IS: 852-1994 or polyvinyl acetate dispersion based adhesive for wood conforming to IS:  4835-1979.

5.4.  Fixing of frame - The frame shall be fixed either during construction of wall (built-in) or a after the wall has been completed / the frame shall be placed in proper position and secured to wall or column as the case may be with metallic fastener or iron hold-fasts. In case of door frame without sill, the vertical members shall be embedded in the flooring to its full depth and preferably anchored with metal pin as shown in Fig.1. It shall be suitably strutted or wedged in order to prevent warping during construction.

Fig. 3 Closed mortise and tenon joint

5.3.1. External wood-work shall be primed before being fixed.

6. Dimensions, sizes and tolerances

6.1 Dimensions of frames and tolerances - The finished dimensions of timber sections in frames for doors, windows and ventilators shall be as given in Table 2 (see Fig.5, 6, 7 and 8) subject to a general tolerance of +3  mm for width and 

               -0

+2  mm for thickness. -3

6.2. Sizes and types - Sizes of the door shutters shall generally conform to the modular sizes as shown in Fig.9. Sizes other than modular sizes, as agreed to between the manufacturer and the purchaser, may also be permitted.

Note: The size shown in Fig.9 is overall height and width on the outside of frames. This size is desired after allowing margin of 5 mm all round for fitting and fixing to fit up to modular openings based on 10 cm module. The sizes marked with asterisk in Fig.9 will be given preference

6.3. Designation - Frames of doors, windows and ventilators shall be designated by symbols denoting their width, type and height in succession in the following manner

Width – It shall be indicated by the number of modules in the width of opening.

Type – It shall be indicated by the following letters of alphabet

D -for door, W for window, V for ventilator, S for single shutter, T for double shutter

Note: Where a frame is intended to carry two sets of shutters, the frame shall be designated as DD, WW and VV.

Height – It shall be indicated by the number of modules in height of opening.

Fig. 4 Haunched mortice and tenon joint

Fig. 5 Typical cross section of frame for doors and large windows carrying one set of shutters

Fig. 6 Typical cross section of frame for small window and ventilator carrying one set of shutters

Fig. 7 Typical cross section of frame for door and large windows carrying two set of shutters

Fig. 8 Typical cross section of frame for small windows and ventilators carrying two sets of shutters

Example 

 ’12 DT 20’ would mean a frame of double shutter door width of 12 modules (119 cm) and height of 20 modules (199cm).

Table 2 Dimensions of doors, windows and ventilators (Clause 6.1)

Requirements

Dimension (mm)

Door

Window

Ventilator

Size>120 cm

Size <120 cm

A

Width of frame carrying one set of shutters

  1. for 35, 40 mm shutter
  2. for 25.30 mm shutter

 

100

90

 

100

90

 

90

90

 

90

90

B

Width of frame carrying two sets of shutters

  1. for 30,35 and 40 mm shutter
  2. for 25 mm shutter

 

120

90

 

120

90

 

120

90

 

120

90

C

Thickness

60

60

50

50

6.3.1. Combination of frames of doors, windows and ventilators - When frames of doors and windows are combined with those of windows and ventilators, they shall be designated as illustrated below. However size of frame for such combination shall be uniform for doors, windows and ventilators, by choosing the height recommended dimension vide 6.1.

Example 1:

‘6 WS 12/12 DT 20/6 WS 12’ means 12 modules wide and 20 modules high double shutter door frame combined in its two sides with two windows, 6 modules wide and 12 modules high.

Example 2: 

                6V6            6V6

                                                   

means frames of two single-windows of 6 modules wide and

            6WS 12        6WS12

12 modules high combined side by side and with two ventilators at top 6 modules wide and 6 modules high.

Location of holdfasts - A minimum of three holdfasts shall be fixed on each side of the door frame, one at the centre point and other two at 30 cm from the top and bottom of frame excepting in case of horned head when two equally spaced holdfasts shall be provided. In case of windows and Ventilators one holdfast on each side centrally placed shall be fixed up to a height of 60 cm. In case of height more than 60 cm, with or without horns two holdfasts shall be suitably fixed at each side.

8. Finish

8.1.Defective knots, when permitted on surfaces exposed to view, shall be completely bored or cut out and tightly plugged with same timber species and properly glued in. the grain of the plug shall run in the direction of the grain of the piece.

8.2. The unexposed surfaces in contact with either wall or lintel shall be properly painted with coat tar pitch (conforming to IS: 216-1961) before delivery.

8.3. All surfaces of door, window and ventilator frames which are required to be painted ultimately shall be covered evenly by brush painting with a priming coat of a wood primer as specified in IS:  3536 -1966.

8.3.1. In the case of frames to be polished or varnished, a priming coat of suitable polish or varnish shall be given before delivery.

Note 1: Priming alone does not provide full protection against weather and, therefore, all work should receive coats of paint, polish or varnish, as the case may be, within a reasonable period. Any cut surface, particularly that exposing end grain should be primed before the joinery is set in position.

Note 2.  When aluminium primer is used, the user should assure himself that it is of a type especially prepared for this purpose. Unless suitable aluminium primers are used, it is not possible to obtain satisfactory finish.

9. Sampling- The method of drawing representative samples of timber door, window and ventilator frames and the criteria for conformity shall be as given in Annex C.

10. Marking - All door, window and ventilator frames shall be hammer-marked on the exposed surface with the following information

(a)Name of the manufacturer or trade-mark, if any;(b) Whether the size of the frame is ‘Modular; or ‘Non-modular’; and ( c)Designation (showing width and height in modules) with Types as specified in Fig. 9; or the actual size (width and height in case of non-modular sizes) along with appropriate symbols for type of frame as given in 6.3 (b) and Fig.9.

10.1. BIS certification marking - The frame may also be marked with Standard Mark.

10.1.1. The use of the Standard Mark is governed by the provisions of Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 and the Rules and Regulations made there under. The details of conditions under which the license for the use of Standard Mark may be granted to manufacturers of producers may be obtained from the Bureau of Indian Standards.

11. Information to be supplied by the purchaser - The purchaser shall supply the following information at the time of placing the order

  1. The size and the type of frames with particulars regarding the way the door-shutter is required to open (inward or outward). The thickness of the shutter and whether to be used on exterior or interior door shall also be indicated.
  2. In frames without sills, whether pins are required to be provided.
  3. The group and grade of timber to be used.
  4. Whether the door is to be polished or painted.
  5. If there is a ventilator on the top it may be stated whether it is top hung, bottom hung or centre hung so that the rebate in the frame is cut accordingly.                                                                                                

Fig. 9 Type and size of frame of timber doors, windows and ventilators

                                                                                    Annexure 9-A.8 (contd)

Specifications for Timber Doors, Windows and Frames   

[Extract of IS: 4021-1995 (Annexure-B)]

List of species of timber being imported for frames of doors and windows considered suitable from the foreign literature available (Clause 4.1.1)

Sl.No

Trade Name

Botanical Name

Country from where Imported

I

Abura

Mitragyna Stipulosa

Africa (A)

II

Afrormosia*

Afrormosia angolensis

A

III

Alan Balu

Shorea albida

Malaysia (M)

IV

Dark red Meranti

Shorea spp.

M

V

Iroko*

Chlorophora excelsa

A

VI

Keruing

Diaterocarpus spp.

M

VII

Kwila*

Instia bijuga

PNG

VIII

Merawan*

Hopea spp.

M

IX

Merbau*

Intsia palembanica

M

X

Nyatoh*

Ganua spp. Palaquium spp.

And Payuena spp.

M

XI

Terminalia red

Brown group*

Terminali spp.

PNG

XII

Utile*

Entandophragma utile

A

XIII

Vitex*

Vitex cofassus

PNG

Note : Above imported species shall be used for frames only after proper treatment as prescribed in IS : 401 1982 and concerned clauses of this standard, as suitable and sufficient information regarding their durability is not available and whatever is available may not fully hold fully hold good in India conditions. However, heartwood of species marked ‘*’ does not require treatment as the same is reported to be very durable. Further, where sufficient retention/absorption/penetration of preservative is not obtained as per IS: 401-1982 due to poor treatability character of the species, the frame shall be treated with PCP solvent system after construction to ensure minimum penetration of preservative to the depth of 2 mm in the finished product by soaking in 5% PCP solution for 24 h or pressure treatment. Such species which are refractory to treatment are marked ‘*’.

Annexure 9-a.8 (contd)

Specifications for Doors, Windows and Frames

[Extract of IS: 4021-1995 (Annexure-C)]

Sampling of timber door, window and ventilator frames (Clause 9)

C-1.   Lot

C-1.1.  In any consignment all the frames of the same type, size and manufactured from the same species of wood under similar conditions of production shall be grouped together to constitute a lot.

C-1.1.1.   Samples shall be selected and tested from each lot separately to determine its conformity or otherwise to the requirements of this standard.

C-2.   Sampling

C-2.1. The number of frames to be selected at random from a lot for inspection shall depend upon the size of the lot (the number of frames in the lot) and shall be in accordance with col 1 and 2 of Table 3.

C-2.2.   The samples from the lot shall be selected at random and to ensure the randomness of selection, procedures given in IS:  4905 -1968 may be followed.

C-2.3. All the frames selected in the sample shall be inspected for material (see 4), dimensions and tolerances (see 6) and workmanship and finish (see 5 and 8).

Table 3 Sample Size and Permissible Number of Defectives (Clause C-2.1)

Lot size

Sample size

Permissible number of defectives

Upto 50

8

0

51 to 100

13

1

101 to 150

20

2

151 to 300

32

3

301 to 500

50

5

501 and above

80

7

C-3.  Criteria for conformity

C-3.1. A frame which is found not meeting any one or more of the requirements inspected as in C-2.3 shall considered as defective.

C-3.2.   A lot shall be considered as conforming to the requirements of this standard in case the number of defective frames found in the sample does not exceed the permissible number of defectives given in col 3 of Table 3.

Annexure 9 -A.9.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD

(Extract of IS: 10701-1983)

0.1. Structural plywood is specialty plywood different from other grades and types of plywood’s as covered by other Indian Standards. In this plywood, apart from these of high grade BWR and BWP adhesives, special emphasis is made on the species of timber to be used, the veneer quality and most importantly on the construction details to be observed in the manufacture. With proper specifications and guidelines, this structural grade plywood can be mass-produced under the routine production schedule. engineers, architects and other consumers will then have a material which is readily available off the shelf and whose structural behavior and other engineering characteristics are well established so that they can confidently use it.

0.2. This standard covers the general properties of structural plywood, its constructional details for strength and dimensional stability. It also covers testing and quality control procedures. However, the values given in this standard for strength characteristics represent only basic strength data, arrived at after following extensive statistically designed test procedures. The basic design values to be used in structural applications of this plywood have to be evolved separately from the basic strength values depending upon the type and nature of application at hand.

0.3. In the formulation of this standard due weightage has been given to international coordination among the standards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in the field in this country.

0.4.For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirements of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS: 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.

  • Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised).
  • Glossary of terms applicable to timber technology and utilization (Second revision).

† Specification for plywood for general purposes 9second revision).

‡ Specification for synthetic resin adhesives for plywood (Phenolic and aminoplastic) (first revision)

1. Scope

1.1. This standard covers the requirements of plywood for structural purposes, such as stressed skin panels, plywood web beams, and sheathing, silos, rail and ship containers.

2. Terminology For the purpose of this standard, definitions given in IS 707-1976* and IS 303-1975= shall apply.

3. Material

3.1.Timber – The species of timber recommended for use for the manufacture of plywood for structural purposes shall be form the species mentioned in Appendix A and have been chosen keeping in view the strength, availability and other characteristics.

3.2. Adhesive Adhesives used for bonding the veneers of structural plywood shall be of the hot press unextended synthetic resign, phenol-formaldehyde type and shall conform to BWP type specified in IS: 848-1974‡.

4. Plywood

4.1. Plywood for structural purposes shall conform to BMP grade in accordance with IS: 303-1975§.

5. Treatment

5.1. Structural plywood panels shall be given preservative treatment with fixed type of preservatives as specified in IS:  5539-1969.

5.2. The preservative treatment might cause some problems in the subsequent gluing of the plywood panels to other structural members and hence the glue compatible with the preservative shall be chosen for gluing structural plywood to any other member.

6. Manufacture

6.1. Veneers for the manufacture of plywood for structural purposes shall be rotary cut or sliced. However, sliced veneers may be used after splicing. The veneers shall be dried to a moisture content not exceeding 6 percent and shall be smooth to permit even spread of glue. The glued veneers shall be assembled with the grain direction in alternate layers at right angles to each other and hot pressed under controlled conditions of temperature, pressure and pressing time. The two face veneers shall run in the same direction and the assembly shall be balanced around the central line of the plywood cross-section.

6.1.1. The thickness of all individual veneers shall be uniform within a tolerance of ± 5 percent. The veneer shall be straight grained within a tolerance of ± 10°.

6.1.2. Core gaps, overlaps and warp shall not be permitted.

6.1.3. The quality requirements on veneers used in the manufacture of structural plywood shall be as specified in Table 1.

6.2. Construction details

6.2.1. Structural plywood should be constructed symmetrically. The possible combinations for using the two groups of species given in Appendix A for obtaining balanced constructions are given in Appendix B. Examples of possible constructions for different thickness of structural plywood panels using veneers of different thickness are given in Appendix C.

6.2.2. When the panels of a size larger than the available press size are required, they may be made by scarf jointing the finished panels. Annexure A, B & C may be referred to, wherever necessary from IS: 10701-1983.

6.2.3. All scarf joints shall be bonded with adhesive conforming to IS: 848-1974* having similar properties to that used for bonding the plywood. Scarf joints shall be made with an inclination not greater than 1 to 10.

6.3. After pressing, the finished plywood shall be reconditioned to a moisture content of not less than 5 percent and not more than 15 percent.

7. Dimensions and tolerances

7.1. The dimensions of structural plywood panels shall be as given in 7.2 to 7.3.

7.2. Size

7.2.1. Unless otherwise specified, structural plywood panels shall be of the sizes given below

240 x 120 cm

210 x 120 cm

180 x 120 cm

240 x 90 cm

210 x 90 cm

180 x 90 cm

Table 1 Quality requirements on veneers used in manufacture of plywood for structural purposes (Clause 6.1.3)

Sl.No.

Defect

Requirement

 

 

Face

Core

i)

Blister

Nil

Nil

ii)

Checks

Nil

No restriction

Iii)

Discolouration

3 percent of the area if it will not impair to the board properties.

6 percent of the area if it will not impair the board properties.

iv)

Date

Nil

5 cm/m2

v)

Insect holes

Nil

No restriction

Vi)

Knots (dead)

Nil

2 upto 12 mm dia/m2

 

Pin knots (dead)

Nil

2/m2

 

Pin knots (live)

Permitted provided they do not mar the appearance

No restriction

 

Knots (light)

3 upto 25 mm dia/m2

6 upto 25 dia/m2

Vii)

Split on each panel

One split not more than 0.8 mm dia and length 50 mm provided it is filled with suitable filler.

2 splits not more than 6 mm wide and length 200 mm provided it is filled with suitable filler.

Viii)

Swirl

Upto 4/m2 provided they do not mar the appearance

No restriction

1.3. Thickness

1.3.1. Unless otherwise specified, the thickness of plywood panels shall be given below

No of Plies

Thickness mm

3

4

5

                   6

                   9

7

12

16

9

16

19

11

19

25

1.4. Tolerances

1.4.1. The tolerances on the nominal sizes of finished panels shall be as given below

Length

+6 mm

-0 mm

Width

+3 mm

-0 mm

Thickness upto and

Excluding 6 mm

 _+10 percent

 

6 to 9 mm

 _+ 7 percent

Above 9 mm

_+ 5 percent

 

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